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on 



7c?VS. 26 



HARVARD 
COLLEGE 
LIBRARY 




FROM THE 

Subscription Fund 

BEGUN IN 1858 




n 

MUIHALL'S 

DICTIONARY OF STATISTICS. 




9iIlBU|nu pnw 




® MULHALLS 
DICTIONARY OF STATISTICS/ 

XICHAEL OTmULUALL 



KEir EDITION, REVISED ASD CORRECTED 



J LONDOH 

GEORGE ROUTLEDGE AND SOSS 

Bkoadwat, Lcdoate Hill 

NEW TOEK ! 8 LAFAYETTE PLACE 

1886 

[ M rig\U rarrttd.\ 

fa- 




EcoK^lliSi 



XI ■^r. <rfc 



; ''28 tRflO 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION. 



Ik availing myself of this occasion to express how much I 
am indebted to the Secretary of the Interior, Washington ; 
the Director of Statistics at Boston (Mr. Carroll "Wright) ; 
Mr. Edward Atkinson, Boston; the Department of Agri- 
culture, Washington; M. Leroy-Beaulieu ; M. Emile do 
Laveleye; Mr. Danson, Mr. Sargant, Dr. Longstaffe, Rev, 
P. IL Newnham, Devonport; Mr. George Farren, Carnarvon ; 
and others, for valuable advice, correction, or publications, — 
it affords mc much pleasure to invite all persons who feel an 
interest in statistical science to point out errors, suggest 
amendments, or place at my disposal information that may 
be useful. This country being the birthplace of economic 
science, it is not sufficient that my Dictionary of Statistics 
be the first and only one ever compiled ; I hope also in the 
lapse of years to increase its size and utility. 

MICHAEL G. MULHALL. 



19 Albion Street, Htdk Park, 
London, February 2, 1886. 




opinions on the Author's Works. 



"Thii Mlminbla DietioDarj. " — Emiledt Lat^ege, 

"Th« qnidtHMnce of SUtutif.''—Lerof-B<aulitM. 

" Wa nut id edition in Tnnoh.-—Ynt Ougot. 

•■ Hii Itatiitioi «« m«t reliable. "-Ai ran MatoTtit. 

"ThaTeiiilt of laborioai and ikilled reaearcb."— ConMntponiry Arf'r* 

" Hii flgnnt are remu'kablT correct. "—Report by U.S. Sk. ofSiaU. 

"Diiplaj a TMt amount of rewarch." — Tima. 

" An ineihuiatiblg treuurf of faoU." — Erenomiite Franjaii. 

"Thb Terf wonderfnl work atanda alone." — Botien Btaam. 

" Ha ia nnriTalled in th« amngemeut of atatiatica." — Academy. 

" Aa tnutworthf aa it ia aniqne." — SeoUman. 

"No book of raferanee boa higfaar cltiiat."— Globe. 

"A *aat nnmbcTof taota within amall eompaaa."— Aii/y JVetu. 

"An edition in Oerman vonid ba uaetnl." — Tteh. Blait, Berlin, 

"Tbe nodol of a atatiiticU work,"— Jfort Lane Oazrttt. 




ORDBB or SliGEAHS. 







■iMon . 
iMm AND Out 


"AtMl . 


22 


■MOHK . . 


'BuiuMa . 


88 


Hailwayb 


•Cjtii* 


76 


■Smpp«a . . 


y^mnM . 


.. 100 


'Stsam-powib , 


■BOT . . 


134 


TiXillON 


-HocMi 


.. S36 


*W«AITK . 



^v 



f^ Sco Appendix. 
? KouliKuL 



DICTIONARY OF STATISTICS. 



ABBE78. — Tliose confiscated in England by Henry VIII. 
were 608, with a gross income of £141,000, equal to the rent 
of 720,000 acres of land. 

ABLE-BODIED. — The proportion of men cdpable of bear- 
ing arms in various countries is as follows : — 

Per Cent 

of Popu- 

laticiu. 

23 

22 



England 

Scotland 

Ireland 

France 

Austria 



21 
27 
25 



Per Cent 
of Popii- 
Intioii. 

. . 24 


Per Cent, 
of Popu- 
lation. 

Denmark . . 25 


. . 25 


Sweden . . 25 


. . 25 
. . 25 


Norway . . 24 
United SUtes 23 


. . 26 


Greece ... 23 



Germany 
Italy . 
Belgium 
Holland 
Spain . 

ACCIDENTAL DEATHa— There are 20,400 persona 
killed by accident yearly in tlie United Kingdom, being 
almost 3 per cent, of all deaths. The ratio in the various 
countries is as follows : — 



Per 1,000 

England . . 30 
Scotland . . 31 
Ireland. . . 18 
United King* 

doia ... 28 
France ... 15 


Pt-r 1,000 
be a lis. 
Germany . . 16 
Russia ... 6 
Austria . . 10 
Italy ... 5 
Switzerland . 28 
Spain ... 7 


p.r 1,00) 
Deat lis. 

Belgium . . 17 

Denmark . . 12 

Sweden . . 26 

Norway . . 33 

United States 39 


In England the n 

I860 
1S70 
1S78 


itio is rising very rapidly, viz. : — 

Accidental Rate per 
l>e:iihfi. l,00v> Deaths. 
9,225 22 
10,906 21 
16,176 30 


In 20 years endin 


g 1870, females were 26 per cent, of the 


victims. 




A 



A CCUMULA TION^A GE. 



AOOUMULATION.— The increase of wealth in the United 
Kingdom in ten years ending 1880 was 1540 millions — ^ihat 
is over £400,000 a day, or about threepence per inhabitant 
It appears in the following items : — 

VAliie in lIUlionB, £. 





1870. 


1880? 


IlOIIMS 


. 1,620 


2,240 


Railwayi 


630 


780 


Shipping 


66 


120 


BaUion 


118 


143 


Land, cattle, &c. . 


. 2,400 


2,400 


Foreign investments 


920 


1,110 


Fumitore, &o., Ac. 


1,226 


1.667 



See Wealthy Income^ Capital. 
AEROLITES. 



6,880 



8,410 



Date. 


Tioeality. 


WeightOba.) 


Bemttrka. 


1748 


Yenisey . . . 


1,600 


• • • 


1783 


Gran Cbaco . . 


82,000 


Near Tacuman. 


1784 


Bendego^ Brazil 


17,000 


• • • 


1793 


Graf Reinet . . 


800 


South Africa. 


1803 


Normandy . . 


• •• 


2000 red-hot stones. 


1812 


Prague . . . 


• • • 


200 hot stones. 


1829 


Bobnmelitz . . 


103 


Bohemia. 


1866 


Kuyahinza . . 


670 


With 1000 smaller. 


1870 


Greenland . . 


49,000 


Now at Copenhagen. 


1871 


Greenland . • 


20,000 


„ St Petenburg. 



The last two were found in the years expressed, but may 
have fallen centuries ago. That of Gran Chaco is 95 per cent 
iron. The British Museum has an aerolite weighing 5 tons. 

AERONAUT. — The greatest height attained was by Mr. 
Glaisher in an ascent from Wolverhampton, September 5thy 
1862, when he rose to a distance of seven miles. Mr. Glaisher 
states that in 3500 balloon ascents only 15 deaths have 
occurred, that is, about four per thousand. See Balloons. 

AGE. — A man's working life is divided into four decades : — 

20 to 30 . . . bronze I 40 to 50 . . . gold 
80 „ 40 . . . silver I 60 „ 60 • • . iron 

Intellect and judgment are strongest between 40 and 50, 
The percentages of population to age in various countries 
shown thus : — 




-'SBSJ" 



Sfii 



»?■• 

SB'S 



The Americaiu ara the youngeet, the French the oldest. 



B.— Aon OF Katiohb in 


AUQDOT PaBTB. 


«^ 


if- 

Sb>30 
SVtoM 
40 to GO 
O«»«0 


I.SX. 


<l»7fl. 


llSTu' 


<U70> 


(I87i' 


Gr»» 

(ia;u). 


S3-5 

17-8 
8-0 


9-8 
!U-0 

M7 
11-9 


127 
80-9 
2»-8 
190 
77 


13-3 
80'3 
80-8 
196 
fl-5 


138 
2S8 
802 
19-2 
7-0 


144 

32 
14-8 
6-8 


100-0 1 100-0 1 1000 


1000 [ lOOfl 


1000 



1 *** 


UBiud 


a 


Bfull 

(UTOK 


Hollund 
(.(TO). 


(WW). 


(1:I») 


UihWG 
Gto20 
30 low 
40toM 
OmtW 


141 
8G4 
80'4 
14-9 
6-« 


14-2 
27-8 
81-8 
17* 
6-8 


108 
35-3 
30-4 
It-B 
87 


11-8 
81 '4 
800 
18 7 
77 


121 
384 
20-4 
203 
»■» 


12-8 
801 

31-a 

188 
7-8 




loo-o 


lOO-O 


lOOfl 


100-0 


lOOO 


100 0, 



AGE. 
C, — AoBS iH Unitbd KmaDov. 



IglL 


Xoglud. 


Scoau^d. 


In^uxL 
















lUl. 


1«7L 


IMi. 


1871. 


IMl. 


IML 


UD<UrB 


13-2 


13C 


12-8 


13-0 


16-2 


11-1 


&toSO 


82-8 


82-2 


881 


881 


88-8 


84-8 


20 to 40 


807 


29-B 


801 


2B-6 


2S-2 


268 


4010 60 


18-0 


17-4 


16-4 


18-7 


14-5 


17-2 


OverM 


7-2 


7-4 


7-6 


8-7 


4-8 


10-a 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


1000 


100-0 


100-0 1 



D.^AoK3 IS Cities. 



Ag.. 


.^ 


p»ta. 




..■Tv. 


•"ir* 


Under 6 . . . 


ISO 


71 


13-4 


I8-G 


18-9 


Gto20 , . . 


26-7 




268 


81-2 


827 


20 to 40 . . . 


88-4 




B8-7 


83-0 




40 to 80 . . . 


17-7 


24 ^2 


17 4 


171 


16-8 


OTerSO . . . 


8-2 


7-4 


87 


68 


6-6 


1000 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 



E. — Aam or Crisinal Offk^sders. 



Apr 

Onder 12 
12 to 21 
21 to 40 
40tu60 
OT«reO 


EirauKD. 


igt. 


F^c. 




c™l 


■^^xrr 


0-S 
19-8 
66-2 
20-6 

8-8 


4 
81 " 
141 

'i 


Under 20 
20 to 40 
40 to 80 
Over 60 


18-0 
D4-0 
23-0 
6-0 


23 
81 

14 
G 


100-0 


15 


100-0 


80 



The English table comprises all persons who passed througfa 
prison charged with any offence, the Frei 
([rave crimen 



e French only convicts of 



AGRICULTURE. 



5 



AGBIOULTUBR — This great branch of industry, includ- 
ing not only tillage, but also forestry and pasture, maintains 
209 millions of ])eople in the countries comprised under this 
review. It represents a capital of more than 20 milliards 
sterling, an annual product of about 3^ milliards. 

The following tables sum up the chief features : — 



A. — Agricultural Capital. 









Yalub 


IN lIlLLIONB £. 




Capital 




land. 


Timber. 


Cattle. 


Sun- 
dries. 


Total. 


per 

Inbabi-: 
tant 1 

1 


United Kingdom . 


1,737 


50 


235 


238 


2,260 


£65 


Fnhnce . . . • 


2,624 


182 


212 


224 


3,242 


88 


C^nuAny , 




2,060 


264 


230 


236 


2,790 


62 


Ruasift . . 




1,386 


530 


845 


364 


2,625 


83 


Austria . 




1,290 


260 


205 


216 


1,971 


51 


Italy . . . 




810 


80 


56 


97 


1,043 


36 


Spain . . . 




660 


70 


57 


62 


849 


51 


Portugal 




158 


10 


11 


26 


205 


46 


Bel^pum . 




245 


15 


30 


56 


346 


63 


Holland . 




212 


5 


33 


85 


335 


84 


Denmark 




210 


4 


31 


28 


273 


137 , 


Sweden . . 




312 


130 


42 


30 


514 


114 


Norway . 




110 


62 


21 


10 


203 


102 


Greece . . 




105 


7 


6 


14 


132 


70 


Europe . . 


11,919 


1,669 


1,514 


1,686 


16,788 


54 


United States . . 


1,923 


180 


365 


480 


2,948 


58 ': 


' Canada .... 


1 180 


48 


35 


44 


307 


70 1 


Australia . . . 


182 

1 


10 


66 


70 


328 


120 


Total. 


• 


■ 14,204 


1,907 


1.980 


2,280 


20,371 


56 



The above does not include public lands in United States 
or Australia. 



AGRICULTURE. 



L. — Agricultural Income. 







Valus or Pkoddcts in Miluoms £. 


Prodnrtp^r 
of Rarm 
Populatiott 


Hmi 




Gimln. 


OUlflT 

Crops. 


CatUe- 


Fomtfy. 


TOUL 

266 


1 
fmij. 


United Kingdom 


68 


58 


137 


8 


£22 10 





France .... 


161 


164 


110 


9 


444 


25 2 





Germany . 




129 


183 


132 


12 


456 


20 1 





Russia . 




266 


71 


145 


27 


509 


9 2 





Austria 




110 


95 


102 


15 


322 


13 3 


. 


Italy . . 




65 


76 


33 


4 


178 


10 2 





Spain . 




60 


37 


36 


3 


136 


11 16 





Portugal 




8 


16 


6 


1 


31 


10 12 





Holland . 




7 


19 


19 


• • ■ 


45 


21 4 





Belgium , 




14 


17 


13 


1 


45 


19 7 





Denmark . 




15 


8 


14 


• • • 


37 


24 5 





Sweden 




16 


11 


14 


11 


52 


17 6 





Norway , 




3 


4 


7 


5 


19 


12 10 





Greece . 




2 


5 


2 


1 


10 


10 7 





Roumauia 




37 


12 


16 


2 


67 


16 8 





Europe . . 


961 


776 


786 


94 


2.617 


15 2 


6 


United SUtes . 


207 


139 


198 


60 


604 


24 8 





Canada . . . 


22 


9 


21 


6 


58 


21 8 





Australia . . . 


13 


24 


89 


• • • 


76 


37 9 





Tota 


1 . . 


1,203 


948 


1,044 


160 


3,355 


16 3 






See Land, Tillage, €rrain, Cattle, &c 



C. — Agriculture op United Kinodoic. 



ClOM. 

Grain, busheLi . 
Other cropi 
Meat, tons 
Poultry and e^rgs 
MiUc, butter, cheese 
wool, ft& 



QiiAntity. 
322,000,000 

1,090,000 



Value. 
£68,200,000 
58,100.000 
76,800,000 
10,600,000 
89,800,000 
10,200,000 

£263,200,000 



AGRICULTURE. 



The increase of pastuie and decline of tillage since 1870 
appear as follows : — 

United Kingdom— Acres. 





1870. 


188L 


Arable 


24,076,000 


22,878,000 




22,226,000 


24,768,000 



Total colUvated 46,300,000 47,646,000 

The returns for the three kingdoms in 1881 were as 
follows : — 



Wheat . . . 
Barley , . . 
Oats .... 
Beans, Ac . . 

Grain Crops 
Potatoes . . . 
Turnips . . . 
Vetches, &c 
Fallow, Ac. . . 

Arable . . 
Pasture . . . 

Total . . . 


AORKS. 




'Sootlsnd. 


Irelsnd. 


United 
Kingdom. 


2,788,000 

2,181,000 

1,883,000 

671,000 


76,000 

271,000 

1,031,000 

28,000 


164,000 

211.000 

1,392,000 

20,000 


2,967,000 

2,663,000 

4,306,000 

719,000 


7,473,000 
400,000 

1,655,000 
875,000 

3.772,000 


1,405,000 

189,000 

491,000 

24.000 

1,482,000 


1,777,000 
864,000 
296,000 
120,000 

2,166,000 


10,6.55,000 
1,443,000 
2,341,000 
1,019,000 
7,420,000 


14.075,000 
13,504,000 


3,691,000 
1,172,000 


6,212,000 
10,092,000 


22,878,000 
24,768,000 


27,579,000 


4,763,000 


15,304,000 


47,646,000 

1 



The margin of profit over expenditure even in fair years 
is onJy four shillings per acre, viz. : — 





Per Aero. 


Amount, Millions A, 


Rent 


. £1 4 





68 


Labour 


2 5 





108 


Team 


1 





48 


Taxes 


. . 7 





17 


Seed 


10 





11 


Manure 


10 





U 


Profit 


4 





10 


Value of 


products 


• 


263 



In the above table seed and manure are counted only for 
the arable area. 



8 



AGRICULTURE. 



D. — Agriculture of Unitkd States. 





Acres. 


Value of Crop. 


Grain . 


. 119,100,000 


£207,000,000 


Cotton 


13,600,000 


67,000,000 


PoUtoes 


1,900,000 


10,500,000 


Hay ... . 


24,000,000 


54,000,000 


Tobacco, &C. 


685,000 


7,600,000 


Tillage 


. 159,285,000 


£846,100,000 


Meat . 


8,460,000 tons. 


102,000,000 


Butter and cheeM 


610,000 


45,600,000 


MUk . . . . 


t ••• 


27,500,000 


Hides, wool, ko. . 


• •• 


23,200,000 


Total of agr 


icoltoral prodncts 


£544,800,000 



K — Thirtt Years of United States Aoriculturs. 



Btatm. 


Farms, Thousavm. 


AcaEi, MiLUOira. 


1850. 


I860. 


1870. 


1880. 


1850. 


1800. 


IVf, 


ItfO. 


N. England . 
Middle . . 
Southern . . 
Western . . 
1 Pacific . . 

Total. . 


167 
351 
488 
441 
3 


185 
413 
640 
776 
80 


182 

456 

849 

1,181 

40 


207 

539 

1,481 

1,707 

68 


18 

43 

165 

63 

4 


20 

47 

220 

109 

11 


21 

49 

185 

141 

14 


22 
68 

227 

209 

23 


1,450 


2,044 


2,658 


4,002 


293 


407 


410 


684 



States. 



N. England 
Middle . . 
Southern . 
Western . 
Pacific . . 

Total . 



Qraik. Millioh Bu8H^:La. 


VaLUR op FaKSIS, lIlLUOM A. 


1850. 
20 


18«0. 


1870. 


1880. 


1850. 


I860. 


187a 


1880L 


21 


16 


18 


78 


99 


122 


121 


170 


204 


216 


233 


248 


878 


580 


505 


360 


412 


301 


442 


198 


447 


291 


347 


310 


572 


808 


1,898 


157 


444 


895 


1,070 


• • • 


14 


34 


63 


2 


14 


85 


78 


860 


1,223 


1,375 


2,654 


683 


1,382 


1,923 


2,116 



States. 


Bl'SHRLS pbr 


Inh abitakt. j Value op FAaics pee IwHAa 


1850. 1860. 


1870. 


1880. 


1850. 


I860. 


1870. 


1880. 


N. England . 
Middle . . 
Southern . . 
Western . . 
Pacific . . 

Total. . 


7-3 
25-2 
43-2 
57-0 

• • • 


6-7 
25 -0 
401 
63-0 
28-0 


4*6 
221 
26*7 
62-1 
49-0 


4-5 

20-2 

29-0 

109-0 

57-0 


£29 
87 
24 
80 
20 


£31 
46 
44 

49 
80 


£85 
60 
26 
69 
60 


£84 
44 
23 
61 
66 


87-0 88-7 


85-5 


52-0 


£30 


£44 £49 


£42 



AGRICULTURE. 



Summary. 





Value, Mtluons £. 


VA.LUB PBR InHABITAHT. 


185a 


I860. 


187a 


1880. 


185a 


1860. 


187a 


1880. 


Farms • • . 
Cattle . . . 
Crop* ... 
Implements . 

Total . . 


688 

114 

116 

81 


1,882 

226 

188 

51 


1,923 

816 

214 

69 


2,116 
878 
415 
103 


£80 
5 
5 

1 


£44 
8 
6 
2 


£49 
8 
6 
2 


£42 
8 
8 
2 


944 


1,842 


2,522 


3,012 £41 1 £60 


£65 


£60 



(The New England states are Maine, New Hampshire, 
Termonty Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Massachusetts. 
The Middle are New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Dela- 
ware, and Maryland. The Southern are Virginia, North and 
South Carolinas, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, 
I^iiisiana, Texas, Arkansas, Kentucky, and Tennessee. The 
Western, Ohio, Illinois, Missouri, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, 
Wisconsin, Nevada, Montana, Minnesota, Kansas, Nebraska, 
Colorado, Dakota, New Mexico. The Pacific, California, 
Oregon, Washington, and Utah.) 

In 1879 the agricultural products of the several groups 
of States were as follows: — 



Bute*. 


Vilue 
(Slillioii«£X 


Ratio per 
Acre. 


Ratio i>cr 
Inhabitant. 


Ratio to Agricul- 
tural CapiuL 


New England 
Middle . . 
Southern . . 
Western . . 
Pacific . . 

Total . . 


21 

78 

131 

212 

16 


£0-95 
1-45 
0-60 
1-01 
070 


£5-2 

6-7 

8-6 

121 

14-5 


12 per cent. 
26 „ 

u „ 

15 „ 


458 


£0-90 


£9-0 15 per cent 



The yield per acre is on the total area of farms, of which 
only 55 per cent is " improved," so that the real yield per 
acre cultivated or improved is double the figures shown 
above. 



AGRICULTURE. 



F.— FttBSCH AORICDLTCRB. 




Quantity to 






irniwiu. 




Grun, buifaoU . 


. 726 


X161,000,000 


Wine, gkllona . 


. 720 


46,000,000 


Pot««™,owt^ . 


IBO 


88,300.000 


Chertnnta, „ . 


U 


i.eoo,oo(» 


V,gBUbIe.„ . 


ai 


IS.200,000 


Straw, toDi 


17 


21.800,000 


H»y. .. 


14 


84000.000 


Cider, gnlloaa . 


220 


7.200,000 


Beet-root, ewU . 


leo 


7.600,000 


FUx,oil.fto. . 




7,600,000 


TilLMfe 


7 


£326,400,000 


Me.t,c-ti 


IS 


5AOO0,0O0 


Poulti7 and eggn 




14,000,000 


Duiy prcHlucta . 




31,000,000 


Hidei, wool, *c 


. 


10,000,000 


ToUI . . 




£436,600,000 


G.— Ger 


HAM Ao RICtLTURK. 




Qu«ntttjln 


ValD*. 


Grain, biuhela . 


. 634 


£1»,000,000 


WIiie.g.Uoni . 


70 


4,200,000 


PotMoe*, toiu . 


21 


57,600,000 


H.y. „ . 


!« 


69,400,000 


Sti»w, „ . 


18 


20,000,000 


Boet-root „ . 


11 


9,200.000 


Sondriei . . 




88,000,000 


Till.gB 




£312,800,000 


Me>V cwU. 


Hi 


72,000.000 


Hide., wool, d^, a 


«. 


80,000,000 


Total . . 




£444,300,000 


H.— Eua 


IAN AORICULTLRE. 




^MillV™" 


Vid«. 


GnlcbuheU . 


. 1.710 ■ 


£286,000,000 


Potatoei, cwt& . 


180 


22,300,000 


Flax and hemp, cwt* 




13,000.000 


.. Mxl 




7,000,000 


Beet-ioot 


go 


8,100,000 


Hay.atraw.t*. 




26,000.000 


■nikft* . 




£337,400,000 


Heat, CWU. 


84 


82,000,000 


Hld«,wool.d.ii7,4 


«. 


63,000,000 


Total . . 




£188,400,000 




AOKtCOLTVRS. 

—Avatun Asataajivua. 



£110,00(^000 
80,000,000 

M,00(COOO 



lo^oocCooo 







Mixniw* 


TahNoTOnp 




(U 




nm\ 




A»W. 


SOI 


T^. 


^.^^\K...^. 


TotnL 


Gnin 


16-4 


38-5 


63-7 


66-4 


110-1 


PoUtoa 




St 


11 


3'G 


16-0 


4-0 


20-0 


Wina . 




0-5 


0-9 


1-4 


6-0 


10-6 


15-0 


B«K . 




07 


OA 


1.1 


4D 


2-0 


6fli 


H.J . 




s-o 


44 


13-0 




lOfl 














7-0 




14-0 


StndriM 




1-8 


0-8 


2-6 


7-0 


8-0 


10-0 


Total 




»« 


27 3 


S7-1 


1127 1 92 4 


2061 



K. — Italian Aoricdltuke. 



M«at.owt>. 
HidMiDdw 
Il*b7,*<s. 



£65,000,000 
29,800,000 
6,100,000 
4,800.000 
7,000,000 
28,800,000 

£141.800,000 
16,000,000 
8,000,000 
14,000,000 



AGRICULTURE. 



L. — AaRICDLTDBE IK SfAIN AND PORTUOAI. 





QuwUtylnUimou. 


V»l 


.lnlimi>n.«. 1 


Bprin. 


PortugJ. 


Tnt.1 

326 

ioo 

£0 


8p>iD. 


Portugal. 

S 

10 

1 

5 


ToUL 

ftS 
29 

i 

20 


Crain, bntheli . 

Wine,gaUo>u . 

FnUt,ta." . 

Tillage. . . 
SundriM. . . 

Total . . . 


295 
15 


so 

so 

5 


60 
19 
S 
15 


"fl 


■i 


"7 


97 
18 
20 


24 
8 
8 


121 
19 
23 


- ! - 




133 


SO 


]«3 



If. — Agricdlture in BsLaitu and Holluid. 





4uuiutr(iimu> 


TotoL 


Vilu. 


(Hmi«a«. 1 


Belgium. 


HolUni. 


BalsKim. 


Boll^. 


Total. 

21 

8 

8 
20 


Grain, biuhela 
Potatoe«, cwta. 
Hay. 
Snndrie* . . 

Till.«e . . 
M«at,cwt.. . 
Dairy, ftc. . 

Total . , 


6S 
34 
13 


37 

•22 
40 


105 
66 
63 

"4 


14 
G 
2 

10 


7 
3 


10 


2 


"2 


81 
8 
6 


26 
8 
11 


67 
18 
18 


... 1 ... 




44 


45 


89 



K. — Agriculture is Scandinavia. 





Q.«nt(tj (HIIUou). 


TotdTaliM 
(llUlla»a£). 


D«>m>rk. 


Swcdtn. 


K«w.x. 


Tot^ 


Oraln, tnuheb . 
Potatoes, oirt*. . 
Ma;, tou. . . 
Simdriei . . . 

TUlajn . . . 
M.at,lrt.. . . 
Duiy.tc . . 


76 
6 
8 


80 
20 
3 


16 
10 
1 


170 
36 

7 


84 

6 
14 

4 


2 


"8 


1 


i 


S7 
19 
18 


... 


... 1 ... 


... ., 1 



AIR. 



13 



0. — Agriculturb in Canada. 





Q lantlty In 


Value 


Value per 




MiUioiis. 


(MUlions £). 


Inhabitant. 


Onln, bnsheli 


130 


22 


£5-0 


Heat, cwU. 


4 


10 


2-8 


DaixT prodacU . 
Sondrim 


• ••• 


9 
11 


21 
2-6 



Total 



52 



£11-9 



P. — Australian Agriculture. 





Quantity lu 


Value 


Value p( 




MUiioiia. 


(MilUonaJ). I 


nhabitai 


Grain, bushels . 


60 


18 


£4-4 


Wool, lbs. . 


390 


20 


7-4 


Meat, tallow, &c. 


• • • • 


16 


6-0 


Dairy products . 


9 •• • 


6 


2-2 


Potatoes, cwts. . 


8 


2 


07 


Hay, wine, fruit, &c. 


• •• • 


19 


7-0 



Total 76 £277 

— In its pore state it is composed thus : — 

Nitrogen 77 

Oxygen 21 

Other components 2 



100 



The percentage of oxygen varies as follows : — 



Locality. 
Sea- shore 
Confined houses 



Percentage. 
. 2100 
. 2076 



Locality. 
Mines . 
When candles go out 



Percentage. 
. 20-50 
. 18-60 



The following table shows how oxygen varies with climate — 

Ben Lomond . 20 940, Mediterranean 20-947 Paris . . . 20 956 
Atlantic . . 20 942; Madrid. . . 20*949 Geneva. . . 20 956 
Lyon* . . . 20 -942, Berlin . . . 20-953 Andes . . . 20 963 

Air travels in England in healthy years about 4J miles 
an hour, and 3j in unhealthy. The percentage of carbonic 
acid ranges thus : — 



In country 


. -03 


In fogs . 


•07 


„ town . 


. 04 


„ crowded lanes 


. -13 


„ hospitals 


. -06 


„ theatres 


. -30 



Each adult inhales a gallon of air per minute, and con- 
sumes daily 30 oz. of oxygen. For the conversion of this 
oxygen a certain amount of food is required — say 13 oz. of 
carbon for a male, and 11 oz. for a female, equivalent to 
3 lbs. bread and 2 J lbs. respectively. 



M 



ALCOHOL— ALPA CA . 



The proper allowance of air in barracks is 600 cabie feet 
per man in Europe, and 1000 in India : for hoepifatls, 1200 
cubic feet per bed in Europe, and 1800 in IndiiL HorMt 
require in England 1600 cubic feet each, or nearly u much 
aa three men. 



ALCOHOL.— Th 


degrees in 


vines ar 


d liquors ar« 


_ 


Beer . . 


iO 


QooMberry 


11-8 


lUUfit. . 


si-0 


Portw . . 


t-6 


Ch»mp»ena 


12-2 


Mftdein . . 


21-0 


Ala . . . 


7-t 


Cbmt . . 


13-3 


Port. . . . 


SS-2 


Cider . . 


S'fl 


Burgundy . 


IS'S 


ConwM . 


27-0 


Peny . . 


8-8 


M»i.e.. . 


. 17-8 


AniHwd . 


88-0 


Elder . . 


0-3 


LiBbon . . 


18-6 




84-0 


MoMlle . 


9-6 


Cuury . . 


. 18-8 




iS-0 


Tok»y . . 


10-2 


Sherry . . 


. 19-0 


Gin ... . 


Sl-8 


EhiM . . 


11-0 


Venaouth . 


. 18-0 


Bandy. . . 


58-4 


Omige. . 


11-2 


Cpe . . 


. 19-2 


lUm . . 


G8-r 




11-6 


M^niKy . 


. 197 


Iriri)WU.»7 


M-« 


Hook . . 


11-8 




. 20-2 


Scotch . .' 


64-8 



Spirits are said to be " proof " when they contain 57 per 
cent. The maxiniam amount of alcohol, gays Parkea, that 
a man takes daily without injury to his health is that con- 
tained in 2 oz. brandy, ^ pint of sherry, ^ pint claret, or 1 
pint of beer. 

ALLOT. — In British gold one part in 12, in silver 18 in 
240. The standard of purity of Uie moneys of all countries 
vill be found under the title Coins. 

ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS.— The weight of theee depoaila 
for every 1000 gallons of water is as follows ;— 



. 821 



ALFAOA — This wool wos first manufactured at Saltaire, 
icar Leeds, in 1836, and the consumption in England has 

isen aa follows (annual average) ; — 

Tun. Cwta. Tilu. 

1810-45 12,900 £ 96,000 

1850-66 16,200 270,000 

1860-85 80,160 840,000 

187&-80 84,700 890,000 



LochKatriw . k 


Dmube . . 


2 


Wok. . . 




Garonne . . 




G»ng«. . 


SoTom ... 1 


Rhine . . . 




ChelttDhMQ 




Meraey. . . 




Hkmgkte . 


Timbridgi ! ; li 


Tluun^. . . 


4 


Oi(u. . . 


8p«. 7. . . li 






Sddlitt . . 


OcMva ... 2 


Sp. . . . . 


14 


AtUatki . 



A MPUTA TION— ANCHORS. 



15 



AMPUTATION. 

A. — ^MORTALITT IN VARIOUS HOSPITALS: PeR CbNT. 
liondoti 



87-8 


Edinburgh 


. 48-8 


60-0 


Glaagow . 


. 86 


46 


English rural . 


. 17-8 



Zurich 

In such German hospitals as have adopted the Listerian 
method, invented by Professor Lister of Glasgow, the death 
rate after amputation has fallen to 4*7. 

B. — London and Rural Compared. 

Death-Rato of Patients, Per Cent 



London. 




Rural. 


Univerdtj 


. 26-7 


Tewkesbury 


. 8-8 


St^ Bartholomew's 


. 86*6 


St. Leonard's . 


. 10-0 


Goj't 


. 88-2 


St. Alban's 


. 14-2 


St. George's 


. 88-8 


Ashford . 


. 20-0 


Whitechapel 


. 47-8 


Stockton . 


. 25-0 



C. — Nature of Amputation. 





Death-Rate, Per Cent 


Engli<«h 

RuraL 

185D-78. 


Glasgow. 
1850-74. 


Gla*K< >w. 
1795-1«38. 


Guy'8. 

1854-61. 


1 

Arm ... 
Leg . 
Thigh 
General 


8-1 
16-5 
83-8 
17-8 


34 
45 
52 
36-0 


480 
68-0 
92-0 
51 


20-0 
39 
50 
38-2 



D. — Amputations in War. 



Death- RaU*. Per Cent 



Peninsula 
Waterlo«) 
Crimea . 



Arm. 
12 9 

11-6 
15-5 



Leg or Tliigli. 
20-8 
26-8 
50-2 



ANCHORS. — The weiiiht of anchors and cliain cables for 



vesirfcls is as follows : — 



Ve«4el, 

t«in4 
200 
.'iOO 

louo 

2000 



Anchors, 
tuns. 

3 

6 

H 

18 



Heaviest iu 
cwts. 

13 

25 

42 

77 



Cable, 
inches. 
1-0 
15 
1-9 
21 



Cable, length 
iu fathonm. 
180 
270 
300 
300 



It is usual for vessels to carry 7 anchors, 4 of the inaxiiuum 
height prescribed above. 



i6 



A NIMA LS—A NTHROPOMBTR Y. 



ANIMALS. 










Weight 


Tenra 




Weiicht 


Team 


Ob».>. 


of Life. 




750 


of Ufa 


Rabbit . 5 


5 


Cow 


25 


Dog 10 


12 


Ox . 


900 


25 


Shoep . 70 


12 


Hone 


1,000 


27 


Pig. . 160 


10 


Camel . 


1,200 


40 


laon . 600 


40 


Elephant 


6,000 


100 



ANTHROPOMETRY. 

A. — Height in Inches. 



Age, 


BnglSah 
Halo. 


American 
Male. 


Belgian. 


Male. 


Female. 


10 
16 
20 
24 
30 
40 
60 
60 
70 


51-8 
62-2 
67-5 
67-7 
679 
680 
67-9 
67-7 
67-2 


51-7 

62-3 

67-4 

67-9 

681 

681 

*• . 

• • • 

•< • 


601 
69-6 
668 
66-2 
66-4 
66*4 
66-4 
660 
66-4 


49*2 
586 
62-0 
621 
62*2 
62*2 
62-2 
61-8 
618 



B. — Weight in Lbs. 



Age. 


English 
Male. 


Amorican 
Male. 


Belgian. 


Male. 


Female. 


10 
16 
20 
24 
80 


67 
103 
143 
148 
166 


66 
106 
147 
147 
160 


56 

91 

131 

146 

146 


51 
88 

117 
123 
122 



The average weight of 20,000 men and women at Boston 
in 1864, and of 22,000 weighed at Cincinnati in 1882, wua 
as follows : — 

M<ni. Women. 

Boston . . 142 Iba 126 Iba 

Cincinnati . . 164 „ 131 



» 



»t 



There was no account taken of age. 




■o Cum (BraLjun>). 





!«»«. ] 














ASwM. 


«nian. 


rum L*b«I«- 


OaMnl 


u 


n-» 


B07 


so-a 




u 


n-9 


fll-4 


61-9 - 








«'S 


66-« 




M 


6B-4 


H-O 






M 


••« 


«'8 


87-8 


87 ■» 


M 


•87 


871 


87-8 


88-0 






S6-« 


87-8 




M 


Ml 


M-S 


88« 


«77 


1 » 


SM 


68-6 


6»-S 


69-2 



D.- 


-Wmur jlooomn TO 


Club (EmolabbX 


AfK 


- 1 










laoBt. 


ArtJ-n. 


rumUlMdnr. 


ObML 


1 ■» 


6S 


84 


87 


87 


15 


107 


es 


]01 


lOS 


! » 


148 


1B8 


144 


Its 


M 


148 


lis 


152 


148 




ISO 




158 


1S6 




170 


1S4 


161 


1S4 


1 M 


V2 


14» 


180 


164 


{ 80 


170 


ISS 


171 


162 



In the preceding tables height ia irithout ehoee, but 
weight indodes clothing. The LapUnden are the shorteat 
people in Europe — nudes, 69; femftles^ 57 inches. The 
Borton Journal of Cktmidry give* the ftvenge height of 
■dnit males u foUows : — 



87-98 Rniriwi 

87-87 Franob 

8707 
88 -U 



E.— DmiBSHCi or Stxm (Eobope). 



i8 



ANTHROPOMETRY. 



F. — Danson's Table of Convict-Male8. 



Age. 


Height, Inchee. 


Weight. Uw. 














1868. 


1878. 




18S8. 


1878. 1 

1 
1 


18 


64-3 


64*1 




122 


125 


20 


65-2 


651 




133 


187 


22 


66-2 


65-7 




139 


148 


24 


65-9 


65*4 




142 


141 


26 


66-2 


65-6 




142 


148 


28 


66-7 


657 




148 


144 


80 


66-4 


65-5 




142 


144 


( 


J. — Chbbt i 


LND StREI^GTH 


(Englani 


.). 


Age. 


Che«t. cP 
Inchca. °^ 


rmwlng 
rengtii, 
Lb«. 


f 
Age. 


Chest, 
Inches, 


Dnwlnf 
Btreugt^ 
Lbs. 


10 


26 


85 


80 


36-0 


80 


15 


29-6 


48 


40 


36-2 


77 


20 


84-8 


78 


50 


86-5 


75 


24 


86-8 


78 


6 





• • • 


70 



U. — Chest Measurement of British Armt. 

Over 40 inches 4 '3 

88 to 40 20-4 

86 to 38 41*8 

35 to 36 17*8 

Under 35 15*7 



100*0 



1. — Height of British Army (1882). 



Over 6 feet . 

510 to 6 feet 

5-6 to 5-10 . 

Under 5 feet 6 inches . 



Eiigtiiih. 

0-6 

11-0 

411 

47-3 

100-0 



Scotch. 

1*2 
11-2 
42-6 
45-0 



100-0 



Irish. 

0*8 

8*3 

861 

55-3 



100-0 



K. — AuMY Measuremext (Stature) (I860). 





Inches. 




Inches. 




Inches. 


Italian 


650 


Austrian . 


. 66-5 


Irish . . 


. 68-0 


Spaniard . . 


65-5 


Bt^Igian . 


. 66^ 


Sct>tch . . 


. 68-5 


French . . 


660 


Russian . 


. 670 


Swede. . 


. 68*9 


Hungarian . 


661 


EngUsh . 


. 67-5 


Norwegian 


. 69-0 



A POPLEXY—A Q UBD UCTS. 



19 



The British and Italian armies compare as follows in 
latios of height — 



Inetaca. 


Brltiah. 


ItaUan. 


Under 65 


5 


34 


65 to 67 


. 35 


35 


Over 67 


. 60 


31 



100 



100 



No less than 12 per cent, of the British army are up to 
or over 70 inches in height. 



r. — ^This disease is becoming more prevalent in 
England, the number of deaths from this cause per million 
inhabitants rising as follows : — 

Per MUUon 
Inbabiunta. 

1850-66 457 

1867-70 504 

1871-78 517 

1874-80 550 

It has been accompanied with an increase in the rate of 
iru^anitf/ (q.v.) 

APPLES.— Tlie crop in Great Britain averages 85,000 
tons, valued at XIO per ton: about 12 million gallons of 
cider are made yearly. The production of cider in France 
averages 220 million gallons. 

The orchards of Great Britain cover 180,000 acres ; a ton 
of ordinary good apples will produce 200 gallons of cider. 
Great Britain imports 900,000 barrels of apples yearly from 
United States and Canada. 

AQUEDUCTS. — Rome, in the time of the Caesars, had 
9 aqueducts, measuring 249 miles in the aggregate : they 
poured into the city 320 million gallons daily, or 200 gallons 
per inhabitant. The great aqueduct of Peru, built by the 
Incas, was 360 miles long. Among modem works the most 
famous are : — 



, Name. 


Miles 


Crr.ton (New York) 


41 


Madrid . 


47 


Marseillt'3 


51 


(ilasgow 


34 


Washington . 


16 



Million Gallons 
Diiily. 
88 
40 
60 
50 
90 



Cost of Work. 

£1,800,000 

2,300,000 

450,000 

1,550,000 



See Wairr Snppli/. 



20 



AREA— ARMADA. 



AREA. 















1 

1 


Thousand 


Millions of 


Aeresper 


1 


Square MUes. 


Acres. 


InbabiUnt. 


England . . | 


58S 


87 


1-4 


Scotland . 




307 


m 


5-2 


Ireland 

United Kingdom . 




81-9 


20i 


4*0 


120-9 


77 


2-2 


France 




2011 


129 


3-4 


Gennany . 






2121 


136 


8-0 


Russia 






2,2617 


1,448 


18-0 


Austria 






144 6 


93 


4-2 


Hungary . 






124-4 


80 


5-0 


Ital^ . 
Spam 






114*8 


73 


2*5 






182*8 


117 


71 


Portugal . 






86-5 


28 


5-2 


Belgium . 






|ll-4 


7 


1-8 


HoUand . 






20-5 


18 


8^ 


Denmark . 






14*6 


9 


4-5 


Sweden 






171*0 


109 


24*0 


Norway 






122*8 


78 


40*0 


Switzerland 






16*0 


10 


8*6 


Greece 






19-9 


18 


8*0 


Roumania . 






483 


81 


5*8 


Servia 






20-9 


13 


7*2 


Turkey . 
Europe . 






62 


40 


9*1 




' 3,905*3 


2,499 


8*0 


United SUtes 






3,603*9 


2,806 


44-0 


Canada 






3,372*3 


2,158 


475-0 


Bradi 






8,288*0 


2,104 


232-0 


China 






8,924*6 


2,512 


8-0 


Asiatic Russia 






6,179-0 


• 8,955 


410*0 


Australia . 






3,104 


1,986 


666-0 


India 

! 






1,482 


948 


4-0 



ABMADA.— That sent by PliUip II. in 1588 for the 

intended conquest of England, and commanded by the Duke 

of Medina, comprised — 

132 ships, I 10,854 seamen, 

8,165 cannon, I 23,200 soldiers. 

The British fleet under Lord Howard, supported by Drake 
and Hawkins, consisted of — 

Itojal Navy. 

Ships ... 41 

Tonnage . . 16,000 

Seamen . . . 8,200 

The Spaniards lost 35 ships and 13,600 men. 



Ve«Mla 

Hired. 

135 

18,500 

6.600 



Tutal. 

176 
84,500 
14,800 



ARMY. 



2t 



r. — ^The standing annies of Europe have increased 
60 per cent in 50 years : — 



Great Britain 

France 

Gennany 



Austria 
Italj . 
Spain . 
Portugal 




H< 

Denmark 

Sweden and Norway 

Europe 



Army 


' (tbousasds). 


Soldi KRs per 10,000 

iNHABtTAMTB. 


1881. 


1851. 


1881. 


1831. 


1851. 


1881. 


102 


129 


189 


42 


46 


54 


814 


865 


496 


98 


104 


181 


881 


846 


445 


121 


105 


99 


589 


644 


841 


101 


108 


111 


271 


282 


268 


104 


94 


72 


76 


142 


886 


44 


71 


184 


46 


87 


90 


40 


62 


55 


28 


28 


83 


77 


78 


76 


20 


40 


46 


55 


92 


84 


28 


50 


65 


87 


171 


162 


88 


25 


86 


292 


168 


187 


52 


57 


60 


131 


114 


91 


1,884 


2,195 


2,955 


87 


92 


98 



The following tables show the present military condition of 
nations : — 

B. — Army in Thousands op Men. 



Great Britain 

France . 

Germany 

Kiusia 

Austria . 

Italy 

Spain 

Portugal 

Holland . 

Belgium . 

Denmark 

Sweden and Norway 

Greece . 

Roomania 

Europe 
United States 

Total 



Infkntry. 


Cftmlry. 


Artnierj. 


Tndn. 
Ac. 


Total. 


No, of 
Fleld-Plecefc 


125 


18 


34 


12 


189 


702 


283 


69 


69 


75 


496 


1,938 


305 


67 


54 


19 


445 


2,040 


626 


86 


109 


20 


841 


2,278 


176 


51 


28 


14 


268 


1,540 


267 


34 


60 


35 


386 


500 


60 


13 


10 


7 


90 


848 


24 


3 


4 


2 


33 


92 


44 


4 


14 


3 


65 


150 


31 


5 


8 


2 


46 


204 


28 


2 


6 


1 


36 


106 


44 


7 


7 


2 


60 


300 


58 


3 


5 


2 


68 


96 


19 


3 


6 


2 


30 


180 


2,079 


865 


413 


196 


3,053 


10,474 


12 


8 


3 


4 


27 


100 


2,089 


373 


416 


200 


3,080 


10.574 



23 



ARMY. 



C. — Military SfRENOTH, Army and Navy, in 1869 and 1881. 













TotslArmT 




Hen 


Cost 


and NftTj Ex- 




(Thousands). 


(lfUUons£X 


peuditurc. 
RaUo to National 












Budget 


1809. 


1881. 


1869. 


188L 


1809. 


188L 


Great Britain . . . 


269 


247 


26-4 


27-9 


85 1 


33 6 


France . . . 








498 


565 


25 


29-6 


82*0 


24*4 


Germany . . 








880 


460 


12-9 


22 5 


25-8 


26-5 


Russia . . . 








876 


871 


21-5 


29-5 


S3 1 


87-0 


Austria . . . 








283 


278 


10*4 


12-6 


22-9 


167 


Italy. . . . 








199 


401 


7-5 


10-4 


16-3 


16-8 


Spain . . . 








174 


102 


5-4 


6-3 


19-3 


19-0 


Portugal . . 








30 


87 


10 


1-2 


24-3 


151 


Holland. . 








82 


72 


2-5 


2-6 


27-8 


26 


Belgium . . 








73 


46 


1-4 


1-8 


20-0 


15-6 


Denmark . 








44 


37 


0-6 


0-9 


28-0 


36-0 


Sweden and Norway 
Europe .... 


60 


69 


10 


1-8 


22 5 


25-7 


2,963 


3,185 


115-6 


147 1 


26-1 


25-3 


United States . . 


64 


35 


20-1 


9*4 


80-2 


17-2 


The World . 


» 1 


» i 


» 


3,027 


3,220 


135-7 


156-5 


27 


24-6 



D. — Army and Navy Strength and Expendtturb. 



Combatants 

per 10,000 

Inhabitants. 



Annual Cost 
per Combatant. 



Expenditure to 

Population. 

BhiUingfi per 

luhabitaut. 



18C9. 



Great Britain . . . 

France 

Germany .... 

Russia 

Austria 

Italy 

Spain 

Portugal .... 

Holland 

l^elgium 

Denmark .... 
Sweden and Norway 

Europe .... 

United States . . 

The World . . . 



87 
130 

98 
128 

82 

76 
108 

70 
234 
146 
250 
103 
106 

17 

94 



1881. 


1809. 


1881. 


1869. 


71 


£98 


£113 


17 


159 


51 


52 


13 


102 


34' 


49 


7 


116 


25 


34 


6 


73 


87 


45 


6 


141 


38 


26 


6 


62 


31 


62 


7 


85 


33 


32 


5 


180 


31 


36 


13 


83 


20 


40 


6 


178 


14 


24 


7 


105 


17 


26 


4 


106 


39 


46 


8 


7 


314 


270 


11 


92 


45 


49 


9 ' 



188L 



16 

17 
10 

8 

7 

7 

8 

6 
13 

7 

9 

6 
10 

4 

84 



ARMY. 



23 



The ratio of comlxitants to population in Europe is exactly 
the same as in the year preceding the Franco-Grerman war, 
but the expenditure for armies and navies having risen 30 
per cent., is now two shillings per inhabitant higher, although 
in Great Britain it has declined a shilling. The armies and 
navies of the Continent absorb ten days' earnings of the 
population each year, those of Great Britain only seven days' 



eaming& 








E.. 


— Bbh 


T«ir. 




Men. 


1661 
1688 
1780 
1764 
1792 




6,200 
28,000 
17,000 
40,000 
57,300 



E. — BBrrisH Army at Various Pbriod& 



Per 10,000 
Inhabitants. 
9 
51 
30 
53 
60 



Year. 

1810 
1830 
1850 
1860 
1881 



Men. 

806,700 
108,700 
138,800 
229,500 
189,000 



Per 10,000 
Inhabit ail IB. 

171 

46 

52 

79 

54 



F. — Cost of British Army and Navy. 



Year. 

1810 
1830 
1850 
1870 
ISSl 



Expenditure. 

£52,860,000 
13,915,000 
15,392,000 
24,623,000 
27,954,000 



Coat per 
Inhabitant. 



£2 








18 
11 
11 
16 
16 



8 
6 
5 
2 




National 

Biniinga 

(Uillious£). 

250 
350 
610 
961 
1,247 



Ratio of Mili- 
tary Expendi- 
ture to National 
Eamlugs. 

21-2 

4 

2-5 

2-5 

2-2 



G. — British Army and Volunteers. 
The effective strength has increased since 1860 as ful- 



low.s : — 

Year. 

IfeOO 
1870 
1681 

Ann. 



Army. 

221,604 
180,444 
188,986 



Volunteers. 

106,400 
170,700 
206,535 

Army. 



Infantry 126,400 

Cavalry 17,300 

Artillery 85,200 

Engineers, &a . . . 11,300 



190,200 



Total. 

328,004 
851,144 
395,521 

Volunteers. 

159,500 

600 

37,800 

8,800 

206,700 



Percentage 

of Pifpiilation. 

113 

111 

1-13 

Total. 
285,900 
17,900 
73,000 
20,100 

396,900 



According to Napoleon Bonaparte the proportions of an 
arniy should be 70 per cent infantry, 17 per cent cavalry, 
and 13 per cent between artillery, engineers, and train. The 
regular army has 9400 officers, and 16,100 petty oflficers. 



24 



ARMY. 



The army is composed as follows : — 



NaUonality. 

English 70 

Irish 20 

Scotch 8 

Colonial 2 



B«Ugion. 

Chnroh of &igland 64 

Roman Catholic . 24 

Pretbyterians . . 8 

Diasentera ... 4 



Age. 
Under 18 yean 
18 to 30 years. 
80 „ 40 
Over 40 



t» 



ff 



100 

2 

74 

20 

4 

100 



Height 
Under 65 inches 
65 to 67 inches . 
67 „ 70 
Over 70 



ff 



100 

6 
85 
48 

12 

100 



The composition of the army has changed very remarkahly 
in the past 20 years, viz. : — 





1861. 


1871. 


1881. 


linglish . 


56-8 


641 


68-8 


Irish . 


81*2 


24*9 


20-4 


Scotch 


• . 9-1 


8-6 


80 


Colonial . 


2^ 


2-4 


2-8 



1000 



1000 



100-0 



The education of the men shows a great advance since 
I860, viz. :— 

1880. 1881. 

Able to read . . .84 per cent 96 per cent 
Able to write . . . 68 ,. 93 



ff 



The total land military forces (1885) are as follows (OOO's 
omitted):— 



Regolars 
Reserve 
Militia 
Volunteers 
Indian army 

Total 



Hor^e. 

17 

4 

14 

1 

20 

56 



Foot. Artillery, Ac. Total. 



134 

35 

115 

193 

97 

574 



51 
12 
22 
54 
4 



143 



202 
51 
151 
248 
121 

773 



There are al?o 14,000 Irish Constabulary and 190,000 
Indian police on military footing. 



ARTESIAN WELLS. 



«S 



In actiTe service the deaih-xate among officets ia heavier 
than among the rank and file. The Duke of Wellington's 
anny-roll from 1811 to 1814 showed — 

Officen. Men. 

KfOidd .... 14*5 per cent 10*2 

Woondad . 81*0 „ 49*0 

DiedofdiMMe . 18*0 88*0 



If 



For death-rate of armies in times of peace, see page 

isa 

n. — CONSCBIPTIOM FOB FbENCH ArMT. 



Ymn. 


Annual 


Per 1.000 


Average. 


InhaUtanta. 


181^.28 


. 40,000 


1-38 


1824-29 


. 60,000 


1-90 


1880-62 


. 80,000 


2*40 


1863-68 


.' 140,000 


3-90 


1859^8 


. 100,000 


270 


1872-80 


. 160,000 


4-26 



ABTESIAH WEI1L&— They were known at Thebes 2000 
yean before the Christian era. In. modem times that of 
Crenelle, near Paris, is the most famous, having taken eight 
years in boring, 1833-41 ; it gives 700,000 gallons daily, 
the water rising 32 feet above the surface, with a tempera- 
ture of 81 J' Fahr. 



Well. 


Depth, 
Feet 


Diameter, 
Inches. 


Oidlons 

Water per 

Minute. 


CostofWeU. 


Crenelle . 


1,798 


3-74 


484 


£14,650 


PMsy 


1,923 


27-60 


1,980 


40,000 


Kinengen 


1,880 


400 


600 


7,000 


St. Louis, U.S. 


2,200 


• •• 


• • • 


2,000 


Chicago . 


700 






820 


• •« 


CaUis 


1,138 






• • • 


8,560 


Donchery. 


1,215 






• • • 


3,045 


■ Trafalgar Square 


393 






500 


• • • 


Lille 


592 






• • • 


320 


Algeria . 


177 






1,130 


• • • 


Elbenf . 


492 


2-95 


66 


• • • 


1 St. Denis. 


262 


2-28 


28 


• • • 



There are 78 of these wells in England, varying from 100 
to 1000 feet. Several have been sunk in China more thuu 
1000 feet, at a cost of only seven shillings per foot 



26 ARTILLERY. 

ABTIZI.EBT. — There are abont 37,000 pieces of cannon, 
of which onljr 20,000 con be said to be in use. 





a™,. 


».,. 


Portlflca- 


Total. 


Great Britain 


792 


1,480 


2,000 




France .... 


1.93S 


2,834 


2.8O0 


7,S7a 


Germany .... 


2,0*0 


670 


2,770 


6.380 




2.278 


838 


2,010 


5,134 


Augtria .... 


1,540 


320 


1,000 


2.880 


Italy 


500 


480 


600 


1.480 


Spain 


348 


625 


300 


1,173 


Portugal .... 


9-i 


irs 


110 


380 


Holkod .... 


150 


Geo 


120 


830 


Bdgiimi .... 


204 




40 


244 


Denmark .... 


lOS 


245 


170 


621 


Sweden uid Norwav . 


300 


672 


100 


1,072 














180 


S6 


64 


310 


Turkey .... 
Enn>pe .... 


SSO 


200 


100 


SSO 


11,124 


B,00« 


12,224 


32,354 


FnitedStatca . 


100 


1.055 


3,000 


4,155 


Braril 




166 


200 


410 


Japan 

TMal .... 


120 


149 


100 


369 


11.394 


lo.ars 


15,5^1 


37.294 



At the close of the Fraaco-Gennan war the Germana took 
from the French 7234 pieces of cannon, includiog 348.^ 
field-pieces, and 3300 fortress guns. At the battle of 
Waterloo tlie British artillery fired S467 rounds, or nne 
for every Frenchman killed. The progress of gunnery in 
the last ten years is shown as follows : — 

1878. First Woolwich infant— 35 ton, 18 feet, shot 700 Iba, powder 
'"0 Iba. It sent a Faltiscr abut through 1S|| incbea iron and 



300 11m. 
1S76. Third Woolwich infant— 81 ton, shot 1260 lbs., went throngh 

60 feet saniL 
1877. Armatrong fiin>. 100 ton, fnr It:i1<an ironclad Dttilia. 
Vat marine artillety, aee page 320. 
Tlio coat of heavy guns is aa follows, per ton : — 
Coat iron . . £ 21 1 Krapp . £170 

Aniiitrung . . lOU | Whitworth . , 17S 



ASSES, 



27 



B. — Initial Velocity. 



Oan. 
Rifle, 6-inch 



*» 



If 



9» 



9> 

„ 7-iDch 
Smooth 9-inch 



Powder 
(»b«.) 
16 
12 
11 
13 
15 



Shot 
(lb..) 

35 

71 
107 
100 
104 



Velocity 
(feetX 

1.917 
1,356 ■ 
1,107 
1,130 
1,254 



C. — Cannon of Middle Ages. 



Name.. 



Cannon 
Serpentine 
Cnlverin . 
Demi-cuWerin 
Falcon 



Shot 
(lb..) 

64 
52 
19 
10 
2 



Powder 
(lb..) 

32 
26 
15 

8 

2 



Gun 
(cwt..) 

72 
62 
40 
20 
6 



Length 
(feet). 

12 

12 

12 

10 

7 



Date. 


Name. 


1430 


Dulle Griete 


1450 


Mons Meg 


1464 


^lahomet 


1543 


^lalik Mydan 


1586 


Czar Pooshka 


1C28 


Dhool-Dhanee 



Famous Pieces op Cannon. 

Place. 
Holland . 
Edinburgh 
Turkey 
India 
Moscow . 
India 



Tons. 
14 
6 
20 
40 
39 
30 



ASSES. — The number, compared to population, in various 
ountrie:?, is as follows : — 





No. 


Per 1000 
Iiihabitaiita. 


United Kingdom . 

France . . . . 

Au<«tria. 

Italy . . . . 

Spain and Portugal 

<lre€ce . 

lielgiuui and Holland 


837,000 

406,800 

96,000 

501,600 

. 2,510,000 

94,000 

15,000 


10 

11 

8 

17 

125 

55 

2 


Germany 
Kgjpt . 


40,000 
88,000 


1 
18(^ 



The number has increased in the United Kingdom as 
ollows : — 

1850. 1880. 

Great Britain . . 130,000 150,000 

Ireland . . . 141,000 187,000 



United Kingdom 



271,000 



337,000 



28 



ASSESSMENTS OF INCOME. 



ASSESSMENTS OF INOOMR — ^The number of persona 
assessed in Great Britain down to 1850, and the United 
Kingdom since that date, have been as follows : — 

Persons Asssssed. Psk Miluov IraAVTAaT^ 



Tear. 


. Over £5000. 


£200 to £5000. 


OTor£5000. 


£S00to£500«. 


1812 


409 


89,856 


34 


8.280. 


1850 


1,181 


64,208 


56 


8,059 


1860 


1,558 


83,972 


53 


2,896 


1870 


2,080 


128,295 


67 


4,139 


1880 


2,954 


207,476 


88 


6,225 



The following tables are based on the Probate Court 
returns, the valuation of houses, and other sources : — 



A. — Incomb of England and Wales. 



Class. 

Rich 
Middle . 
Working 

Total 



No. of 


ATerage 


Amount, 


Families. 


Income. 


Millions £. 


193,200 


£1,500 


290 


1,531,000 


250 


383 


3.498,000 


105 


367 



5,222,200 



200 



1,040 



B. — Income op Scotland. 



Class. 

Rich 
Middle . 
Working 

Total 



No. of 


Arerags 


Amonnt, 


Families. 


Income. 1 


MUlloDs £. 


24,200 • 


£1,250 


30 


193,400 


255 


49 


529,200 


85 


45 



746,800 



165 



124 



C. — Income of Ireland. 



Class. 

Rich 
Middle . 
Working 

Total 



No of 


Average 


Amoimt, 


Families. 


Income. 


Millions JL 


14,400 


£970 


14 


172,000 


200 


34 


845,600 


45 


38 



1,032,000 



84 



86 



D. — Income of United Kingdom. 



Class. 


No. of 


Avemge 


Amomit, 


Families. 


Income. 


Millions A. 


Rich . 


231,800 


£1,440 


334 


Middle . 


1,896,400 


245 


466 


Woiking 


4,872,800 


92 


450 

r 



Total 



7,001,000 



180 



1,250 



ASSIGN ATS. 



29 



E. — ^Income* OF France. 



CUms* 

Rich . 
Middle . 



Total 



CImb. 

Rich 
Middle . 
Working 

Total 



CUm. 

Rich 
Middle . 
Working 

Total 



CIam. 

Rich 
Middle . 
Working 



Na of 
Fkmiliea.^ 

158,210 

1,666,700 

5,879,810 



Arerage 
Income. 

£800 

200 

85 



a— 



II.— 



Amnnnt, 
miltons £. 
127 
388 
505 



7,704,220 


125 


965 


rcoME OF Germany. 




No. of 
Families. 

120,810 

686,250 

8,581,900 


Avernge 
Income. 
£730 
160 
76 


Amount, 
Millions i. 
88 
110 
652 


9,388,960 


90 


850 


Income of 


Italy. 




No. of 
Families. 
80,990 
892,000 
5,243,010 


Average 
Income. 
£520 
110 
55 

61 


Amount, 
Millions £. 

16 

48 

286 


5,666,000 


845 


Income op 


Spain. 




No. oC 
Families. 
25,120 
212,300 
3,261,180 


Average 

Income. 

£880 

110 
43 


Amount, 
Millions £. 
22 
23 
140 



ToUl . 3,498,600 53 

I. — Landowners op Austria-Hungary. 



185 



aa«s. 
Ist 

2d 
8d 
4th 
5th 



Land-Tax. 
£40 

20 to 40 
8 to 20 
4to8 

under £4 



No. of Owners. 

56,514 

162,218 

584,300 

675,100 

4,673,092 



6,151,224 

The incomes of oilier countries cannot be classified. See 
Tnccnne. 

ASSIGN ATS. — The amount issued by the first French 
Republic readied in 1790 the nominal sum of 360 millions 
sterling; they became so depreciated that a pair of boots 
:ost £300, and a pound of butter £30. 



30 



ASYLUMS^BALANCE OF TRADE. 



ASYLUMS. 

"So. of asylums . 

Na of bc^s .... 

Maintenance 

See Blind, Deaf and Durih. 



United Kingdom. France. 
652 1,105 

104,000 120,300 

. £2,600,000 £2,760,000 



B 

BACON.— See Meat, Pigs. 

BALANCE OF TBADE. — The imports of all nations dar- 
ing 20 years ending 1880 amounted to 12 per cent more 
than exports, which proves that freight and commissions 
add 12 per cent, to the original value of merchandise when 
shipped. Freight averages X8 for every XI 00 worth of 
merchandise carried. 







MiLUOKS £. 


















Snri>ltia 
Imports. 


Surplua 
Exports. 


Imports. 


ExporU. 


1861-70 


1871-80. 


1861-70. 


18n-80. 


20 Yean. 


20 Yews. 


United Kingdom 


2,701 


8,714 


2,129 


2,778 


1,508 


• • • 


France .... 


1,090 


1,560 


1,100 


1,390 


160 


• • • 


Germany . . . 


950 


1,740 


680 


1,270 


740 


• • • 


Russia .... 


270 


490 


280 


480 


• » • 


• • • 


Austria. . . . 


802 


570 


350 


505 


17 


• • • 


Italy .... 


361 


472 


263 


444 


126 


« • • 


Spain and Portugal 


222 


253 


164 


242 


69 


• • • 


Belgium . . . 


805 


562 


246 


441 


180 


• • • 


Holland . . . 


819 


630 


258 


432 


259 


• • • 


Scandinavia . . 


169 


848 


151 


262 


104 


• • • 


Greece, Turkey, &c. 
Europe . . 


183 


174 


225 


159 


• • • 


••2' 1 


6,872 


10,513 


5,846 


8,403 


3,136 


• • • 


United SUtes 


493 


988 


361 


1,122 


• • • 


2 


Canada. . . . 


161 


179 


182 


151 


57 


• • • 


Australia . . . 


289 


402 


191 


848 


157 


• • • 


India .... 


293 


868 


518 


597 


• • • 


454 


China and Japan . 


244 


289 


233 


271 


29 


• • • 


South America 


528 


587 


513 


658 


• • • 


56 


Egypt .... 


73 


52 


184 


186 


• • • 


195 


Java .... 


52 


91 


93 


165 


• • • 


115 


Other coimtries . 
Total . . . 


223 


818 


230 


811 


• • 


• • • 


9,228 


13,787 


8,301 


12,157 


2,557 


• • • 



BALL A ST—BALLOONS. 



31 



BALLAST. — In recent yean the port entries of Europe 
show m declining ratio of Yessels in ballast, although in the 
United Kingdom the ratio has risen. 





Tonnaffa of BiDait 


BstiotoallPMri 




Entries. 


JBntrlea. 


PMts of 

r 










180&. 


1881. 


1865l 


1880. 


■ 






Percent 


Percent. 


United Kmgdom . . 


2,1^,000 


5,076,000 


14 


17 


FnuMi 


280,000 


897,000 


5 


8 


GennasT . 




818,000 


1,705,000 


18 


23 


RumU . . 




1,258,000 


8,118,000 


52 


46 


AwlriA. . 




881,000 


862,000 


26 


19 






856,000 


427,000 


11 


10 




242,000 


1,085,000 


17 


86 


Belginm 
HoUimd . 




21,000 


110,000 


2 


8 




212,000 


71,000 


10 


2 


Damnark , 




110,000 


906,000 


18 


46 


SwMm . 




1,104,000 


1,797,000 


69 


60 


Norwmy 




998,000 


852,000 


70 


45 


Eiinipe .... 


8,321,000 


16,356,000 


21 


20 


United SUWs . . . 

1 


• • • 


3,140,000 


• •• 


21 



BALI/)ONS. — The most remarkable ascents on record 



are- 



Uitc- 


AcroiiHiit. 


1 
Place of Ascent. 


Height. 
Taida. 


Dtn»Ance. 1 
Mile«. ! 

1 


1783 


Montgnlfier . 


Lyons . . . 


2,000 


• • • 


1804 


Gay LiiKsao . 


Paris . . . 


7,700 


• • • 


1836 


. HnlUnd . . 


London . . . 


• • • 


500 


1S59 


Wiae . . . 


New York . . 


• • t 


1,150 


1862 


Glaifther . . 


Wolverton . 


12,000 


« • • 



I)uring the siege of Paris, September 1870 to February 
1871, there were 64 balloons sent up, containing 91 pas- 
tengen», 354 pigeons, and 3 million letters (weighing 9 
ton>). See Acrumiutf Barometer y Sound, 



32 



BANANA— BANKS. 



BANANA. — The most prolific of all fruits of the earth, 
being 44 times more productive than potatoes, and 131 
times more than wheat. 

BANKS.— Since 1840 the banking of the world has 
increased about eleven-fold, that is, three times as fast as 
commerce, or thirty times faster than population* 



A. — Capital Engaged 


IN Banking. 








ICiluohb£. 


Amoont 
perlnha- 










Capital. 


Deposits. 


TotaL 


bituut. 

i 


United Kingdom . . . 


270 


570 


840 


£25 


France 


55 


150 


205 


6 


Germany 


85 


200 


285 


6 


Rnssia 


45 


110 


155 


2 


Austria 


36 


130 


166 


6 


Italy 


81 


60 


91 


8 


Spain and Portugal . . . 


12 


10 


22 


1 


Belgiom 


7 


20 


27 


5 


Holland 


6 


20 


26 


7 


Scandinavia 

Europe ... 


11 


24 


35 


4 


558 


1,294 


1,852 


£6 


United Stotes 


145 


386 


531 


10 


Canada 


17 


18 


85 


8 . 


Australia 

Totals . . 


19 


66 


85 


30 f 


739 


1,764 2,503 


£7 





B.— 


Hates of 


Interest since 1 850. 












1 




1851-60. 


iwi-7a 


1871-80. 


of 90 




— 








years. 


Great Britain .... 


417 


4-23 


3-28 


8-89 


France. . . . 








4-30 


8-65 


3*94 


8-93 


Germany . 










405 


456 


4-30 


430 


Austria 










6-26 


477 


4-79 


4-94 


Italy . , 
Holland . 










5-35 


5*69 


4 85 


5-30 










3 60 


8-98 


340 


367 


Belgium . 










3-62 


3-59 


3-60 


3-60 


Europe 










4-27 


4-30 


371 


4 09 







s 1 




' I 






i i 



i. 
i 



I I 




BANKS. 



as 



C— iMm Am SnoD BMnmi w ail BoncB ih I88O1 



• • 



• • • 






• • • 




aadNnrwaj 



• • • 



fO 
116 



e7 

7 
4 

14 

17 
7 

4 
8 



79 
tl 



17 
8 

S 
4 

12 
S 
8 

1 



77 



62 
24 
26 
18 



M 
28 
70 
28 
50 
88 



£i 4 

8 10 
1 8 

1 i 

1 If 
S 8 

• 

1 10 
8 18 
4 5 
1 8 
8 1 
1 15 



6 


& 













Europe • • • • 
United States . . . 
Spaaiah America . . 

India 

Anstralia .... 
Canada 

TuUU . . 



490 


221 


45 


149 


68 


46 


70 


10 


14 


12 


12 


100 


12 


12 


100 


8 


2 


25 


741 


325 


44 



£1 12 
2 15 
8 6 
1 
4 5 






3 




1 16 



£19 



The Issues and Reserves of the principal banks were as 
follows : — 



Bank. 


Ibsub (Miluoxb jE). 


Bprcir Resertb 

(MiLUOMS £). 


1871-60. 


188a 


1S71-80. 


1880. 


France . . . 
Germany . . . 
RoHia .... 
Anuria. . . . 
United SUtei . 

Totab . . 


27 
94 
50 

121 
65 

153 


27 
92 
50 

116 
66 

149 


26 
67 
31 
81 
15 
31 


28 
79 
31 
28 
17 
68 


510 


500 


201 


251 



BANKS. 



33 



C. — Issue and Specie Beservb of all Banes in 1880. 



United Kingdom . , 
Frmnoe .... 
Gernuuiy ... 
Rani* . . . . . 
Austria .... 

Italy 

Spain 

SwitzerUnd . . . 

Belgiom 

HoUand 

Sweden and Norway 
Denmark . . . . 
Greece 

Europe . . . . 
United States . . . 
Spanish America . . 

India 

Australia . . . . 
Canada 



MiTXiOKB a. 



Issue. 



43 
92 
50 

116 

66 

67 

7 

4 

14 

17 

7 

4 

8 



Besenre. 



83 

79 

31 

28 

17 

8 

2 

2 

4 

12 

2 

2 

1 



Ratio of 
Reserve. 



Issue per 
Inhabitsut. 



77 
86 
62 
24 
25 
12 
28 
50 
28 
70 
28 
50 
33 



6 







£1 4 

2 10 
1 2 
1 8 

1 16 

2 8 

9 

1 10 

2 12 
4 5 

1 2 

2 1 
1 15 












Tibials 



490 


221 


45 


149 


68 


46 


70 


10 


14 


12 


12 


100 


12 


12 


100 


8 


2 


25 


741 


325 


44 



£1 12 
2 15 
8 6 

13 
4 5 

1 16 



£19 



The Issues and Reserves of the i)rincipal banks were as 
follows : — 





IsiiUE (Millions £). 


SPKriK Rkhervb 

(MlLLIUNii £). 


Bonk. 








1871-80. 


1880. 


1S71-80. 


1880. 


England . . . 


27 


27 


26 


28 


France . . . 


94 


92 


67 


79 


Germany . . . 


50 


50 


31 


31 


Russia .... 


121 


116 


31 


28 


Austria .... 


65 


60 


15 


17 


United States . 
Totals . . 


153 


149 


31 


68 


510 


500 


201 


251 



c 



34 



BANKS. 



D.— Rates of Imtsbbst in 1882. 



London • 

Vienna . 
Hamburg 



Bank. 

412 
875 
4*12 



Open 
Market 
8-37 
8-87 
876 
4-00 



Bank. 

Berlin . • . 4*62 

AmrterdAm . 4*50 

Brussels . . 4*50 

St Petersbarg 6*00 



OpsB 
llark«t 

8*87 

4-25 

4*25 

612 



R — Thb Threb Grbat Bakk& 



Bank of England. 
Number of shares . 145,600 

Capital £14,500,000 

Real value of shares £51,200,000 
Ordinary dividend • 10 per cent 



Bank of Pranoe. 
18,300 
£7,300,000 
£23,000,000 
15 per cent 



Bank of Oenaaaj; 

40,000 

£6,000,000 

£9,000,000 

6 percent. 



F. — Banks op England ano France Cokpared. 



Year. 


Millions £. 


Bank d England. 


Bonk of France. 


Iiaue. 


Rcservo. 


lame. 


Reaerre. 


1810 
1830 
1850 
1870 

1882 

! 


21*0 
20*1 
20-4 
245 
25*9 


35 

92 

160 

22*3 

20*4 


4 

8*9 

197 

57 6 

112*2 


1*6 

6*8 

17*9 

498 

842 



G. — Bank of France Discounts. 

MilUona aterling. 





Tenr. 
1839 


Faria. Branches. TotaL 
42 23 65 


Ratio to Popi 
£2 




1847 


53 53 106 


S 




1857 


84 140 224 


6 




1866 


103 158 261 


7 




1881 


220 235 455 

H. — Bank op Prussia. 


12 


1820 . 
1830 . 
1840 . 


Amount of Turn-over 

(Thouaanda omitted). 

. £11,400 

. 85,500 

. 45,200 


1850 . 
1860 , 
1870 . 


Amount of Tan-^rer 
(Tboutanda omitkeoi 

. £77,100 

. 208,000 

. 830,000 



It has now become the Imperial Bank of Germany. 




kaka fa OMntelSM ihMudM bHfwt 



BMite (bt Am, tb» llartff«a Banki liad > otpital of 
la^ nd a iWN ol 80 aaiku itoduifr 

X— Oaovm or «■■ Ba>k or firauirK 
1lM«vildai^BiiiklittiiMnMfoIlowi:— . 
S«H . , <1.IN^0M I 179S . . <ll,aOO,OM 





atuMw*. 1 












Dqudl.. 


BMorJtia. 






17W 


8-* 


*-7 


10-S 


8-S 


1790 


10-0 


8-« 


10^ 


8S 


IBM 


16-9 


M 


81 -4 


8-1 


1810 


21-0 


126 


864 


8-B 


1830 


2SB 


i-1 


26-2 


49 


1830 


»1 


108 


24-2 


f-S 


1840 


IBS 


88 


21-a 


4-8 


18M 


SO-4 


18* 


26-0 


WD 


IMO 


El-fi 


18-8 


28-4 


U^ 


1870 


U-6 


24^ 


SSB 


223 


1880 


«T-I 


SS'i 


84-8 


27-9 


1SS3 


2£-7 


S8-8 


87-1 


ao-4 



K.— Baxkiko xs Sootlakd. 



Tmt. 


ll.u«« t 


P..-^^. 


aHUL 


DtporiM. 


Tutal. 


IMJ 

18M 
W75 
1881 


11 
12 
» 
13 


83 
43 

78 
78 


44 
86 

«6 
88 
87 


18 
80 
86 
24 



36 



BANKS. 



The issue rose from X3, 100,000 or 22 shillings per head 
in 1845, to £5,600,000 or 30 shillings per head in 1882. 

L. — Joint-Stock Banks in United Kingdoil 

In June 1882 there were 186 banking companies, of 
which 120 were English, 10 Scotch, 9 Irish, and 47 Colo- 
nial, whose business stood as follows : — 



Capital 

Reserve 

Value of stock . . . 

Issue 

Deposits 

Cash 

Government securities. 

Discounts 

Assets 





U ILUOHS £• 




English. 


Scotch. 


Irish. 


ColAnial. 


TcUL 




52 


9 


7 


40 


108 


22 


6 


3 


15 


46 


138 


24 


20 


68 


250 


28 


6 


7 


10 


51 


279 


79 


23 


132 


513 


82 


14 


6 


33 


135 


52 


12 


2 


12 


78 


225 


62 


20 


251 


558 


898 


105 


32 


250 


785 



It appears from the foregoing that although the nominal 
capital and reserve employed in banking do not exceed 154 
millions, the shares represent an actual value of 250 millions ; 
the above does not include private banks, 

M. — Increasb op Banking in United Kingdom. 





IIILLIOKB £. 

Capital AND UicPosiTa. 


Amoukt pnt 
Inhabit AKT. 


1850. 


1882. 

• 


18:*0. 


18>2. 


England 

Scotland 

Ireland .•••.• 


207 
36 
17 


660 

103 

43 


£11 

12 

3 


1 

£26 

28 
8 


United Kingdom . . 


260 


806 


£10 


i:23 



The banks of the United Kingdom are owned by 88,000 
shareholders, the average capital to each shareholder being 
XIOOO in ScoUand, £780 in England, and £720 in Ireland. 



ir. — Gold Yaldb op Bank of Ekolaiti) £5 Note, 
1797-1820. 



T«n. 














810 




1S16 




92 


811 


83 


i8ia 


1802-3 


9a 


813 




1817 


1S04-8 


97 


SIS 


78 


131 8-19 


1SW 


91 


81* 


80 


1820 



N. — Bakk-sotb Ibsub of Unitbd Kisodojl 





The 


umndi Omiltod. 


'"Tsim'i^r' 


1B4I. 


»"■ 


ie«z. 


ISIl 


18T4. 


IBM. 


EDgUod . . . 
SootlsDd. 
Iieluid . 

United Kingdom . 


£2M0O 
8,000 
5,900 


£31,200 
6.900 

6,800 


£23.900 

B,eoo 

7,300 


3i 

S-2 
IS 


25 
35 
2i 


S2 

30 

26 
IT 


£37,300 


£13,900 


£41,800 


2? 


HI 



O. — Colonial Bankiko. 



An.™.l,t r 


"iskT 


(flioUMnd* 
OlutlWd). 


P«r Inha- 


ItHl IMi 1 IWJ. 


£9,300 £17,100 £4 
31,500 71,600 15 
33,500 7H00 le 
42,800 93,0001 20 


£6 
25 
24 
34 


£17.700 
30,100 
31.000 
48.100 


7 





r.-Ac 


TRALIAN 


Banks 


IS 18h 


1. 






TBOtHSM OHJIITO. 


EATWP. 


■ IXHJkB. 


IVp~.IU- 


D.«™a« 


A-U. |l4.Wlll^.. 


IXmtH. 


DUCIHOU. 


Victoria. . 
X. S. W«les 
N. Zeakcd. 

1 a AntnliA 


£20.360 
18,770 
9,290 
4.510 
3.108 
2.252 
330 


£18,195 
17,210 
11,180 
5,510 
3,970 
1.G20 
105 


£23,908 
25,390 
14,080 
7,215 
6,520 
2,290 
01 


£22,0.10 
20.405 
10.330 
5,190 
4,115 
2,380 
390 


£23 
25 


£21 
23 
21 
20 
IS 
14 
13 

21 


1 Tow. . 


jL5S,950 


£58,390 


£78,993 


£31,850 


21 



38 



BANKS. 
Q.— Canadian Banes in 1881. 





Thouaakds Omutbo. 


Ratio pcr 

lHHAMTAKt. 


Capital. 


AM«ta. 


IJabilitiM. 


Capital. 


AiMU. 


Quebec . . . 
Ontario . . . 
NovA-Scotia. . 
New Brunawick 


£12,400 

3,600 

1,200 

600 


£25,100 

15,000 

3,100 

1,100 


£15,800 

10,800 

1,900 

600 


£9 
2 
8 
2 


£18 
8 
7 
3 


Total . . 


£17,800 


£44,800 


£29,100 


£4 


£10 



R— Banks in Ukitbd States. 




Period. 


Ko. of Banks. 


Pnid Capital 
(MUUona £X 


• 
lasno 
(lUlliuiia£)u 


1830-39 


835 


53 


21 


1840-49 


760 


43 


22 


1850-60 


1,475 


79 


40 


1861-78 


3,100 


101 


70 


1879-80 


6,360 


131 


70 


1882 


6,813 


145 


71 



Tlicre are 2132 National Banks and 4681 Stato or private 
banks. Deposits and capital, 531 millions sterling, or XIO 
per inhabitant^ against £23 in the United Kingdom. The 
distribution of banks in December 1 880 was as follows : — 



States. 


No. of Banks. 


Capital and 

Dopnaita 
(MillloQs£). 


Amount per 
lithabitant 


New England . . . 

Middle 

Southern .... 
Western 

The Union . . . 


1,080 

1,920 

670 

2,690 


144 

244 

31 

112 


£36 

21 

2 

6 

1 


6,3.0 


531 £10 



The shares of the National Banks are held by 208,000 
persons, showing an average banking capital of £700 per 
shareholder, against £800 in Great Britain. Of 7 million 
shares only 26,000 are held in Europe, of which 7000 in 
Great Britain. 



BANKS. 



39 



The statement of the National Banks for October 1881 
compaxes with that of 8 years before, as followa^ in millions £ 
sterling: — 

OotolMr 1873. October 1881. 

90 • 97 

82 38 

62 67 

118 225 

174 244 



Capital 



^^ - - - »* - 
iMposm • 

Diaooimts 



I)iffomiO0L 
+ 8 percent. 
+ 18 „ 
+ 8 
+ 90 
+ 40 



»» 
If 



ft 



The figures for 1873 represent the effective value in gold 
at the exchange of $88 per $100 greenback. 

The total of banking capital and deposits compares with 
public wealth as follows: — 



JM-Mt^aa 


UiudcamA, 


PUI IXHABITAirr. 




B«nkCaidtaI,ae.| Wealth. 


Bank Capital, Ac. 


Weiath. 


Xew England 
Middto. . . 

Wertem ! 

The Union . 


144 
244 

81 
112 


990 
8,280 

884 
8,182 


£36 

21 

2 

6 


£248 

288 

68 

170 


531 8,336 


£10 


£160 



S. — Banking and Commerce. 





MILLI0H8, £. 


1 

Banking 

RaUoto 

Commerce. 


Bank C&pital 
aud Dcpo-iita. 


Net Imports 
and Exports. 


! United Kingdom . . 

France 

Germanj 

AnstriA 

ItiJy 

Spain and Portugal . . 

Belgium 

Holland 

Scandinavia .... 

Knrope .... 
United SUtea . . . 

Canada 

Anatralia 

The World . . . 


840 

205 

285 

155 

166 

91 

22 

27 

26 

35 


570 

332 

315 

151 

128 

96 

54 

116 

121 

55 


144 
61 
90 
102 
130 
95 
40 
23 
22 
63 


1.852 

531 

35 

85 


1,938 

809 

35 

101 


105 

170 

100 

84 


2,503 


2.383 


105 



40 



BANKRUPTCY. 



BANKBUPTOT. 

A. — Average for Years 1879-81, 



United Kingdom 
France . . . 
Austria • . 
United States . 
Canada . . . 



Ko.of 
FaUures. 



13,720 

5,580 

1,414 

6,715 

920 



Amount 



£31,300,000 

10,200,000 

1,820,000 

16,300.000 

2,730,000 



ROioto 
Ooxnmeros. 



Percent. 
3 

n 

Si 
8 



B. — Failures in England and Wales. 





Annual Average. 


Tears. 


Ifumber. 


Millioiia £ 


1870-72 


6,039 


15-3 


1873-75 


7,766 


21-6 


1876-78 


10,077 


23*5 


1879-81 


11,052 


21-2 


1882-84 


7,263 


18-1 



Average 


Poroentagv 


per Failure. 


o( Aaaela. 


£2,500 


80 


2,800 


29 


2,300 


30 


1,930 


31 


2,500 


29 



The wholesale failures in recent years have been : — 



Tear. 


London. 


Provinoet. 


Scotland. 


Ireland. 


TotaL 


1880 


385 


972 


99 


22 


1,478 


1882 


399 


823 


78 


14 


1,314 


1883 


377 


885 


83 


16 


1,361 



C. — Assets in Bankruptct, England and Wales. 



Aisota. 


Number. 


Percentage. 


1S70. 


1881. 


1870. 


188L 


Under 5 per cent 

5 to 25 „ 
25 to 40 „ 
Over 40 „ 

Total . . 


123 
833 
316 
616 


963 

2,256 

349 

322 


7 
44 

17 
82 


25 

58 

9 

8 


1,888 


8,890 


100 


100 






No. of 




Caaet. 


1870 


5,002 


1880 


10,298 


Avenge 10 je»n 


9,516 



BANKRUPTCY. 41 

D. — Bankruptcy Report, England, 1870-80. 

Amount A^ets. ^|,«,j' 

£17,400,000 £5,300,000 80 per cent. 
16,200,000 4,600,000 28 „ 
20,300,000 6,200,000 81 „ 

The cases liquidated in Court showred that law costs 
absorbed 40 per cent of assets. 

E.— Ireland, 1876-80. 

The aggregate of Court business in the five years was as 
follows : — 

Liabilities . £2,750,000 I Law costs . £245,000 
AnseU . . 805,000 I To creditors . 560,000 

The average dividend, therefore, was 20 per cent. 

F.— France, 1840-81. 

Anncal Avbragk. 



Tcir«. No. of Fftiluros. Ratio of Asseta. 
1840-50 3,480 31 per cent. 

1860-70 6,120 21 „ 

1878-81 5,580 17 

The decline of assets is ascribed to a great increase of 
fraudulent trading. 

The following table shows the number of failures com- 
pared with that of merchants and traders : — 

Yc*r. 

1844 
1S54 
1864 
1874 

Not onlv has the ratio of failures risen, but also the 
average amount per failure. 

G. — United States, 1866-82, Average. 



No. of 


Failed. 


Ritio to 


Faihirc« over 


Merchant*. 


Murchants. 


£2000. 


1,414,000 


3,011 


2*1 per cent. 


52 per cent. 


1,420,000 


3,691 


2-6 „ 


48 „ 


1,410,000 


4,642 


3-3 „ 


43 „ 


1,606,000 


5,508 


3-4 „ 


54 „ 



Tear*. 


Number. 


Amovmt. 


Avorapo. 


1866-72 


2,889 


£17,100,000 


£6,000 


1873-80 


6,560 


32,200,000 


4,900 


1882-84 


8,960 


84,550,000 


3,800 



42 



BARLEY-^BAROMETER. 



H.— Canada, 1879-82. 

Tears. . Number. Amount. ATemgs. 

1879-80 ^ 1,060 £3,080,000 £3,000 

1881-82 625 1,450,000 2,300 

lu the 18tli century the number of bankruptcies in 
England averaged 177 yearly down to 1750, and 460 in the 
50 years following. 

The most remarkable failures since 1760 are described 
under the title of Crisis. 

BABLEY. — The principal features of this crop are : — 



United Kingdom . . 

France 

Germany 

Russia 

Austria 

Italy and Spain . . 
Belgium and Holland 
Scandinavia .... 
Roumania, &c. . . . 

Europe .... 
United States . . . 

Japan 

Egypt 

Algeria 

British Colonies . . 



Acres 

(Tl)ouauidi 

Otnitted)L 



2,590 
3,500 
8,900 
15,500 
5,100 
4,700 
230 
1,300 
2,000 



ToUls 



38,820 
1,700 
2,000 
1,000 
2,000 
940 



46,460 



Cropf 
Ifillion 
Buahals. 



90 
80 
90 
130 
81 
95 
8 

39 
40 



Bushels 
per Inh«- 

bitADt. 



2i 

2 

2 

n 

2 
2 
1 
4 

5 



653 


2 


40 


1 


50 


n 


15 


3 


45 


14 


34 


5 



Bushels 
per Acrt. 



34 
23 

23 
8 
16 
18 
35 
30 
'-iO 



17 
24 
25 
15 

36 



837 



IS 



In the United Kingdom we consume 2 busheb per inha- 
bitant in the form of beer. See Malt, 

BABOMETEB. — In London it ranges between 28*700 

and 30*700, but it has exceeded the latter figure three times 

on record — 

In 1778 30-935 

February 11, 1849 . . . 30-895 

January 18, 1882 . . . 30*983 

Mr. Glaisher's barometer in his various balloon ascents 
marked as follows : — 

MUcsUitfh. Inches. MUes High. Inches. 

1 24-7 4 13-7 

2 20*3 5 11*8 

3 16-7 

He therefore estimates for 10 miles 4*2, and for 15 miles 
1 6 inches. See Meteorclogy, 



BARRACKS^BARRENNESS. 



43 



The mean height of barometer varies according to latitude 
as follows : — 



D«CrMor 




Harometor. 


Desreeof 

Latitude. 




Barometer. 


10 • 


• 


. 29*98 


45 . . 


• 


. 80-00 


» . 


• 


. 80-06 


50 . 


• 


. 29-81 


80 


• 


. 8011 


60 . 


• 


. 29-80 


40 


• 


. 801W 


67 . . 


• 


. 29-67 


It varies according to elevat 


Ion as follows 


• 






Feet 


Mean 




Feet 


Mean 




above Sea. 


Barometer. 


above Sea. Barometer. 


Sea-lerel 





80-00 


Madrid . . 


1,995 


2772 


Rome . . 


151 


2976 


8t R6my . 


5,265 


24-45 


MiUa . . 


420 


29*45 


StGothard. 


6,808 


23 07 


AOSOOW . 


984 


28-82 


Mexico . . 


7,471 


22-52 


GeneTA . , 


. 1,221 


28-54 


BogoU . . 


8,731 


21-42 


Mmiicfa . . 


1,765 


27-95 


Quito. . . 


9,541 


2075 



BABBAOKS. — The death-rate in Indian barracks before 
the adoption of Dr. Farr^s reforms, in 1860, averaged yearly 
68 per 1000 ; in recent years it has fallen to 9 per 1000, 
the difference being equivalent to a saving of 6 per cent., 
or 4200 soldiers per annum. The proper allowance of air in 
barracks is 600 cubic feet per man in Europe, and 1000 in 
India. Horses in England require 1600 cubic feet each. 

The report to Parliament in 1861 showed that there were 
243 barracks in the United Kingdom holding 76,000 men, 
but with accommodation for no more than 54,000 at the 
rate of 600 cubic feet of air per man. The average ranged 
from 290 to 550 cubic feet The new barracks at Chelsea 
are regarded as a model, and cost £296,000, or £245 per 
man, including the cost of site. 

BARRAGES. — There are numerous works of this kind 
on the Seine, Thames, Nile, and other rivers, besides those 
made by the French in Algeria. At St. Denis du Sig, at 
the foot of Mount Atlas, there is a " barrage " 50 feet high, 
built by the French Government at a cost of £20,000. Near 
it is the Habra, constructed by a French company at a cost 
of £160,000, for the irrigation of a farm of 100 square 
miles; the principal breakwater is 130 feet high, 120 thick, 
and 1500 feet long, containing 14 million tons of water, yet 
the sluice can be opened by one man. See L-rigation, 

BABBENNESS. — One woman in 20, one man in 30, that 
is, about 4 per cent, of the population. It is found that 
one marriage in 20 is barren, say 5 per cent. Among the 
nobility of Great Britain 21 per cent, have no children. 



44 



BASTARDY— BEER. 



owing to intennarriage of cousins, no less than 4^ per cent of 
the present nobility being married to cousins. See Mcarriagt, 

BASTABDY.— See Births^ lUegitimacy, 

BATHS. — The use of baths among the workiiig classes in 
London is shown by the receipts at various dates, as fol- 
lows : — 

1850 . . . £9,800 

1860 . . . 25,000 

1880 . . . 41,000 

The baths in Germany are visited annually by upwards of 
150,000 foreigners. See Mineral Waters, 

BATTLES. — The numbers placed hors-de-^omhat are not 
relatively so large as formerly. 





Hon Knfiraged. 


Hors-de-combat. 


RaUo. 


Thrasymene . 


. 65,000 


17,000 


27 pel 


r ocni. 


Cannee . . . 


. 146,000 


52,000 


34 


f> 


Bannockbum 


. . 136,000 


88,000 


28 


n 


Agincourt . 


. . 62,000 


11,400 


18 


tt 


Cressy . . 


. . 117,000 


81,200 


27 


n 


Marengo . . 
Austerlitz . . 


. 58,000 


13,000 


22 


n 


. 170,000 


23,000 


13 


If 


Borodino . . 


. 250,000 


78,000 


81 


>t 


Waterloo . . 


. 145,000 


61.000 


86 


»f 


Alma . . . 


. 108,000 


8,400 


8 


It 


Sadowa . . , 


. . 402,000 


33,000 


8 


i» 


Gravelotte . 


. . 320,000 


48,500 


15 


w 


BEEP.— See 


Meat, 









BEER. — The following table shows the production : — 





No. of 


Million 


Qallonc per 




BreTveiies. 


Gallons. 


Inhabitant. 


United Kingdom . • 


16,114 


1,025 


29-0 


France .... 




8,100 


190 


5-2 


Oermany 








23,940 


880 


19-4 


RoBsia . . 








460 


68 


0-7 


Austria . , 








2,297 


245 


6-4 


I Italy . . . 








200 


20 


0-7 


Switzerland 








400 


16 


6-6 


Belgium . . 








2,500 


170 


81-5 


Holland . 








560 


85 


88 


Denmark 








240 


25 


13-0 


Sweden and Norway , 
Europe .... 


640 


36 


5-8 


50,461 


2,704 


9-2 


United States . . . 


8,298 


540 


10-2 


T 


nta 


1 . 


• 


58,744 


8,244 


9-7 



BEES. 



45 



The stieogth varies as follows : — 

Alcohol. 



Halt per BarroL 
4-5 
4*2 
1-8 
2-9 
1-9 
17 
1-5 



Boiionale 8*2 

Bus's „ 8-4 

Edinbuigh ale . . . 4'4 

Gmxmsss's „ ... 6*8 

London porter . • . 4*1 

„ beer .... 8*9 

Lager „ .... 82 

The consumption in the United Kingdom in 1881 was as 
follows :^ 

Million Gallons per 

Gallona. Inbabitunu 

England 905 34-8 

Scotland 89 10*5 

Ireland 63 12-1 



United Kingdom . 1,007 28*6 

In 1882 one firm brewed 44 million gallons, 570 over 
400,000 gallons each, and the rest under 400,000 gallons ; 
duty 2-08^ per gallon, or £8,700,000 on the amount brewed. 
Exported, 16 million gallons. 

The consumption in France has risen as follows : — 



Million 
Gallons. 

66 

95 

110 



Per 
In)iabitant. 
20 
2-8 
31 



Year. 

1830 
1840 
1850 

The annual consumption in 
been : — 

Million Per 

Gallons. Inliahitant. 

255 44 

215 35 

262 32 



Year. 

1860 
1870 

1880 



Million 
Gallons. 
143 
154 
190 



Per 

Inhabitant. 

4 
4 
51 



England and Wales has 



Period. 

1660-1700 
1701-1750 
1751-1800 



Period. 

1801-1830 
1831-1860 
1861-1880 



Million 
Gallons. 

335 

560 
835 



Per 

Inhabitant. 
30 
33 
36 



Pence. 
3 
5 



Period. 
1701-1800 
lSOl-1880 
1882 



Ponce. 
11 
17 
20 



The price per gallon during 680 years has ruled thus : — 

Periixl. 

1201-1300 . 

1301-1600 . 

1601-1700 . 

Tlie above are according to weight of silver, but the 
nominal price was, for example, in the 13th century one 
penny. See Drinh\ Liquor, 

BEES. — A hive of 5000 bees produces about 50 lbs. of 
honey yearly, and multiplies tenfold in 5 years. The ordi- 
nary value of a hive in Europe is <£1 sterling. Bees eat 
20 lbs. huney in making a pound of wax. 




BEBT-ROOT-BBNEFICES 



Fruos . . 


060,000 


fernuny . 


1,1S1,000 


RDMi* . . 


110,000 


Anrtri> . 


1,E60,000 


Belpnm. . 


!00,000 
140,000 


Denmark . 


90,000 


Greeoe . . 


30,000 


UnltMlSutei. 


S,S00,D00 


ToUl . 


7,421,000 



The largest beeownei in the world ia Mr. Harbison of 
California, who luta 6000 htvea, prodncing 200,000 Iha. 
honey yearly, worth £8000. There are Jn the United States 
70,000 bee^Towers, but the average which they get from 
their hives ia only 22 lbs., whereas the average in England 
is 50 lbs., and some tiives have given as high as 120 Ibi. 

BEET-BOOT. — The production in 1882 was as toUowi : — 

Baot-rnot, Ba*t nirtr. 



The crop ranges from 5 tons of roots per acre in Russia, to 
9 tons in Germany. In England it has given 12 tons per 
acre, equivalent for cattle-food to i tons of hay, and worth 
16 ^tullinga per ton, bnt it has been found too costly in cnlti- 
vation. Experimental growing in Canada has proved most 
successful. It takes about 14 tons of roots in Europe generally 
per ton of beet sugar, the average of saccharine matter being 
7 per cent, as compan^l with 4 per cent twenty years ago. 
BELLS. — The largest are the following : — 

T<ma. 
UontceU . . 13 
Cologn* . . 11 
OxTord. . . 8 
St Fetw'a . 8 

Bell-metal should have 77 parts copper, and 23 tin. 
BBHBFIOES.— See Church. 







Rooea . . 


18 


OlwuU. . 


9 


Tininm. . 


8 


St P.ul'. . 


9 


W<stini]Mt«r 


i 



BEQUBSTS—BILLS OF EXCHANGE. 



47 



Per Daath ol 
Populatioii, 

19Bhillixig8 
3 



19 



BEQUESTS. — ^The annual average of sums left in charity 
in Great Britain, France, and Italy, compared with the 
amount of proved assets, shows thus : — 

United Kingdom • £650,000 £4 

France . . . 1,190,000 6 

lUly • . . 124,000 2 

The income of endowed charities in England has risen 
from £1,520,000 in 1840 to £2,550,000 in 1881. The 
number of testator^ in France leaving charities averages 
4200 per annum, and the amount left by each £290. See 
Charities^ Hospitals, 

liTRT.Tg — Ko fewer than 1326 editions of the Bible were 
published in the 16th century. In the 17th and 18th cen- 
turies it was translated and published in many languages by 
the polyglot press of Propaganda Fide at Rome. In the 19th 
century the English and American societies have printed, 
in the Protestant version, 124 million copies of the Bible or 
of the New Testament, viz. : — British, 74 million ; American, 
32 million; other societies, 15 million copies. 

BICYCLE. — The fastest trips on record are : — Tunbridge 
to Liverpool, 234 miles, 18 J hours ; London to John 
o' Groat's, 800 miles, 14 days. A tricj'cle has run 10 miles 
in 42 minutes. f^T 

In 1882 there were 9800 bicycle riders in London, and 
96,000 in England and Wales. The maxima of speed obtained 
up to the present has been : — 

Miles. Hourt. Mimites. 



10 
20 
40 




1 
2 



34 
12 
32 



llile!9. 
50 
80 
100 



IIr>nr!«. 
3 
5 
7 



Minutes. 
10 
47 
34 



BILLS OF EXCHANOR— The current amount in Great 
Britain has been : — 

Ritio to 

Commerce. 

93 

85 

90 

The discounts are estimated as follows : — 



Year. 


MiUiuii8£. 


Commerce. 


Tear. 


Millions £. 


1830 


96 


100 


1860 


300 


1840 


125 


102 


1870 


400 


1850 


175 


105 


1880 


500 



English banks . 
Scotch banks 
Irish and Colonial banks 
Private discounters . 



Millions £. 
. 235 
. 65 
. 55 
. 145 



;oo 



48 



BILLS OP SALB-^BIRTHS. 



The discounts in the United States in 1879 comprised 
3,200,000 bills for 700 millions sterling, say £220 eaclu 
In France the average is £43 per bilL See Banks, 

BILLS OF 8ALR — The average number in England and 
Wales during the years 1879-81 was 52,900. 



BIRDS, FLIQHT OF. 

Miles 
per Huur. 

. 150 

. 90 



Hawk 
Eider-duok 



Rook 
Pigeon 



per llMitr. 
. 60 
. 40 



See Carrier-Pigeons. 

BIRD'S-NESTS, for soup, in China. There are 9 million 
imported yearly into Canton, value 10 shillings per ounce, 
about 50 weighing 1 lb. 

BIRTHS. 

A. — Numbers in All Countries (1880). 





DaUy. 


Ono Tear. 


Exoevorer 
Deaths. 


England . . • 


2,441 


880,520 


852.460 


Scotland 




842 


124,652 


48.850 


Ireland .... 
United Kingdom 




853 


128,010 


25,055 


3,136 


1,133,182 


426,865 


France .... 




2,561 


936,000 


97,000 


Germany 






4.750 


1.736,000 


592,000 


Russia . 






8,525 


8,116,000 


779.000 


Austria . 






2,328 


1,486,000 


324.000 


Italy . 






2,910 


1,064,000 


228,000 


Spain . 






1,620 


592,000 


115.000 


Portugal 






407 


150,000 


80,000 


Holland 






391 


. 144,000 


49,000 


Belgium 






471 


172.000 


48,600 


Denmark 






171 


62.500 


24,000 


Sweden . 






.880 


139,000 


62,000 


Norway . 






158 


58.000 


29,000 


Switzerland . 






236 


86,000 


20,500 


Greece . 






195 


72,000 


17.000 


Kouinania 

1 






495 


180,000 


40.000 


1 Europe . 


80,734 


11,126,682 


2,881.465 


United SUtcfl 






6,750 


2,100,000 


950.000 


Canada . 






384 


140,000 


60.000 


Australia 






801 


109,000 


66,000 


ToUl 


37,169 


13,475,682 


8,957.465 



BIRTHS. 



49 



B.- 


•BiRTH-BATB PBR 1000 InH/UHTANTS. 




lMl-70. 


1871-80. 


1861 sa 


United Kingdom . 


33-4 


34 3 


33-8 


xmio6 • 






26-5 


25-6 


261 


Gemuuij 








89*8 


39-8 


89*8 


AnatriA. 








89-9 


89-9 


89-9 


Hungary 








42-2 


430 


42-6 


HoUand 








84-6 


36-2 


85-4 


Belghun 








81*2 


322 


81 r 


Denmark 








81-2 * 


31-2 


81-2 


Sweden. 








821 


80 3 


31-2 


lulr . 








87 6 


869 


372 


Spain . 








87-2 


87 2 


37-2 


Australia 








890 


86-0 


37-6 



In the above table, where both decades have the same 
rate, it indicates want of returns before 1870. 



C. — Births 


ACCORDING TO MONTHS (100 par). 




France. 


Germany. 


Bpnin. 


Italy. 


January . . 
February . 
March . . 






105 
111 
109 


103 
105 
103 


114 

108 

n-2 


107 
114 
110 


April . . . 






106 


100 


102 


106 


MaY . . . 






99 


97 


100 


95 


June . . . 






95 


95 


89 


89 


July . . . 

Auguxt . . . 
September 
October . . 






96 
96 
97 
95 


96 

98 

106 

100 


88 

91 

98 

100 


91 

93 

100 

9S 


November . 






97 


100 


97 


98 


December . 




. 1 95 


99 


100 


97 



Percentage of Births according to Seasons. 



Qn After 
Endiu^ 



March . . 
•Tune . . 
September . 
December . 

Total . 



England. 



26-2 
260 
24^ 

23-3 



France. 



27 
24-9 
24 
24 1 



100-0 100-0 



Gcrtnany. 



25-9 
24-2 
250 
24-9 



100-0 



Swedvn. 



26-8 
23-8 
23-7 
25-7 



Italy. 



St. Potera- 
I burg. 



27-5 
24-1 
23-7 
24-7 



25-6 
260 
24-7 
23-7 



100 



100-0 1000 
D 



50 



BIRTHS. 



D, — BiBTHS TO Each Marriage. 





lMl-70. 


lS71-8a 




England . • • 


8-98 


416 


+ 018 


Scotland . 


4-61 


4-43 


- 08 


Ireland 


4*96 


546 


+ 0-51 


United Kingdom 


4-18 


4-33 


+ 015 


France 


8-09 


2-98 


- Oil 


Belgium 
HdUand . 


8.95 


4-21 


+ 0^6 


4-09 


4-84 


+ 0125 


Denmark . 


3-64 


855 


- 009 


Sweden 


4-27 


4-01 


-0^ 



The greatest increase of fertility is in Ireland, the greatest 
decline in Sweden. 



E. — Twins and Triplbts. 

Per Thoiuand Births. 



Per Thouaand Birtha 





Twins. 


Triplets.^ 




"TwiM. 


Trip:eu. 


England . 


. 11-2 


• • • 


Switzerland . 


. 120 


• •• 


Scotland 


. 117 


• • • 


Spain . 


8-4 


• • • 


Ireland . 


. 17-6 


• ■ • 


Belgium . 


9-1 


0-10 


France . 


. 101 


0-12 


Holland . 


. 12-8 


• • • 


Germany 


. 12-9 


0-13 


Denmark 


18-7 


0-24 


Russia . 


. 12-1 


• • • 


Sweden . 


13*6 


0-18 


Austria . 


. 13-4 


018 


Norway . 


11-8 


015 


Italy . 


. 11-8 


0-14 


Iceland . 


14*2 


0*33 



Twins give 108 males to 100 females, and triplets show a 
medium result for France, Germany, and Austria, as fol- 
lows : — 

Birth of 3 boys .... 26"0 

„ 3 girls .... 22-7 

Two boys and a girl . , . 27*0 

Two girls and a boy . . . 24 3 

1000 

This gives 156 boys and 144 girls, that is, precisely the 
same ratio as in the case of twins. 



F. — Decunino Ratio of French Birtds. 



Period. 


Per Mjmt ag«. 


Period. 


Per Marriajc^ 


1800-30 


3-82 


1861-70 


309 


1831-60 


8*20 


1871-80 


2D8 



BIRTHS. 



51 



G. — Ratio of Sbxes, Bastardy, &c 









Per 1000 Blrtbo. 


1 


Male. 


Female. 


Illegitimate. 


Still-bom. 


England . . . 


611 


489 


45 


• •• 


BootlAod . 






614 


486 


89 


• •• 


Ireland. . 






615 


485 


23 


tee 


United Kingd 


Ion 


1 


512 


488 


47 


• • • 


Fnnoe. . . 






513 


487 


76 


46 


Germany . 






514 


486 


84 


41 


Rosaia . . , 






508 


492 


31 


• • • 


Aoftria. . , 






616 


484 


129 


25 


Italy . . . 






517 


483 


68 


31 


Spain . . . 






516 


484 


55 


• • • 


Portugal . . 






615 


485 


156 


• • • 


Holland . . 






513 


487 


85 


43 


Belgium . . 






514 


486 


70 


45 


Demnark . , 






513 


487 


112 


80 


Sweden . . 






512 


488 


102 


29 


Norway 






614 


486 


85 


85 


Switierland . 






512 


488 


46 


44 


Greece . . . 






519 


481 


16 


• • • 


Roumania . . 






621 


479 


• • • 


• • • 


Europe . . . 






513 


487 


62 


• • • 



The ratio of illegitimacy is falling in England ; rising in 
France and Sweden. 

IL — Birth-rate in Cities, per 1000 Inhabitants. 



Alexandria 


. . 4r>-o 


Amsterdam 


. . 367 


Barcelona 


. . 29-2 


Berlin. . 


. . 37-5 


Birmingham 
Bombay . 
Boston 


. 37-6 
. . 25-6 
. . 30-0 


Bradford . 


. . 331 


Breslau . . 


. 377 


Brighton . . 
Bristol . 


. 30-6 
. . 34-5 


BrusKels . . 


. 347 


Biicharert 


. 29-5 


Buda-Ptsth . 


. 35-8 


BucDoe Ay re 


8 . 317 


Christian ia . 


. 34-5 


Copenhagen , 
Dresden . . 


. 391 
. 35-4 


Ihiblin . . 


. 291 



Edinburgh 


. . 32-2 


Norwich . . . 


33-6 


Geneva . 


. . 24-3 


Nottingham 


367 


Glasgow 


. . 37-4 


Oldham . . . 


35-4 


Hague . . 


. 397 


Paris .... 


30-6 


Hamburg 


. . 37-5 


Philadelphia . 


36 


Havanna 


. . 25-4 


Plymouth . . 


327 


Hull. . . 


. 36-4 


Portsmouth . . 


34-4 


Leeds . . 


. 36-8 


Rio Janeiro . . 


35-5 


Leicester 


. 38-4 


Rome .... 


27-2 


Liverpool . 


. 37-6 


Rotterdam . . 


38-8 


London . . 


. 347 


St. Louis. . . 


80 


Lvons . . 


. 260 


St. Petersburg . 


37-8 


Ma<lras . . 


. 39 


Sheffield . . . 


38 


Mailrid . . 


. 37-0 


Stockholm . . 


83 


Manchester 


. 36-9 


Sunderland . . 


39-3 


Munich . . 


. 39-5 


Turin . . . 


31-5 


Naples . . 


. 320 


Venice , . , 


30-2 


Newcafitlc . 


. 36-8 


Vienna . . . 


39-2 


New York . 


. 39-4 


Wolverhampton 


35-9 



53 



BISHOPS. 



L — Births m United KnrQDOMi 1861-80. 



England . • • 
Scotland . • 
Irtdand . • 

United Kingdom . 



Number, TlKNiaaoda. 



1861-70.1871-80. 



7,500 
1^121 
1,468 



10,089 



8,588 
1,238 
1,402 



11,223 



1861-80. 



16,088 
2,354 
2,870 



21,812 



RateptrlOOOInhabiUaU 



1861-70. 



3570 

3570 
26*10 



33*40 



1871-80. 



1861-8a 



35*80 
35*20 
26*50 



34*30 



3575 
35*45 
26-80 



33*85 



Families living in the country have 8 per cent mors 
children than those in towns. Old families have a mari^ed 
tendency to die out in England, Italy, and Prussia, probably 
because of intermarriage with cousins. Among Jevra there 
are 116 males born for 100 females: their ratio of illegiti- 
macy is the lowest in the world, barely 2 per cent After a 
destructive war the births of males predominate in a soi- 
prising manner. 



BISHOPS 



A. — Roman Catholic Bishops. 





Arebbi«1iops. 


Bifthops. 


TMs]. 


United I kingdom 


7 


42 


49 


France 


17 


69 


86 


Germany . 


5 


23 


28 


Russia . . . . 


2 


13 


15 


Austria 


19 • 


51 


70 


Italy 


50 


218 


268 


Spain . . . . 





45 


54 


Portugal . 


8 


15 


18 


Belgium and Holland 


2 


10 


12 


Switzerland 


> ••• 


6 


6 


Greece . . . . 


3 


6 


9 


Turkey . . . . 


3 


12 


13 


Europe 


120 


510 


630 


United SUtcs . 


12 


r>2 


64 


Spanish America 


16 


79 


95 


British America 


5 


25 


30 


Australia . 


2 


16 


18 


India. 


2" 


22 


24 


Armenia, Persia, kc . 


27 


47 


74 


Various missions 


► • • • 


328 


328 



Total 



184 



1.079 



1,263 



BISONSLIND. 



53 



Bi — PBomriHT Bishops of Bbitish Empiri. 



KnglMul . 

BootUoid . 
Ireland 

ColMiie* . 



AidibUliopa. BIfll opi. To*iiL 

2 SO 88 

7 7 

S 10 12 

73 78 



TMl. ... 4 120 124 

The income of EngUsh bishops ranges from £3000 upwards, 
the Aichbiihop of Canterbury haying £15,000 a year. See 

BSBOB. — ^Between 1860 and 1882 more than 15 millions 
were killed in the United States. 

BLAXXSEQ. — ^For boots. The consumption in England 
in 1880 amounted to a value of £560,000. 

BLAbtuiG. — ^The South-Eastem Bailway Company, at 
BoTer, remoTed at one blast 400,000 cubic yards of the cliff 
with 8 tons of powder in 3 chaige& Nitro-glycerine is now 
used, haying 5| times the force of powder. See Explosives, 

BUND. 

Nnmher. Per 100,000 Inhabitant!. 
England .... 24,720 



ScotUnd . 
IreUnd • 

United Kingdom 
Fnnoe 
Gcmuuiy 
Anstria 
Switzerland 
Italy. 
Spain 
Belffiam 
HoUand 
Sweden 
Norway 
Denmark 

Earope . 
United SUtes 

Total 



95 



S.240 


91 


5,936 


111 


83,896 


97 


28,491 


74 


26,170 


58 


82,336 


85 


2,640 


95 


28,100 


99 


85,290 


216 


4,182 


76 


2,410 


61 


4,120 


91 


8,730 


208 


2,450 


126 


203,815 


91 


48,930 


97 



252,745 



81 



The probable causes in those countries with a high ratio 
are — in Norway snow, in Ireland smoky hovels, in Spain 
dusty plains and want of tieea The ordinary ratio of sex 
is 1 1 blind males to 9 females. The French returns show 



54 



BLOOD^BOOKS. 



18 per cent bom blind, and 82 per coni. the result of 
accident or sickness. 



BLOOD. 

A. — Elements op Hcman Blood. 

Man. 
. . 77-8 



Water. 
Albumen 
Ck»lour 
Saline, &c. 



6.2 

141 

1-9 



Woman. 
79-6 

6-4 
12-2 

1-8 



100-0 



1000 



B. — ^Temperature, Fahrenheit. 



Glowworm 


. . 74 


Elephant . . 


99i 


SnaU . . 


. . 76 


Porpoise . . 


. 100 


Shark . . 


. . 77 


Bat ... . 


. 100 


Oyster. . 


. . 82 


Rat . . . 


. 102 


Serpent . 


. . 88^ 


Gat . . . 


. 102 


Man . . 


. . 98i 


Ox ... . 


. 102 


Horse . . 


. . 99^ 


Elk ... . 


. 103 



C. — Iron in Blood. 





Gramtnes 




per Ton. 


Man 


. 610 


Ox 


. 560 



Ok. per 
Cwt 
0-91 
1-00 



Pig 
Frog 



Sheep • 
Hog . . 
Jackdaw 
Sparrow. 
Pigeon . 
Ghicken . 



Onunmes 
per Tun. 

590 

420 



104| 

104{ 

105 

107 

108 

109^ 

111 



Ot. per 

Cwt. 

106 
075 



BODY, GROWTH OF. — Danson's tables of male prisoners 
in English gaols in 1858 and 1878 give the following: — 



Height, inches. 



Wdgbt» lbs. 



Age. 
18 
20 
22 
24 
26 
28 
30 



18^ 
64-3 
65-2 
66-2 
65-9 
66-3 
667 
66*4 



1878. 
64-1 
651 
657 
65*4 
65-6 
657 
65-5 



■N 



1868. 
122 
133 
139 
142 
142 
143 
142 



1878. 
125 
137 
142 
141 
143 
144 
144 



See Anthropometry, 

BOOKS. — About 100 new works are published daily, or 
30,000 per annum, without counting new editions of old 
works. 

A. — Annual Average of New Books. 





1826 32. 


1806 60. 


187S-m. 


Great Britain . 


. 1,060 


3,220 


6.771 


France 


4,640 


7,350 


7,000 


Germany . 


. 5,580 


9,095 


14,560 


United States . 


. M13 


2,165 


2.500 



Total 



12,243 



21,830 



29,831 



BOOTS—BO UNTIES. 



is 



The annual book-fair al Leipzig disposes of 8000 tons of 
books, valued at £1,600,000. 

The aveiage edition of a book being 1000 copies, it 
appears that the above fonr countries print 30 million 
volumes yearly. 



R — Books in thk Unitbd Kingdom, Issued in 1880. 



Tbeology . 


. 708 


Travels 


. 211 


ClMsics 


. 607 


Economy . 


. 204 


Fiction 


880 


Medicine . 


. 148 


Arts . 


. 862 


Poetry 


. 182 


Hiitory 


. 286 


Sundry 


. 1,855 



Tour. 


No. of Machinet. 


1862 


15 


1865 


470 


1870 


1,220 


1875 


2,300 


1880 


8,100 



In 1870 Great Britain exported books to the value of 
X631,000, and in 1880 of £970,000. 

BOOTS. — The American machine enables a man to make 
300 pairs of boots daily, a single factory in Massachusetts 
turning out as many pairs yearly as 32,000 bootmakers in 
Paris. The advance of these machines has been as follows : — 

Million PftlTB 
Boots Yearly. 

15 

45 

100 

150 

The Austrian Government makes 2 million pairs yearly. 
These machines are now in general use. The number of 
bootmakers in Great Britain is rapidly declining ; in 1861 
one for 103 inhabitants, and in 1871 for 126 inhabitants. 

BORINO.— See Diamond-drUl 

BOUNTIES.— Between the years 1690 and 1830 Great 
Britain paid the inhabitants of Belfast and Dundee 28 mil- 
lions sterling to enable them to sell and export Irish and 
Scotch linen at less than cost. The export of linen has 
quadrupled since the bounties were abolished in 1830, the 
average bounty before that year having been £150,000 per 
annum. Bounties on the exportation of grain, in England, 
averaged £160,000 per annum for some years, until their 
abolition in 1805. Sugar bounties prevail on the Continent, 
the annual average being £600,000 in France, £170,000 in 
Belgium, and £150,000 in Holland. The new shipping 
bounties in France (1880) are as follows : — 48 shillings per 
ton for building iron vessels, and 16 shillings for wooden; 



56 



BRAIN^BREAD. 



15 pence per ion per 1000 miles run, on French-built vessels 
entering French ports ; 7^ pence p^r ton for French vessels 
not built in France. The amount paid in 1881 for these 
shipping bounties was £400,000 : the increase of French 
tonnage entries in French ports 20,000 tons, say £20,000 
earned for freight, or one- twentieth of the bounties. 

BRAIN. — The latest classification of races, according to 
Bastian and other experts, shows weight of brain as follow : — 



Scotch , 
Germans 
English 
French . 
Zulus . 
Chinese 



Oi. 
50 
49-6 
49*5 
47-9 
47-5 
47-2 





Os. 


Pawneet 


47 1 


Italians 


46 9 


Hindoo. 


45 1 


Gypsy . 


44*8 


Bushmen 


44-S 


Esquimaux . 


43-9 



Con^pared with size of body, the brain of the Esquimaux 
is as heavy as the Scotchman's. 

The measurement of that part of the skull which holds 
the brain is stated in cubic inches thus : — 



Anglo-Saxon . 


. 105 


Ancient Egyptian . 


. 93 


German 


. 105 


Hottentot 


. 58 


Negro . 


96 


Australian natire . 


. 58 



In all races the male brain is about 10 per cent heavier 
than the female. The highest class of apes has only 16 oz. 
of brain. 

After the age of 50 the brain loses an ounce every 10 
years. Cuvier's weighed 64, Byron's 79, and Cromwell's 90 
ounces, but the last was diseased. Post-mortem examina- 
tions in France give an average of 55 to 60 ounces for the 
brains of the worst class of criminals. 

BREAD. — The analysis of bread gives conflicting results, 
the following being taken from respectable sources : — 





A. 


R 


C. 


Nitrogen . 


C-8 


8 1 


12-6 


Water 


. 430 


87-0 


14-6 


Starch 


. 44-0 


47-4 


65 6 


Sugar 


3-4 


3-6 


4-8 


Fat . 


1-8 


1-5 


1-4 


Mineral . 


1-5 


2-4 


10 



100-0 100-0 1000 

In 1862 the bread supplied to the French army was found 



BREA K WA TER— BRICKS. 



57 



superior in nitrogen to that of other Continental armies, as 
follows, French being 100 : — 



Spanish 



50 
69 



Aostrian 
Dutch. 



70 
90 



Belgian 
Italian 



91 
96 



A sack of flour, containing 280 lbs., will make 368 lbs. 
of bread in England, and 420 lbs. in United States, that is, 
7 lbs. of American* are equal to 8 lbs. of English flour. The 
ingredients for 368 lbs. of English bread are : — 280 lbs. flour, 
3 gallons water, half gallon yeast, half gallon alum, and 4 lb. 
salt 

The consumption is as follows : — 



United Kingdom 

France 

Germany . 

Russia 

Austria 

Italy 

The agricultural peasantry of the United Kingdom con- 
sume of breadstufls (says the Food Jtmmcd) as follows per 
week : — England, 12 lbs. ; Scotland, 13 lbs. ; Ireland, 20 lbs. 
See FooiL 

BBHAEWATEE. 



Pounds Bresd 


Ponndu Brend 


Weekly per 


Weekly per 


Inhabitant. 


Inhabitant. 


m . 6*3 


Spain . . . 7-0 


. . 77 


Low Countries . .7*5 


. 8-2 


Denmark . .7*6 


. 8-4 


Sweden and Norway 6*5 


. 80 


United States . . 7*5 


. 61 


Greneral average . 8*0 



Name. 


Date. 


Tards Long. 


Cost. 


Builder 


Plymouth 


1812-41 


1,720 


£1,550,000 


Rennie. 


Cherbourg . 


1784-1857 


4,100 


3,200,000 


• • • 


Delaware 


• • • 


1,200 


• ■ • 


• • • 


Alexandria . 


1873-76 


2,000 


2,550,000 


Greenw 



The Plymouth breakwater has the same quantity of stone, 
3,800,000 tons, as the great pyramid of Cheops, and encloses 
1120 acres of harbour; Cherbourg, 1927 acres; and Dela- 
ware, 420 acres. See DockSy Barrages, 

BRICKS. — The consumption in the United Kingdom is 
about 3 milliaKls a year, or 250 millions monthly, and in the 
Unitcil States 600 millions monthly. That is, each inhabi- 
tant of Great Britain uses 90, and of the United States, 130 
bricks yearly. The following table shows the consumption 
in Great Britain (without Ireland) during 60 years : — 



58 BRIDGES. 

•v^^ Million Honaes Bricks per 

»«»^ Bricks. Built luhabiUnU 

1821-80 1,210 40,200 78 

1831-40 1,530 66,200 90 

1841-60 1,662 89,100 86 

1861-60 1,884 49,100 86 

1861-70 2,070 63,300 84 

1871-80 2,490 80.300 90 

English bricks measure 9 x 4]^ x 3 inches, and weigh 
8 lbs., or 3 tons per 1000. An Adams or Liddell machine, 
16-horse power, can make 30,000 daily, the average of hand- 
made bricks per moulder being 4000 a day. Fire-bricks 
will resist a crushing force varying from 600 up to 3000 Iba. 
per square inch. See Houses, 

BBIDGEa 

A. — Historical Bridges. 

Nsme. Length (Feet). Date. Orer. 

RatisboD 994 1185 Danube. 

St Esprit .... 2,690 1285 Rhone. 

Cordoba 460 1301 Guadalquivir. 

Verona 365 1354 Po. 

Rialto 99 1688 At Venioeu 

Prague 1,706 1650 Moldau. 

Scbaffhausen ... 364 1758 Rhine. 

NeuiUy 740 1768 Seine. 



B. — Bridges op Great Height. 



Name. 

Bristol . 
Niagara. 



Height Span 

(Feet). (Feet). 

257 703 

190 1,190 



Kama. 

Brooklyn 
Annecy . 



Height 
(Feet). 

210 

656 



Spin 
(Pt^U 
1,620 
636 



Brooklyn bridge was 13 years in construction, and weighs 
34,000 tons : there are 4 cables, each of 5000 wires of ono- 
eighth inch. Carriage-ways 85 feet, including railway lineflL 

Forth bridge (Scotland) has superstructure 42,000 tons 
steel; main girder, 5330 feet; total length, 8100 feet; heaviest 
train deflection, 4 inches; estimated cost, £1,500,000. 



Il[i 



Mm K H 3 n 



^§isal*l -I -'ff ■ -i ■ -iSl" 






ililSllil^siiiSilPli 



|iri'i«l?l:-i 



A bi'id^ surpassing nny of the above is proposed at 
Eio Janeiro, length IC.OOO fetit, and to coat £1,GOO,000, 



6o 



BUILDINGS. 



connecting that city with Nitherhoy, and resting on an 
intermediate island. Iron bridges cost from £100 upwards 
per lineal foot In 1816 Captam Brown built an iron bridge 
of 112 feet, only for foot passengers, at Galashiels, for the 
sum of £40, the cheapest bridge on record. Suspension 
bridges have been been used in China since the time of the 
Emperor Ming, 2000 years ago : they were made of iron 
chains. 

D. — Bridges op London. 



Name. 

London . . . 
Southwark . . 
Wftterloo . • 
Blackfriftra • 
Charing Cross 
Westminster . 
Vauxhall . . 
Hammersmith 

Total . . 



Team. 
1814-30 
1831-47 
1848-70 



Lenfrth 

(Pect). 

900 

800 

1,826 

1,000 

1,865 

1,220 

806 

480 

7,897 



Cort. 


PerPooC 


D«t«. 


£2,000,000 


£2,200 


1831 


800,000 


1,000 


1819 


1,060,000 


800 


1817 


270,000 


270 


1869 


180,000 


130 


• • ■ 


480,000 


890 


1862 


412,000 


500 


1816 


80,000 


170 


1827 



£5,412,000 



£680 



E. — Bridges in France. 

Cost 
. • £18,500,000 
22,500,000 
40,200,000 



Far Aonnnu 
£800,000 
1,830,000 
1,800,000 



56 years . £76,200,000 £1,850,000 

The quickest bridge ever built was by Mr. Dredge, in 
1846, who in 8 days placed an iron bridge, 74 feet span, 
across the Blackwater, Co. Tyrone, Ireland. The greatest 
number of bridges built by one man was by Mr. Telford, 
sumamed Pontifex, who erected 1200 bridges in Scotland, 
between the years 1800 and 1820. 

BUILDINGS. 



Dst«. 







A. — HiSTOBICAU 


N&me. 




Locality. 


Parthenon 


• 


. Athens 


Pantheon 


• 1 


. Rome • 


Coliseum 


. 


. Rome . 


St. Sophia 


. < 


. Constantinople 


Mosque of Omar 


. Jerusalem . 


Escnrial . 


. ( 


. Castile 


St Peter's 


• t 


1 • Rome . • 


St. Paul's 


• i 


. . London 



B.C. 


4S8 


A.D. 


IS 


t> 


70 


M 


582 


tf 


637 


ft 


1570 


»f 


1626 


n 


1710 



BUILDING SOCIETIES--BULL'FIGHTING. 6i 



KanM. 
HoiMM of PM-liAineiit 
GbthttinJ 

Law Coarti • 

Post OfBoo 
(HwiA HooM • 
Hotel d« Villa 
Palais de JtuUoe 



B. — Modern. 

Place. 
Weetininster 

• Cologne 
- London 

• Poria . 
. Paris • 

• Paris . 

. Brussels • 



C— Arches. 



Westminster Abliey 
St FtmVu, London 
j^miens Cathedral 



St. Peter's, Rome 



Breadth 
(Feet). 

33 

41 

42 

55 

84 



0(«t. 
£3,500,000 
2,100,000 
950,000 
1,200,000 
1,600,000 
1,600,000 
1,200,000 



Height 
(F«et). 

99 

82 
147 
165 
147 



D. — Domes. 



JDI.nmeter 
(Feet). 

67 

80 

92 
112 
112 
115 
139 
139 
142 



Height 
(Feet). 

190 

173 

120 
116 
215 
201 
310 
330 
143 



Pantheon, Paris 
Invalides, „ 

Achmet's Mosque 
Caracal la's Baths 
St. Paul's, London . 
St. Sophia, Constantinople 
Santa Maria, Florence 
St. Peter's, Rome 
. Pantheon, „ 

8ee Churches J Pyramids, 

BUILDING SOCIETIES. — There are 1267 societies in 
England and Wales, with 372,000 members; assets, 37 mil- 
lions sterling. 8ee Friendly Societies. 

BULLET, VELOCITY OF. 

OrtiiuB, 
Powder. 
Smooth-bores. . . .110 
Rifle • 60 

BULL-FIGHTING. —In 18G6 the balance-sheet of 99 
bull-rings then in Spain contained the following items : — 

No. C'»st. Aviratre. 

Bulls killed . . . 2,375 £61,000 £26 

Hordes „ . . . 3,561 70,000 20 

Bull-riDg>, rtnt . , 99 130,000 1,310 



Velocity, 
Foet per 8ccond. 

1,500 
963 



Total .... £261,000 

The numl)€r of bull-rings in 1878 was still the same. Tlie 
above does not include the pay of Matadores, Bandilleros, <5k:c 



63 



B ULLION—B URIA L. 



BULLION. — The movexnpnt of precious metals over sea 
since 1860 has been as follows : — 



Great Britain . 
France . . . 
United SUtes . 
Australia . . 
Other countries 

Total . . . 



Gou>» MiLLioxs £. 



Imports. 



1861-70. 



171 

189 

81 

9 

112 



612 



1871-80. 



180 

151 

42 

6 

126 



504 



Exjxirts. 



1861-70:1871-80. 



112 
119 
118 
108 
60 



512 



172 
90 
74 
76 
92 



Net 

Imports. 



1861.S0. 



67 
181 



86 



504 



N«t 



1881-80. 



114 
170 



Silver, Millioxs £. 



Great Britain . . 
France «... 
United SUtes . . 
Spanish- America . 
India and China 
Other couAtries . 

Total . . . 



93 
92 
12 
2 
233 
12 



182 
111 

18 

2 

126 

13 



444 402 



91 
78 
22 
74 
4 
175 



444 



119 
48 
73 
68 
5 
89 



402 



15 
77 



850 



65 
138 

• • • 

239 



Total, Millions £. 



Great Britain . 
France . . 

United States . 
Australia . . 
Spanish-America 
India and China 
Other countries 

Grand total 



264 

281 

43 

9 

2 

233 

124 



812 

262 

60 

6 

2 

126 

139 



956 I 906 



208 


291 


82 ■ 


197 


138 


208 


185 


147 


• • • 


108 


76 


• •• 


74 


68 


• • • 


4 


5 


850 


235 


181 


• • • 


956 


906 


... i 



179 
170 
138 

239 



During the first decade the interchange of precious metals 
was equal to 12 per cent, during the second to 8 per cent, 
of the commerce — that is, of the sea-borne merchandise — of 
the world. This is due to telegraphs and the use of cheques. 
See Gold^ Silver^ Money, 



BUBIAL. — The ordinary depth of graves is : — 



England 

France 

Austria 



5 ft in. 

5 M 6 „ 

6 .. 



If 



>i 



Germany 
Russia 



6 ft 3 ia 
6 ,. 10 „ 



See CetneieineSf Funerals, 




BURNT— BUTTER. 



63 



BUBHT. — ^The number of lives lost by fire in England 
and Wales in 1878 was 619 males, and 859 females, without 
counting deaths from explosions or scalds — that is, 27 per 
10^000 deaths of the population, or one in 360. See Deaths. 





Tuiia. 


Lbs. per 
MilchOoir. 


GosisaiDpUoiny 
Touo. 


Lbaner 


United Kingdom . 
Fnuioe .... 
Germany. • . . 
Rnmift . • . . 
Anatria .... 

lUly 

HolLmd .... 
Belgium .... 
Scandinaria . . . 

Enmpe • . • 
United States . . 
Canada .... 

ToUl . . . 


90,000 
90,000 
160,000 
90,000 
88,000 
12,000 
46,000 
20,000 
55,000 


50 
45 
55 
20 
88 
17 
175 
90 
68 


205,000 
65,000 

160,000 
86,000 
88,000 
12,000 
10,000 
15,000 
40,000 


18 
4 
8 
2 
5 
1 
6 
6 

11 


651,000 

870,000 

84,000 

1,055,000 


48 
62 
70 


681,000 

850,000 

24,000 


6 
16 
12 


55 


1,055,000 


7 

1 



The average product of a milch cow in England, in milk, 
butter, &c, is about £11, as compared with £15 in Holland. 
The price of butter in London since 1730 has been : — 



1730-1790 
1791-1815 
1816-1840 



Pence. 
IS 



1841-1860 
1861-1880 
1881-1888 



Pence. 
121 
16 

18 



The various kinds of butter gives the following analyses : — 

Ratio of 

Caaeine. 

16-2 

10-6 

7-8 



Deroniihire . 

N<irman 

London 



f« 



Inle of AViglit 

Jcrnc-v 

OlenniNr^rine 



Fnt 

827 
82-4 
471 
67-5 
86 3 
78-5 
860 



Water. 

16-2 
12-6 
424 
24-0 
8*8 
10-4 
10-0 



VariouR. 

M 

50 
10-5 

8-6 

90 
IM 

40 



Total, 

100-0 
100-0 
1000 
1000 
1000 
100 
1000 



6-9 
8-3 
25 
06 



An English cow giving 1800 quarts milk per annum pro- 
duces 140 lbs. butter, consuming 4 tons hay, which contain 
1G8 lbs. fat. See Coics. 



CABLES— CALENDA R. 



OASLES. — For shipping, see Anekort: telegnphu^ se« 



OABS. — There are 9700 in Londoa, and 6500 in Paris : 
the former average 80,000, the Utter 60,000, passengen 
daily. The medium fare earned per passenger is 15 pence 
in Paris, 18 pence in London. The earnings in London per 
cab ate 19 shillings a day in "the season," 9 the rest of the 
year, or 12 shillings all the year round. Of all males who 
die in England, one in 260 is killed by a cab or other Tehicle, 
and of all females one in 2550. The ratio of these deaths t« 
the general mortality is as follows : — 









■xr 




0«.u.t 






. 12 


Maneherter . 


. 24 


Sheffield . 


. 17 


Dublin. 


. S3 


Glugow . 


. 1» 


LoDdoD 


. 37 


LivBtpool . 


. 21 


Lm(U . 


. 79 


The value of articles left in 


cabs in London 


and handed 



r to the police at Scotland Yard, averages £21,000 per 

The cost of cabs in Paris to their owners averages i francs 
a day for the driver and 2 francs for the maintenance of 
each horse, say 5 shillings a day for one-horse cabs. See 
Convei/aneet. 

GAIiENDAB. — 1. Jewish, 3S3 days : the Jewish year 
5644 begins on October 2, 1883. 

2. JuhuB Ceesat'a, 366 days, ac. 46, commenced in March. 

3. Mahometan, 355 days, a.d. 622 : the Mahometan year 
1300 began March 1, 1883. 

4. Charles IX., a.d. 1564, commenced 1st January. 

5. Pope Gregory XIIL, A.D. 1582; now used except in 
Russia. 

6. The Bussian year begins on January 13 of our calen* 
dar. The Gregorian calendar was adopted in England in 
1752, before which date the year began on March 25, which 
would now bo April 5. 

For the purpose of finding the day of the week of any event 
the student will be facilitated by knowing the day on which 
the year began. The following table shows for 280 years past 
the day of the week on which the 1st of January fell : — 




E...dv 


Hoodqr. 


T— U,. 


WidDMiUr. 


Tbundv. 


FriAir. 












J 601 


1802 


1603 


im 




1605 


1606 


1607 


1608 




1W9 


ISIO 


1611 


laia 




1613 


1614 


1«16 


1616 




1617 


1618 


1619 


1620 




1621 


1622 


1623 


1624 




1625 


KM 


1627 


1628 




1629 


1630 


1631 


1S32 




1633 


1634 


1635 


1636 




1637 


163S 


163S 


1640 




1641 


1642 


1643 


1644 




1S4S 


1646 


1647 


1648 




1649 


1650 


1651 


1652 




1653 


1654 


1655 


1656 




1667 


1658 


1669 


1««0 




1661 


im 


1663 


1664 




16U 


1666 


1667 


1663 




1669 


1670 


1671 


1672 




1673 


1674 


1675 


1676 




1677 


1678 


167V 


1680 




1681 


16S8 


1683 


1684 




1686 


1686 


1687 


1688 




1689 


1690 


1691 


1692 




16S3 


1694 


1695 


1696 




1697 


1693 i 


1699 


1700 




1701 


1702 


1703 


1704 1 




1705 


1706 


1707 


1708 




1708 1 


3710 


1711 


1712 




1713 


1714 


1715 1 


ITld 




1717 


1718 


1719 


17:iO 




1721 


1722 


1723 


1724 




1725 


1726 ' 


17-jr 


1738 




1729 


1730 


1731 


1732 ' 




17s:i 


1734 


1735 


1738 




1737 


1733 


17^9 


1740 




1741 


1742 


1743 






1745 


1748 


1747 


1748 




1749 


1750 
1753' 


1751 
1754 


1752 
1755 


17S6 




1757 


1758 


1759 


1780 




17S1 


1762 


1763 






17'-5 


1768 


1787 


17(18 




1769 


1770 


1771 


1772 




1773 


1774 i 


1775 


177S 




1777 


1778 


1779 


1780 1 




I7.H1 


17S2 


1783 


1784 




1786 


1T&6 


1787 


1788 




1789 


1790 


1791 


17M2 




I79S 


1791 


1795 


17y6 




1797 


1798 


1799 


1800 


1801 


1802 


1803 ' 


1S04 




1805 


1806 


1807 


1808 




im 


isio 


1811 


1812 




1813 


1814 


1813 


ISIS 




1817 


1818 


1819 


1820 1 




1H21 


1822 


1S23 


1824 




1825 1 


n-k 


low 


1828 




1S29 


1830 


1831 


l«^-2 




1833 


1834 


1^35 


18M 




18:17 
1S43 


1838 
1844 
IS 19 


1839 
1850 


1810 . 

1HI5 

li-51 


is'ie 
ipr.2 


1811 

1817 


1842 ' 
1818 i 
1S53 ■ 


I^M 


1855 


1856 




1K'.7 


18S3 


1859 1 


ISrtO 




1861 


1M2 


1833 


1861 




l»r;5 


1666 


1867 


1M>8 






1370 . 



C6 



CAMELS. 



1 


8 


15 


22 


29 


5 


12 


19 


26 


• •• 


5 


12 


19 


26 


• •• 


2 


9 


16 


23 


30 


7 


14 


21 


28 


• •• 


4 


11 


18 


25 


• • • 


2 


9 


16 


23 


30 


6 


18 


20 


27 


• • • 


3 


10 


17 


24 


• • • 


1 


8 


15 


22 


29 


6 


12 


19 


26 


• • « 


3 


10 


17 


24 


31 



In connection with the preceding calendar, it will be easy 
by means of the following table to find the day of the week 
of any event : — 

January 
February 
March , 
April . 
May . 
June . 
July . 
August 
September 
October 
November 
December 

Allowance must be made for Febraary 29 in leap-years, 
which were those preceding the blank spaces in the previous 
calendar. 

OAMELS. — A camel has twice the carrying power of an 
ox ; with an ordinary load of 400 lbs. he can travel 12 or 14 
days without water, going 40 miles a day. They are fit to 
work at 5 years old, but their strength begins to decline 
at 25, although they live usually till 40. They are often 
fattened at 30 for the butcher, the flesh tasting like beeL 
The Tartars have herds of these animals, often 1000 belong- 
ing to one family. They were numerous in antiquity, for 
the patriarch Job had 3000. The Timbuctoo or Meharri 
breed is remarkable for speed, and used only for couriers, 
going 800 miles in 8 days, with a meal of dates or grain 
at nightfall. Kapoleon conveyed 1500 infantry on camels 
across the desert from Cairo to St Jean d'Acre. 

Camel, in engineering, signifies an instrument invented by 
the Dutch for floating vessels over sand-banks. The vessels 
sunk at Sebastopol in 1854 were removed after the war by 
means of Colonel Gower*s camels, which had a lifting power 
of 5000 tons. 

OANAL-TRAFPIO. — The yearly average per mile is in 
tons: — 

Germany, 6,000 I England, 8,800 I United State^ 10,000 
France, 6,400 | Ruiitia, 9,000 ] Suez. . . 60,000 



A-- 


-Canals 


AND NaTIGABLE RiTKHS. 






MlLBI. 


P.rlM 


QuuU. 


R..«n. 


Towl. 


^ll«. 


tTnited Kingdom . . 


3.13* 


1.786 


4.910 


4 








3.150 


i,HO 


8.390 


4 


G«niuu);. 








J, 320 


15,780 


17.080 


8 










873 


S0,e42 


21,815 


1 


AnrtrU . 








413 


2,925 




1 


Italr . 








320 


1,690 


1.910 


2 


















Portnpd. 










470 


470 




H(^d '. 








S35 


710 


1,246 










930 


340 


1,270 


6 


Deniawk. 








200 




200 


1* 


aireden uJ Nocwkj 




100 


4C0 


HO 


i 


11.236 


61,038 


62.273 


2 












16.850 


20,180 


1 


CuumU . 










2,820 




1 


BnuU 










22.210 


22,210 


1 


iDdU 








2.210 


2,600 


4.840 




Chin. . 








6.270 


8,800 


9,070 


i 


Trt 


al 






22,filO 


99,318 


121,928 





The average coat of making canals haa been X9600 in the 
United Kin^om, £10,000 ia Fiance, £9800 in the United 
States, and X15,500 in Canada, per milo. 

B. — R&markablb Canals. - 



Dtu. 


NODHL 


IKIJ-. 


C«t. 


ForU.lo. 


Country. 


I«8 




160 


£680,000 


£4,250 


France. 


1776 


Brid^ewatci 


33 


880,000 


9.050 


En^iUnd. 


1785 


Eyder. . 


26 


610.000 


19,500 


Denmarlc. 


1822 




' 60 


1,140.000 


19,000 


Scr.tUnd. 


1825 


Helder . 


' 60 


900.000 


15,000 


Holland. 


1825 


Krie . . 


363 


1.820,000 




Uoited StatM, 


1830 


CiDciniut! 


, 306 


610,000 


2.000 






Hid«u . 


' 132 


800.000 


6,060 


CuukdiL. 




WelUnd . 


. 41 


1,400.000 


34.150 




1832 


BurpinU, 


, 158 


2,220.000 


14,050 


Fninca 




BengJ . 


; BOO 


2 000,000 


2.200 




1863 




92 


17,030,000 


185,000 


Kgypt. 


1874 






2.030,000 


145,000 


HolUna 



68 



CANALS. 



C. — Suez Canal, 



Tear. 

1870 
1875 
1880 
1881 



Shipa. 

486 
1,494 
2,026 
2,540 



Ton*. 

436,000 
2,940,000 
4,845,000 
5,460,000 



Average 
Tonnage. 

900 

1,960 

2,150 

2,145 



Feeik 

£206,000 
1,156,000 
1,630,000 
2,049,000 



Length, 92 miles ; depth, 26 feet The canal was 13 years 
in construction. Tolls average X860 per vessel, or 11 shil- 
lings per ton of net tonnaga Steamers go-tlm>ugh in 40 
hours, of which 17 steaming Tugs are provided for sailing 
vessels at a charge of X200. The saving to commerce by 
reason of the canal is above 4 millions sterling per annum, 
that is, 2 millions after payment of the fees. The flags of 
vessels passing through, since 1870, have been 77 per cent. 
British, 9 French, 4 Dutch, and 10 per cent of other 
nations. 

The returns for 1882 show receipts £2,421,000, from 
which deducting £1,200,000 for working expenses, the net 
profit is equal to 7 per cent on the total cost of the work. 

The cost of construction was as follows : — 



Preliminary expenses . 
Machinery . 
Excavation .* 
Docks and harboors 
Transport, buildingn, &c 



Total 



£3,800,000 
2.200,000 
7,700,000 
1,400,000 
1,986,000 

£17.036,000 



The British Government owns one-fifth of the shares of 
the canal, having bought 176,602 froyi the ELhedive in 1876, 
for £3,976,600, being 12| per cent premium. The coupons 
having been cut off, the Khedive pays the interest till 1892. 
The Canal shortens the voyage between England and the 
East by one-third ; that is, it enables two vessels to do the 
same work that would require three by the Cape of Good 
Hope, the distance in nautical miles being as follows : — 



London to 


By CanaL 


By Cape. 


Saving Mil 


Bombay 


6,330 


10,595 


4,265 


Madras 


7,330 


10,880* 


8,500 


Calcutta 


7,960 


11,450 


8,500 


Singapore 


8,845 


11,670 


8,825 



The proportions of Eastern and Southern trade passing to 



CANALS, 69 

and from Great Britain through the Suez Canal appear as 
follows : — 

Britiah Trade with BjCanaL By Gape. Total. 

AmtnUa . . . £12,000,000 £48,000,000 £65,000,000 

China andJapui. 23,000,000 2,000,000 25,000,000 

Indian Ac. . . . 69,000,000 15,000,000 84,000,000 



Total . . £104,000,000 £60,000,000 £164,000,000 

The value of what passes through the Canal is equal to 
one-eeyenth of the total foreign commerce of Great Britain. 

D. — Panama Canau 
The estimate of works is as follows :— 



Clay . 

Rode 

Sabnarine 

Subsidiary canals, kc 

Dam at Gamboa . 

Piers, floodgatei*, &c. 



62 15d. £3,875,000 

11 9a. 4,950,000 

9 15s. 6,750,000 

8,000,000 
4,000,000 
3,920,000 



Total £20,495,000 

The clay excavation costs 25 per cent, more than in making 
the Suez Canal, the average for wliich was a shilling per 
cubic yard. The number of workmen averages 3000, and the 
death-rate is said not to exceed 30 per thousand per annum. 
It is expected to finish by 1888. The length will be 46 miles, 
including a tunnel of 4 miles or 7000 yards, which will bo 
100 feet wide by 160 feet high, which is estimated at some- 
thing over 5J millions sterling, or £800 per yard, being four 
times as much as per lineal yard of the Mont Cenis tunnel. 
When completed it will save about 10,000 miles of voyage 
between Europe and the Pacific, and a fee of 20 shillings 
per ton on half the amount of traffic that passes through the 
Suez Canal will amply repay the outlay. 

R — Canals Projected. 



Locality. 


Mile*. 


Estimated Cost. 


Per Mile. 


Alexandria and Suez . 


. 160 


£ 


£ 


Manchester and Liverpool 


44 


6,200,000 


120,000 


Malacca 


. 66 


4,000,000 


60,000 


Bfjrdeaux and Narbonne 


. 255 


22,000,000 


87,000 


Corinth 


4 


1,200,000 


300,000 


Dniester and Vistula . 


. 460 


21,000,000 


45,000 


Black Sea and Caspian 


. 310 


9.000,000 


80,000 



70 



CANOE. 



F. — French Canalbl 



isoo 
isis 
isso 

1S47 
1S70 



Hiks. 

7M 

890 

1,450 

2,890 

M50 



Capital Cost. 
£4,600,000 
7,700,000 
15,100,000 
27,800,000 
81,400,000 



The traffic, counting one ton per 60 
follows : — 



miles, 



1849 
1859 



9.200,000 
12,100,000 



1869 
1879 



£6,100 

8,600 

10,400 

10,300 

10,000 

has risen as 

Tana. 
17,060,000 
18,130,000 



G. — XJkitkd States Canals. 



i 




Mnt 






Tons 


1 










OoaKMO- 


Carried 

rrboQ- 

MUKbL 


Bwnlaca 


R 


laU... 




TotaL 


perMlk. 


New York . . 


608 


857 


965 


16 


7.770 


£430 


PennsTlvania . 


629 


477 


1,106 


11 


6,100 


515 


Ohio .... 


674 


205 


879 


4 


840 


60 


MaryliuMl . . 


194 


• • • 


194 


2 


1,310 


870 


New Jenej . . 


171 


• •• 


171 


2 


1,860 


750 


lUinoia . . . 


102 


• ■ • 


102 


n 


750 


220 


Vll^l* . . . 


43 


197 


240 


2 


4,045 


4v)0 


i Other SUtes . 
1 


94 


728 


822 


H 


2,368 


424 


; ToUl . . 


2,515 


1,964 


4,479 


44 


25,043 


£355 



The earnings per mile are computed on the canals in use. 
In the United States water>carriage averages 4 shillings |)er 
ton per 100 miles, in France 18 shillings. The canals of 
tlie IJnited Kingdom carry 30 million tons per annum, and 
earn 2 shillings per ton net over expenses. 

The Imperial Canal of China is the longest in the world, 
and the greatest in point of traffic : its length is 2100 miles, 
including river sections (or 825 miles the canal proper), and 
it connects 41 cities situated on its banks. The next in 
importance is the Yishney, in Russia, 1434 miles (iacluding 
a part of tlie Volga), by which St Petersburg is connected 
with the Caspian Sea, the value of merchandise carried 
amounting to 22 millions sterling per annum. Russian 
canals carry goods worth 105 millions sterling yearly, and 
employ 300,000 boatmen. 

OANOE.— The Rob Roy, which navigated 3000 miles of 
European rivers, was 13 feet long, 26 inches wide, and 
12 inches deep. 



CAPITAL. 



71 



CAPITAL. 

A. — Capital and Income op Great Britain.* 



ValuAT 


DfttA- 


Capital, 
Millions £. 


Income, 


Capital per 
Inhab. 


Income 






MilUona £. 


per Inbab. 


Petty . . 


1664 


250 


42 


£45 


£8 


Daveiuuit . 


1701 


490 


55 


90 


10 


Young. . 


1770 


1,100 


122 


153 


16 


Pitt. . . 


1800 


1,800 


230 


170 


22 


Golqiiboon 


1811 


2,180 


250 


180 


21 


lAytrpocl . 


1822 


2,600 


280 


186 


20 


Pebrer. . 


1833 


8,750 


350 


150 


14 


Porter . . 


1840 


4,100 


480 


152 


18 


LeTi, fte. . 


1860 


5,560 


760 


195 


26 


MuUudl . 


1882 


8,720 


1,247 


248 


35 



B. 


Elements op British Capital. 






MiUlans£. 


Per Inbab. 


Aliqaot Parts. 


I860. 


1882. 


1860. 


188S. 


1860. 


1882. 


Houaes 


1,160 


2,280 


£41 


£65 


20-8 


26-2 


RAilwaya . 




348 


750 


12 


21 


6-3 


8-6 


Shipping . 




42 


120 


2 


4 


0-8 


1-4 


Bullion 




95 


143 


8 


4 


1-7 


1-6 


Lands 




1,840 


1,880 


65 


53 


330 


21-6 


Cattle, &c. . 




460 


410 


16 


12 


8-3 


4-7 


Merchandise 




210 


350 


7 


10 


3-8 


40 


Foreign Loans 




420 


1,100 


15 


31 


7-6 


12-6 


Furniture . 




580 


1,140 


20 


32 


10-4 


131 


Roads, Works, kc 


405 


547 


14 


16 


7-3 


6-2 


Total . 


» • 


5,560 


8,720 


£195 


£248 


1000 


100 



For other countries, see Wealth, Income, 

C. — Increase and Distribution of British Capital. 



England . 
Scotland . 
Ireland 

United Kingdom . 



Millions £. 


Capital per 
Inbabiumt. 


Aliquot Parts. 


1840. 


isn. 


1840. 


1877. 


1840. 


1877. 


3,320 
196 

308 


6,552 
970 

438 


£210 
81 
38 


£262 
277 

83 


86-8 
51 
8-1 


82-3 

12-2 

5-5 


3,824 


7,960 


£147 


£239 


1000 


100-0 



tMglxnd till 1770, Great Britain IbUO and 1822, United Kingdom frum 1S3^. 



72 



CAPITAL, 



The above table is based on the Probate Court returns for 
1840 and 1877, but the real ratio for Scotland in 1840 was 
probably 6 per cent, of the United Kingdom, as mortgages 
were not then counted in that country. 



D. — Brittsh Capital in Stocks and Sharehl 



National debt . 

Colonial debts . 

Foreign „ . 

British railways 

Foreign and Colonial 

Banks 

Docks, gas, &c . 



Total 



MiLUOMB £. 



Amntmt Qaoted 

on Stock 

Exchange. 



762 
220 
2,016 
730 
825 
272 
125 



4,950 



Amount held 
in Great 
Britain. 



700 
200 
400 
700 
275 
260 
120 



2,655 



Interest 

Kamed in 

GrMt BriUin. 



21 
10 
22 
30 
14 
15 
10 



122 



E. — Capital Called up in 12 Years : All Nations. 



1 

Tears. 


MlLLIOITB £. 


Loans. 


Compauiaa. 


Totil. 


AnnuMl 1 
Average. | 


1871-74 . 
1875-78 . 
1879-82 . 

Total . 


930 
520 
430 


1,230 
420 
820 


2,160 

940 

1,250 


540 

235 : 

312 1 

1 


1,880 2,470 


4,350 1 862 1 



Great Britain provided about one-fourth of the total ; some 
estimates say one-thinl. 



F. — New Capital Requirements, 1879-82. 





Amount in 




Amoimt in 




MiUinna £. 




Milli(»na iL 


Great Britain 


182 


Spain 


25 


France 


801 


Portugal . • 


11 


Grermany 


38 


Switzerland 


17 


RuKsia . 


107 


Belffium . 
HdUand . 


27 


Austria • 


75 


14 


Italy . . 


40 


United SUtes . 


. 210 



CAPTURES^CARRIER PIGEONS. 



73 



0AFTUBE8. — Durmg the wars with Buonaparte the 
British navy captured or destroyed the following : — 



Ships of the line 
Frigates . 
Corvettes 
Brigs 



156 

382 

662 

1,806 



TotAl . . 2,506 

In the Franco-German war the Germans took from France 
7234 pieces of cannon, including 3485 field-guns : they also 
took 446,000 prisoners, of whom 384,000 were sent into 
Germany, including 11,860 officers. 

GABBONATE OF LIME.— The numher of grains per 
gallon of water in the following rivers is : — 



Danube, at Vienna . 8*37 
Seine, at Paris . . 11*30 



Rhine, at Bdle . . 1279 
Thames, at Battersea 15'10 



CABBONIO AOID.— The quantity exhaled in 24 hours:— 



Pervon. 
Oirl . , 
Boy . . 
Woman . 



Age. Ob. £xhAle<L 
10 9 

10 10 

19 12 



PcTRon. 

Boy. 

Man 



Asre. 
16 
28 



Oz. Exhaled. 
16 
17 



The quantity varies according to exertion, viz. :- 



SWping . . . . 
Walking 2 miles, per hr. 
3 



f» 



n 



If 



Oz. per 
Hour. 

0-6 

21 

80 



Riding . 

Swimming 

Treadmill 



Oz. per 

Hour, 

4 
4*4 
65 



OABBIAGES. — The number used in Great Britain has 
increased since 1812 faster than wealth, as appears on com- 
paring the licenses with the number of persons paying 
income-tax on more than £200 a year : — 



Tear. 


Carriages. 


Otct 
£200 Income. 


Rntio of 
Camajfos, 


rnrriasres per 
1000 Inhiibituita 


1812 


63,130 


. 39,765 


158 to 100 


5 


1830 


85,060 


• • • 


• • • 


5 


1S60 


245,000 


85,530 


287 to 100 


11 


1870 


825,000 


130,375 


250 „ 100 


12 


1880 


463,000 


210,430 


221 „ 100 


15 



CASBIER PIOEONS.— In 1877 the newspaper A"rt^*owa/f 
of Paris had 10 pigeons which carried despatches daily be- 
tween Versailles and Paris in 15 to 20 minutes. In Kovem- 
ber 1882 some pigeons, in face of a strong wind, made the 



74 CATS-CATTLE. 

distance of 160 milee, from Canton Vaud to Farie, in 6} 
hours, or 25 miles pei hour. 

CATS. — The number in the United Kingdom is fully 7 
miilions, although a remarkable decrease has been noticed 
in many places, especially seaports, probably owing to the 
demand for exportation. They came into England before the 
Conquest, for the tariff of indemnity, in the 10th century, 
valued them at two pence, being equal to tn'o hens or two 
gallons of beer. SouUiey mentions that the first settlers in 
Brazil paid £300 for a cat, and for kittens, their wei^t in 
gold-dust. An offer of £500 for a Penian cat at the Syden- 
ham Cat Show in 1869 was refused. 

CATHOLICS. — See Roman Cathoiiet, BeliyiM. 

CATTLE. 



A.— N 




All ConsTRiBB 


K 1580 


m- 






TB..™!™ 






"C«w^ 


Hor«., 


8h«T^ 


Pig.. 


United Kingdom . . 


a,905 


2,905 


27,896 


*,ifto 


FrtUlM . . 






11,<B0 


2,8^3 


23,370 


e,Bio 


Garmanj . 








i6,;so 


3,360 


26,200 


7,130 


RuHim . 








22,770 


19.160 


48,820 


10,514 


Auatrift . 








13,183 


3,7S0 


21,413 


7,080 


Itkly 








3,490 


653 


e,S80 


1,570 


Sp«-n . 








3,090 


t90 


22,300 


4,465 


Fortunil . 








&30 


08 


2,417 


«58 










1,482 


ST9 


898 


337 


Balglam . 








1,242 


283 


6S6 


632 


DeSn^k. 








1,313 


852 


1,720 


604 


Sweden . 








2,237 


4B8 


1,503 


417 


Nor«»y . 








1,017 


152 


1,686 


101 


Greece . 








258 


97 


2,292 


30 


RomnuiU 
Enropo 








3,600 


eoo 


6,180 


S,SIO 


31,352 


32,563 


193.766 


44,948 


United SUte* 








35.9ae 


11,202 


36,193 


47.634 


Cuutdft . 








2.702 


86S 


3,330 


1.42S 


A(ut»lm. 








7,803 


i.oas 


66,915 


615 


Riier Pitta 








18.390 


e,i50 


79,230 


382 


C»p« Colony 








1,330 


S41 


11.880 


164 


Al^ri. .' 








1.20* 


ibO 


8,788 


300 


TheWOTi 








158,767 


62,437 


394,602 


95,648 



K — Ratio of 


Cath* to 


100 Ikhabitants. 






Co«. 


Bh»p. 


Plit^ 1 


1»M. 


ISM. 


ISU. 


1880. 


IWS. 


1880. 


UBHad ElDgtkm . 


27 


!R 


112 


80 


10 


» 














14 


IS 


a«nn«ir- 






S3 


S4 


flS 


55 


12 


IS 










27 


66 


62 


17 


13 


Antrik . 






BO 


S4 


56 


56 


27 


19 


'^ ; 






IR 


12 


35 


26 


10 


6 






10 


18 


100 


146 


7 


28 


P-t«gJ. 






19 


13 


50 


66 


19 


21 


Bollud . 






42 


87 


21 


22 


17 


8 








27 


22 


ts 


n 


11 










SO 


70 


SO 


90 


10 


26 


Swwlai . 






40 


SO 


42 


33 


15 


9 


Nwny . 






67 


G3 


70 


90 


26 


6 








42 


37 


26 


14 


12 


12 


Gneca . 






20 


15 




136 


14 




Sbttw . 






60 


45 




160 


102 




Bmnunla 






40 


37 


HO 


67 


19 


16 


Eorope 






S2 


29 


70 


63 


16 


15 


UDitedSUte. 






91 




108 


70 


114 


94 ! 



The numerical iiictease in Europe ivas as follows ; — 

IBM ISM. Katlo of InCT 

Cowi . . 82,707,000 91,530,000 10 per a 

SbMp . . 181,360,000 104,151,000 7 „ 

Pigi . . 39,096,000 45,091,000 15 „ 

Population in Europe rose 22 pec cent, in the f 
interval. 

C— Cattlb is Ukitkd Kingdom, 1835-81. 



,«. 


K,« 


UlCTHOL-. 


»»), 


A« 


iHiuiitM 


"» 


Oiwt. 


BbHP. 


Pip. 


cu»-, Bi,..r. 


rip.. 


1835-40 


6,331 


22,270 


2,260 


1,328 


8.C70 


l,5f>-2 


1841-46 


6,918 


26,110 


2,313 


1.386 




i*W 


i,riH6 


1840-50 


6.907 


28,866 




1,449 


li 


im 


1,622 




7.261 


30.730 


2.685 




r/ 




1.7fi8 


1856-SO 


7,777 


32,111 


2.910 


1,619 


\-l 


■■\M> 


],!I73 


1861-65 


8.248 


33.802 


3,0if7 


1,734 


i; 


f7^ 


2,015 


1866-70 


8,835 


35,200 


3.104 


1,816 


i; 


w,:, 


2,071 


1871-75 


9,081 


31,060 


8,080 


1.903 


i: 


in 


•Alii 7 


18:«-81 


9,506 


31,770 


3,120 


1,994 


iii 


lUO 





76 



CA TTLE. 



D. — Cattle Reducbd to a Common Denomination. 

The unit is a cow or horse, and sheep or pig^ are counted 
ten for one : — 



1 


Cattle i 
(Million 
H«d). 


Valne in 
Millions £.; 


Valuo to 

Each 

Inhabitant. 


Head CatUe 

per 100 
Inhabitanta 


United Kingdom 


15-9 


235 


£6 14 





45 


France 




17-2 


212 


6 1 





49 








22-4 


230 


5 2 





50 


Russia 






451 


845 


4 12 





61 


Anstria 






19-7 


205 


5 11 





54 


Italy . . 
Spain 
Portugal . 
Holland . 




, 


51 
6-4 
1-0 
1-9 


52 
57 
11 
33 


1 18 
3 10 

2 13 
8 5 








18 
39 
22 

47 


Belgium . 
Denmark . 




• 


1-6 
1-9 


30 
31 


5 8 
15 18 






29 
99 


Sweden 




. . 2-9 


42 


9 15 





66 


Norway . 




; 


1-4 
0-6 


21 
6 


11 
3 9 






72 
34 






• 


5-0 


48 


12 





125 


Europe 
United Stotes 




148-0 
56-4 


1,558 
878 


! £5 4 
1 7 10 






49 

110 


Canada 




4-0 


35 


; 8 





91 


Australia . 




15-7 


66 


; 24 





573 


RiTerPUte 




. ! 32-2 


62 


24 





1,076 


Cape Colony 
Algeria 






2-7 
2-4 


19 
24 


17 
8 2 






246 
81 


The W.»rld 




■ 


261-4 


2,142 


£5 19 





70 



K — Cattle in United States. 





Thousand. OmiUed. i^S-aSTaiS 

1 


185a 


186a 

8,592 
17,030 


187a 


188a 


18C0. 


1880. 

25 
47 


Milch cows . . 
Other „ . . . 

Total cows . 

Hones .... 
Asses, kc . . . 

Horses and asses 

Sheep .... 
Pigi 


6,390 
11,394 

17,784 


8,943 
14,890 

2M33 

7.155 
1,132 


12,444 
23,482 


27 
55 


25,622 


35,926 


82 

20""" 
4 

"24" 


72 


4,331 
564 


6,253 
1,155 

7,408 


10,364 
1,811 


21 
3 


4,895 

21.722 
30,353 


8,287 


12.175 

35,193 
47,685 


24 


22,474 
33,512 


28,481 
25,133 


71 

106 


70 
96 


All cattle* . 


27.887 


38,629 


87,482 


56,389 


, 123 


1 112 



* Keduc«d to o»mmon denominatioii, aa iu Tabic D. 



CA VALRY— CENTENARIANS. 
OATALXT. 







Aimj. 


TWOMt. 


T«op.n: 








■Sn^™. 


OroUBciUin. . . 


18.000 


9-5 


6 


e 


Vnna, .... 


68,000 


140 


18 


2i 


0«niiuj 


BT.OOO 


16-0 




20 






10-a 


1] 


G 


Aiubik .... 




18-e 


U 


14 


lUly . . ■ . 
Sv-h, . . . . 




9-1 


13 


63 


13,000 


14'6 


8 


22 




3,000 


9-0 


S 


43 


HoUud .... 


4,000 


6-2 


10 


IS 


Belgium. . . . 


G,000 


10-8 


s 


18 




2,000 




10 


6 


Sweden mod Xorway 
Enrope . 


7,000 


U-8 


u 


12 


359,000 


J2'0 


12 


11 


United State* . 

1 Total 


8.000 


30-0 


2 




121 


11 1 8 



The last colamn iudicatea the number of troopers, on peace 
footing, compared with the number of horses in each country. 
CEMETEEIES. No ^^ loo.ooo 

England . , . 11.304 15 

W»le. ... 958 71 

Fnnce . 38,041 101 

London has 22 cemeteries, with an aggregateof 2210 acres — 
that is, an acre for 1700 inhabitants. Besides those above 
stated for England and Wales, there are 1411 cemeteries that 
have been closed by order of Council. See Burials, Funerals. 
OENTBNAHIAHS. — The most remarkable were: — 1. 
Countess of Desmond, killed by falling from a cberry-tree, 
in her 146th year ; 2. Thomas Parr, died after a dinner-party 
at Lord ArunJers, aged 152 ; '6. Cardinal de Sails, who re- 
commended daily exercise in all weathers, age 110; 4. John 
Riva of Venice, who chewed citron bark daily, died aged 
116, leaving a Eon of 14 years. 

Lejoncourt, in the 18th century, published a list of 49 per- 
sons who Lad died between the .iges of 130 and 175 years. 

Besides the foregoing, Mrs. Ann Butler (nee Winn) died 
at Portsmouth, January 1883, aged 103 years, daughter of 
Admiral Winn: also at Ruabon, Wales, in March 1883, 
^frs. Betty Lloyd, aged 107, ber funeral being attended by 
two of ber children over 80 vears. ^^ 




73 CHARCOAL—CHARITIES. 

OHABOOAL. — To mako a ton will be required of wood 

as follows ; — 

Tona. I Toiu. I Taa& 

0>k . . . *■* \ B«alt . .6-1 BMi . 6-9 

Chertnut . . 46 | Elm . . G'2 | Pine ... CD 

For heating power 12 Iba. charcoal are equal to 10 lbs. 
coal or 13 lbs, coke. It ia much naed in America, France, 
and Italy. The ironworkg of the United States consume 
600,000 tons charcoal yearly, the yield of 50,000 acres, the 
average being 12 tons per acre. At Noirmouti«r«, in France, 
200 fumncea are constently at wui^ making charcoal from 
seaweed, 20 tons of fresh weed or 4 tons of dry ptodndng 
1 ton of charcoal, value 10 shillings. In Iielondib ia often 
made from peat 

CHAJUTIEa 
A. — Ch&ritablb Revbndzs in Unitid Kinqdoh. 
Subwriptioni, kc .... £S,<00,O0a 



Iriib endowmaDt* .... 270^000 

Tolftl £10,010,000 

—Charitable ExFKHDiTDnB in United KrHODOE. 

Ctwritj *ch(m1« £1,200,000 

Aiylunu and home* .... 1,000,000 

Bible ■ocietiei 2,010,000 

HoipitoU 1,300,000 



C. — London Charitieb, ] 





Nan 

IBM. 


b.r. 

Vm. 


ThOUHUdl OlBilUll> 




isse. 


1881. 


Orphuiagc. .... 
Homes for a^ 
A»ylumi for blind, fto. . 
HoapiUll Ul<1 dUpenuria 
Cbuity echoola 
BlUeMiwiun* 


181 

!2S 
B 
S2 
80 
11 


270 
SSI 
11 
187 
105 
113 


£100 

es 

25 
301 
*00 
ISO 


£158 
770 
1S6 

Boe 

460 
1,8»1 


ToUl . . 


182 


1,003 


£1,683 


£i,iai 




CHEESE. 79 

London charities averaged 12 ahillings per inhabitant in 
1859, and 22 shillings in 1881. Hospital Sunday collec- 
tions in churches average £30,000 for city hospitals. 

D. — English Charitabls Endowments, 1876. 

18S7. 187Il • 

G^ntal. . . £42,600,000 £51,800,000 

Income. . . • 1,940,000 2,198,000 

1876. 

OftpiUL Income. 

ReftlesUte . . £81,100,000 £1,558,000 

Stodn .... 20,200,000 640,000 

ToUl . . . £51,800,000 £2,198,000 

The real estate comprises 154,000 acres of land and some 
house property. 

E. — Frknoh CHARnrss. 

Endowments £2,400,000 

Annoal bequesti 1,194,000 

Stmtesabeidy 460,000 

Donations 1,600,000 

Total. * £6,554,000 

F. — Italian Charities. 

Endowed capital .... £65,300,000 

Income 8,640,000 

CoHt of management .... 1,760,000 

Net prooeeda for charity . . . 1,880,000 

G. — Charitablb Bequests per Annum. 

p-r tfinftft Po*" Million £ 
Country. Amount. A-ilt. of National 

^^'•- Eamingn. 

r nited King Jom . . £660,000 £4 £0 10 6 

France . . 1,190,000 6 12 

Italy .... 124,000 2 090 

See UospitaU, 



A. — Component Parts. 





ClicMter. 


P.irmji. 


Brie. 


Dutch. 


Gniyere. 


\V.atfr . 


. 30*4 


30-3 


340 


41-4 


321 


Nitn»;3'cn 


8-0 


7-9 


61 


7-0 


8-0 


F;it 


86-6 


311 


63-3 


42-8 


41-8 


VarioiM . 


25-0 


807 


. 7-6 


8-8 


181 



100-0 100-0 100-0 100-0 



1000 



8o 



CHEQ UES^CHESTN UTS. 



B. — ^Production and Consumption. 





TOKS. 


Lb*, eon- 








■iiiBA(l i^r 




Production. 


CoDMiiiii^on. 


Inhabitant. 


United Kingdom 


126,000 


216,000 


13 


Fnkno6 • 






15,000 


50,000 


8 


Germany . 








80,000 


80,000 


4 


Austria ? . 








45,000 


45,000 


3 


Italy? . 








14,000 


21,000 


2 


Switzerland 








40,000 


22,000 


18 


Holland . 








40,000 


10,000 


6 


United States 




> < 




117,000 


50,000 


2 ' 


Canada . 




• > 




83,000 
510,000 


16,000 


9 


Total . 


510,000 


4 

1 



It tikes a gallon of milk to produce 1 lb. of cheese. Tlie 
Camembert cows in France average yearly £36 per head in 
cheese. In Canada the average value of cheese is £7 {kt 
milch cow — that is, 280 lbs. at 6d. 

GHEQUES. — The use of cheques compared with money at 
various dates and places shows thus :-r- 



Date. 


PL-xce. 


Percent 


Cheques. 


Notes and Cuii 


1839 


London 


98-2 


6-8 


1859 


If • • . 


96*8 


8-2 


1881 


«« ... 


98-9 


11 


1859 


Provinces . 


47-3 


527 


1872 


„ ... 


68-2 


81-8 


1881 


England and Walea . 


970 


3-0 


1881 


New York . 


98-7 


1-3 


1881 


Western States . 


817 


18-3 


1881 


United States . 


91*6 


8-4 


1881 

1 


irnitcd SUtes Bank^ . 


94-4 


5t5 



By referring to Clearing- Howfe^ it will be seen that the 
cheques paid in London and New York in one month aggre- 
gate 1270 millions sterling, which is much in excess of all 
the gold and silver coin in existence. See Bullion^ Mvney^ 
Clearing- Hotuse. 

GHESTNUTa 

Franee. luly. 

Acres .... 1,220,000 1,226,000 

Bushels .... i:s20<i,000 23,100,000 

Do. per 100 inhabitants . 40 65 



CHILDBIR TH—CH URCH. 8 1 

The French crop is valued at 3, the Italian at 4, millions 
sterling; the average yield in France 12, in Italy 18, hushels 
per acre. Italy exports 500,000 bushels. 

OEOLDBIBTH, DEATHS IN. — The average for 20 years 
in England and Wales has been 32 per 10,000 births — that 
is, 1^ per cent of all mothers die sooner or later in child- 
birth. See pages 147, 148. 

OHIMKEY.— The highest in the world is that at Port 
DundaSy Glasgow, 454 feet 

OHIHOHONA, or JESXHT'S BABK 

A. — Annual Pboductiox. 

Lbs. 

Pern 8,900,000 

India 2,200,000' 

Jmva 110,000 

Jamjucft 21,000 

Total . . . 11,231,000 

B. — Indian Plantations. 

planted, TrvnUf* Tree* Crop, lAm. 

^^ LocaUty. (Thouaands). Bark. 

1860 Nilghiri ... 640 180,000 

1861 Darjeeling . . . 4,680 878,000 
1869 Ceylon. . . . 77,000 1,260,000 
1875 Burmah ... 2 200 

ToUl . . . 82,222 1,818,200 

Indian hark yields from 4 to 5 per cent of sulphate of 
quinine, but the superior quality introduced into Java by 
Mr. Charles Ledger gives from 6 up to 15 per cent The 
])lantations in India and Ceylon are valued at 5 millions 
sterling. 

London imports 8 million lbs. yearly, and such is the demand 
that the price in Bolivia has doubled since 1 870, being now 
48. per lb. Some Germans have planted near La Paz 600,000 
trees of the Ledger or Caupolican species. 

GHOLEBA. See Plague. 

CHUBOH. 

A. — Church of England, Income and Distribution. 

Tithen £4,054,000 

Committee grantfi .... 776,000 

Other ■ources .... 978,000 

Total £5,803,000 

F 



S2 



CHURCH. 



Bishops 
Canons 
Rectors 
Curates • 

See Tithes. 



Clergy. 



Ka 

33 

166 

. . 11,780 

. 5,050 



InoomM. 
£168,000 

240,000 
3,880,000 

565^000 



PerHaad. 

£5,100 

M40 

380 

112 



Number of Livings. 

Proprietor. Ko. 

Crown 967 

Noblemen 5,357 

Bishops 2,088 

Various 4,476 

Total 12,888 

The Ecclesiastical Report for 1880 shows that in 40 years 
the Commissioiiers have expended 22 j- millions in creating 
new endowments to an annual value of £746,000 in aid of 
4700 distressed parishes, say £160 each. The Commis- 
sioners distribute about £700,000 a year in creating new 
benefices, to an average amount of £23,000 per annum. 
Balance still in hand, £8,200,000. The above tables do 
not include collegiate endowments, worth £550,000 a year. 
Total clergy of Church of England 19,000, including 2000 
schoolmasters. The Church of England has, moreover, 232 
clergymen in Scotland, 820 in Irekmd, and 2700 in colonies 
and foreign countries, making a grand total of 22,752. 



B. — Catholic Church in British Empire. 



England . 

Scotland . 

Ireland 

Canada 

Australia . 

India 

Other colonics 

Total 



BiHliOpt. 

15 
6 
28 
24 
16 
22 
20 

131 



Priests. 
2,112 

306 
3,290 
1,210 

376 
1,179 

315 



Churches. 

1,188 
295 
2,760 
1,050 
787 
700 
240 



8,788 



7,020 



Lailj. 
1,066,000 

318,000 
3,952,000 
2,150,000 

584,000 
1,318,000 

466,000 

9,854,000 



The average income in the United Kingdom is £400 fr»r 
a bishop, and £80 for a priest In India it is £260 {icr 
bif^hop, and £36 per priest In Canada and Australia it is 



higher than in England. 



C — Pbotestaht Chdbgh im Ikeland. 

NntDb«ro( derg; . , S20 I DoDKtioiu . . £118,000 
NombcrofUhj . 635,100 Total inoome . 248,000 
Endowment . . £130,000 | Endowed c&piUl . 8,260,000 

Then are 12 bishops, vho receive £41,500 per annum, 
vrengo £3600 each. 

In IfoTember 1880 the reaidtie of property formerly be- 
longing to the FiDteatant Church in Ireland was valued at 
12 miUiona, producing a revenne of £574,000, to be devoted 
to purposes of general utility or beneficence. 

D. — NovBEB OF Chubchs IN EkoiiAkd and Wales (1883). 



Chmeh of Eoglud 
Hethodltf. . 


11,678 
11,614 
S,M8 
2,248 
896 


Roswo Cktbolic , 
Qtuker 

Jewub 
Varioui 


ToUl . 






SS,916 



In the above are not included 364 Roman Catholic chapeh 
attached to religious houses, possessing no marriage licence. 



E. — NnMBKB OP Chubcbes in United States. 





Chunbu. 


Kt.. 


Laity (Tli'iunuidi 
Omliti^d). 


^ig^'- 












jsro. 


issa 


1880. 


1S70. 1 isao. 


Omltled). 


B^irt. . . . 


ia.B8a 


24,784 


16.401 


6.460 


8,532 


£8.400 


Mctbodiri. . . 


21,33? 


28,281 


16,769 


8.160 


10,944 


14,100 


P«.bj-t*ri.n . . 


7,071 


10,474 


8,026 


8,375 


8.664 


10,600 


Roman Catholic. 


8.808 


6,976 


6,366 


8,983 


6,sn 


12,200 


Lutheran . . . 


1.H6 


6,666 


8,103 


826 


2.740 


1,200 




2.822 


4,aai 


8,658 


1,082 


2.2es 


1.200 


Congtegitional . 


2,715 


3,689 


3.589 


1,395 


1,384 


6,100 


uSilTBrethreii 


S,601 


8,104 


S.564 


1,041 


1.41U 


7,200 


637 


2,573 


2,563 


330 


1,1«8 


400 


UDit»ri«n. . . 


SIO 


342 


891 


194 


172 


1,200 


Quakcn . . . 


662 


6^1 


876 


280 


272 


800 


JtWi .... 


1G3 


269 


20'i 


73 


70 


1.000 


Monnoiu . . . 


171 


651 


8,B06 


120 


440 


200 


Variou. . . . 


E,3»l 


1,154 


8,824 


11,808 


10,841 


7.2DO 


Total . . . 


63,082 


92,167 


77,230 


38,115 


50,166 


£70,800 



84 CHURCH. 

F.^Chttbch in Frakcs. 

Clergy 42,543 

SiBten of chAiity, ft& . 126^400 

Church endowed inoomes, • . £190,000 

Schools, oonventB, aaylums • • £800,000 

The capital value of endowments for churches, schools, 
convents, and asylums amounted in 1880 to £23,300,000. 
The annual State suhsidy is £1,740,000, equal to one shilling 
per inhabitant, or £40 a year for each joiest. The ordinary 
income of a Cur6 is £80. 

G. — Chuech Pbopbrtt in Italy. 

The Italian Government confiscated properties worth 55 
millions sterling, of which nearly half has been sold, viz, : — 



Obfiibd. Ii 

Sold (1868-80) . . £21,200,000 £1,4»),000 

Held by State . . 88,900,000 1,240,000 



Total . . £55,100,000 £2,690,000 

Out of the above income the Italian Government pays 
£428,000 per annum to 32,590 monks and nuns, say £13 
each. The Pope has always refused the allowance of 
£120,000 a year offered him, and is maintained by Peters 
pence from sll nations. The number of parochial cleigy in 
Italy is 20,067, of whom 2236 have less than £30 a year 
income. 

H. — Church in Austria. 

Biflbope . . 98 I Friars . . 9,600 

Priesta . . . 55,200 I Nuns . . . 5,200 

The Church forests and other properties are valued at 19 
millions sterling. Total church revenue, £1,890,100, the 
highest income being £30,000 per annum to the Archbishop 
of Olmutz. Priests average £30 a year. 

I. — Church op Russia. 

Bishope . • ^^1 Convents . • 550 

Parish priests . 49,200 | Cbarches . . 85,400 

The State subsidy is £800,000 per annum, besides which 
the Church lands give a revenue (\f f.\7 to each priest 









CHURCHES. 


1 


85 


K- 


— Chubohes in Australia. 










Churches, 




Churches, Hinisten 


Laity. 


per 100,000 
Inhabitants. 


Churdi cl BoglMKi 


I 1,898 659 


982,000 


142 


791 878 


581,000 


136 


MeUiodiiti . 


1,608 859 


399,000 


402 


Presbjteriaoa 


, 1,046 870 


864,000 


285 


Variom 


1, 


170 889 


585,000 
2,861,000 


218 


Total . 


013 2,155 


210 




Churches. 


Ministers. 


Sunday 
Schools. 


New Sooth Wal68 


1,880 


706 


1,285 


Yietoria . 


2,843 


759 


1,557 


Sooth Amtralia 


725 


165 


570 


New Zealand . 


558 


277 


860 




172 


76 


100 




819 


139 


112 


Wert Aostralia . 


I . 


71 


33 


40 


Total 


6,013 


2,155 


4,024 


OHUBOHBa 








A. 


— Churchbr an» 


Clergt. 


Church en. 




Churches. 


Clergy. 


per 100.000 
lohabitanU). 


England . 


35,916 


41,320 


144 


Ireland 






4.540 


4,110 


88 


France 


1 




39,314 


42,543 


105 


Germany . 


1 < 




37,720 


81,910 


84 


Anttria 


« 




86,180 


61,240 


98 


Russia 


i 




42,670 


49,330 


55 


Italy. 


» 




22,260 


40,150 


81 


Spain 






18,600 


42,765 


112 


United States 




92,167 


77,230 


181 


Anstralla . 




6,013 


2,155 


210 




B. — T.ARGK8T Churches. 




Kame. 


City. 


Square 
Yiuxla. 


Persons. 


St Peter's . 


. Rome 


. 13,600 


54,000 


Dnomo . 


. Milan 


9,200 


37,000 


St. Paul's 


. Rome 


8,000 


32,000 


St. Paul's . 


. London 


6,500 


26,000 


Cathedral 


. Antwerp . 


6,000 


24,000 


St Sophia . 


. Constantinople . 


5,700 


23,000 


Notre Dan 


ae . 


• 


Paris . 


4,200 


21,000 



GIDE& See Apples, 











« 




m™. 


^ 




_ 


D-*. 


.«-^ 


Aleundrik . . 


S33 


46-0 


8*-2 


108 




Algien . 






62 




801 




sii 








826 


867 


237 


isi 


49-9 


Antweip. 






182 




247 












S32 




211 




64* 


BuMlou 






260 


29'i 






63-0 


Bdbrt . 






185 




28"a 




6a-i 


Beriin. . 






1,129 


87-6 


27 ■« 


oi 


4S-3 


BuminKhtm 






402 


ST* 


19-8 


17-8 


48-3 


B«nb.y . 






644 


25-S 


337 




81-8 


BonWii 






212 




267 




67-0 


Botton . 






363 


so'b 


23« 


6-is 


48-4 








123 








54-4 


Bndford. 






184 


83-i 


2ii 


12-0 




BraiUa . 






273 


377 


32-6 


B-2 


46-7 


Brighton. 






lOS 


30-6 


190 


IK 




BrUtol . 






207 


846 


19-8 


14-» 


Bl'-T 


BnuufU . 






407 


347 


23-9 


10-8 


607 








222 


29-6 


24-5 


60 


46-4 


Bijd>-Fe>th 






870 


86-8 


35-2 


0« 


476 


Boeooi Ayre 






212 


317 


30-1 


1-6 


62-8 


C«ro . : 






815 








7M 


C>IcutU . 






429 




3ii 




82-4 


Chicgo . 






603 




20-2 




45-9 


CbrUtunlk 






120 


aV's 


18-8 


167 


41-6 


CiDciDDftti 






256 




20-2 




647 









819 








se-i 


CopeDhagen 






235 


39-1 


22'l 


17^ 


46 6 


Drnden . 






221 


364 


254 


10-0 


49-1 


I>ublin . 






350 


20-1 


271 


20 


60-1 








229 


32-2 


20-2 


12-0 


47-J 


Florence . 






168 








69-2 


Frwkfort 






138 








49-6 


OeiMT* . 






69 


24 8 


2i'-2 


s'l 


627 


Q«Da>. . 






179 








611 


GlHgOW . 






612 


37-4 


25-3 


12-'l 


49-8 


H.«ue . 






118 


397 


23 '3 


16-4 




Hombuis 






454 


37-5 


2('6 


]3-0 


48fl 


H>ranu. 






230 


25-4 


457 




791 


HuU . . 






156 


36-4 


23-8 


126 




Jeroulem 






£8 








62-6 


Le«di. . 






310 


se's 


21-6 


15-2 




LokMtai. 






123 


38 4 


21-8 


166 




I^[«0 . 






l*** 




281 


... 


4<l"4 











F« 


««««»ta™. 


''T^ 






mr.^ 


I»«b. 


L>= 


LilDk .... 


130 








73-3 


Uibon . 






£21 








61 '4 


Liireipool 






5GG 


876 


2fl-7 


10 9 


50-8 


Lcndott . 






3,S32 


84-7 


21-2 


13-5 


60 8 


te;: 






377 


26 


£47 


1-3 








39S 


39-0 


S8'8 


0-2 


ei'i 


Madrid . 






3M 


37 '5 


S7'4 


0-1 


58-2 








649 


Bti-O 


25-5 


11-4 


48-8 








870 
















SflO 




28'-b 




68-3 


UJbauM 






281 








57-0 


M«a<» . 






212 




30-9 




60-9 


HlUn. . 






821 




30 -a 




651 


MoDtml. 






117 




37 




44-6 


Moacow . 






694 








40-0 


Munich . 






230 


si'-'s 


32'8 


, flV 


48-4 


N.pl« . 






491 


820 


33a 




eo-3 








145 


36-8 


21 '8 


15fl 


... 


New OrlfUi 






2IS 




82-7 




69-1 


New Yort 






1,243 


34-6 


20-2 


e''4 


51-8 


N.Atingbsm 






187 


36-7 


2-2-4 


14-3 




OlilUm . 






115 


35-4 


22-8 


laa 




I'^eimo . 






245 




38-6 




63-1 


F.ri. . . 






2.289 


ao'i. 


28-e 


i'''9 


61-3 


Philkdeltihia 






668 


aofl 


20-5 


B'5 


621 








128 


844 


19-7 


14-7 




(Jn-beo . 






SO 




239 




40'3 


Qnito . . 






B4 








60-9 


Rio JMieiro 






275 


35"5 


30'i 




77-2 


Kome. . 






301 


27-2 


211-8 


0-4 


00-5 


Rottenkm 






163 


38-8 


23-3 


15-5 


61-0 


Roan . 






lOS 




31-3 






StLoata. 






851 


30-0 


19-3 


loV 


65-b 






703 


37-8 


61-4 




8D'S 


S»FrHK>>co 




234 




18-1 




OS-2 


Sheffield . . 




2S4 


3S-'0 


21-6 


]6-'4 










163 


330 


24-7 


8-3 


42'3 








117 


3S'3 


209 


18-4 




Sjdn*r . 






222 








66-8 


Timu . . 






210 




:" 




66-8 


Turin. . 






241 


si'-is 


E5'« 


5-9 


63-.1 


V.lp.r«w 






101 




64 -fl 




641} 


V.ui™ . 






142 


802 


22-7 


7'*E 


6l-i 


Vienna . 






731 


3B2 


230 




6ro 


W»r«» . 






318 








44-2. 


Wtohington 






147 




22-9 




6S-2 



88 



CIVIL SERVICE-BLOCKS. 



CIVIL 8EEVI0E.— In the United Kingdom 29,000 per- 
sons, with an aggregate salaiy of £4,000,000, say £130 
each. 

CLEASmCKHOUSR 

A. — Annual Business in 1881. 



Place. Millions £. 
London . . 6,883 
Paris . . 2,200 
BerUn . 989 
Vienna . 463 
Manchester . 112 
New York . 7,723 
United States 12,873 


For Inha1>. P«r Dsj. 

£1,680 £20,500,000 

1,002 7,000,000 

980 8,200,000 

620 1,500,000 

205 350,000 

6,100 25,000,000 

250 42,000,000 


£. — Increase of London Business 


Tear. MiUlona £. 
1839 . 980 
1867-70. 8,540 
1871-80 . . 5,210 
1881 . . 6,383 


Per Inhab. Per Daj. 
£490 £3,200,000 
1,200 12,000,000 
1,500 17,000,000 
1,680 20,500,000 


C. — Increase op 


New York Business. 


Tenr. MiUlons £. 
1853 . . 261 
1863 . 3.486 
1873 . . 5,665 
1881 . . 7,723 


Per Inhab. Per Day. 
£510 £800,000 
4,200 11,000,000 
5,700 18,000,000 
6,100 25,000,000 


). — Increase of Continental Clearing-Hou8B] 


MilUon8£. ' 


Daily Average. 


1873. 1881. 
Paris . 881 2,200 
Berlin. 1,070 989 
Vienna 177 463 


187S 1881. 
£2,800,000 £7,000,000 
3,400,000 3,200,000 
550,000 1,500,000 



Total . 2,128 3,652 £6,750,000 £11,700,000 
See Cheques. 

OLOGKS. — The most remarkable have been : — 

760. One presented by Pope Paul L to Pepin. 

810. That sent to Charlemagne by Haronn-al-Raschid. 
1292. That put up in Canterbury Cathedral 
1370. The famous dock of Strasburg. 
1580. Musical clocks made in Gkrmanj. 
1639. OalUeo*s, for astronomical uses. 
1762. Harrison*s chronometer, London. 



COAL. 



89 



GOAL. 



A. — Production in all Countries. 

MillionB of Tons. 



Great Britain . 

$VaDce . . . , 

Germany . . . . 

Ruana . . • . 

Austria 

Belgium 


1842. 
. 35 
4 
11 

1 
8 


1860. 

85 
8 

14 
1 
8 

10 


1880. 

147 
19 
59 
7 
16 
17 


£urope . • • . 
United States . 
China . . . . 
Australia^ &c. . 


. 54 
3 
3 
1 


121 

15 

8 

2 


265 

70 

3 

6 


The World 


. 61 


141 


344 



B. — Consumption in all Countries. 



Great Britain 

United States . 

Germany . 

France 

Austria 

Belgium 

Russia 

Holland 

Spain and Portugal 

lUly . 

Various 



ililUou 


Cwts. 


Tons. 


per InhabiUnt 


130 


74 


70 


28 


55 


24 


27 


14 


16 


9 


12 


44 


9 


2 


3 


14 


2 


2 


3 


2 


17 


• • • 



Total 



344 



18 



C. — Industry op Coal-Mining. 



Great Britain . 
United States 
(^rmany . . 
France . . . 
Belgium . . 
Austria . . 

Total, . 



Value of 
Output, 1880. 



£47,000,000 

28,000,000 

13,700,000 

11,200,000 

6,100,000 

4,200,000 



£110,200,000 



Number of 
Miners. 



485,000 
240,000 
220,000 
102,000 
101,000 
83,000 



1,231,000 



Tons 

RaiRcd per 

Miner. 

303 
295 
270 
190 
168 
192 



1871-80, 

Value at Pit's 

31outl). 



£0 7 
9 
5 
11 
7 8 
6 



269 i £0 7 8 



90 



COAL. 



D.— Coal-fields op the World. 

Great Britain 9,000 

Franoe 1,800 

Germany 8,600 

Russia 27,000 

Belgium, Spain, &&, . . . 1,400 

Eurq)e 42,800 

United States 194,000 

India 35,000 

China 200,000 



Total 



471,800 



E. — Coal Production in Great Britain. 



v^- Ton« Cwfs. per 
***'• (thotiaanda). Inhab. 




Cwts. per 


Inhab. 


1660 


2,150 8 


1846 36,400 


27 


1700 


2,610 9 


1858 54,000 


88 


1760 


4,774 11 


1860 84,000 


58 


1800 


10,080 21 


1870 110,000 


72 


1829 


16,035 14 


1880 147,000 


82 


F.- 


—Production ani 


> Extent op Fields. 






MiUion To 


ns. Content of Field, 


Tesrsof 




li'SO. 


Mill on Toua. 


Supply. 


South Wales ... 15 


32,000 


2,150 


Midland . 


. 15 


18,000 


1,200 


Northumberland . 16 


10,000 


620 


Stafford . 


. 15 


6,000 


400 


Lancashire 


. 22 


5,000 


230 


Yorkshire, 


&C. . . 46 


9,000 


196 


Scotland 


. 18 


10,000 


550 



Total 



147 



90,000 



612 



The ParliameDtary report sliows 90 millianls of tons, that 
is, enough for 600 years at our present rate of production, 
•without going deeper than 4000 feet The deepest coal- 
mine now working in Great Britain is the Rosebridge, 
2500 feet The Lambert colliery, in Belgium, is 3490 
foot deep. 

G. — Price op Coal in I^ndon since 1730. 



Tourt. 


Per Ton. 


Tears. 


Per Ton. 


Yonrs. 


Per Ton. 


1730-50 


£17 2 


1820-30 


£1 12 


1851-60 


£0 18 6 


1751-99 


1 14 9 


1831-40 


14 


1861-70 


18 5 


1800-20 


2 13 3 


1841-50 


19 


1S71-S0 


18 4 



COAL. 



91 



H. — Consumption op British Coal. 

Million Tons. 

50 

Bomestio use 85 

Railways and Steamers 17 

Gas and Waterworks 16 

Mines 10 

Export 19 



Total 


• • • 


. 147 


I. — British Coal Consumed Abroad. 




In— 
France 

Gennany .... 
Russia .... 
Italy . . . , 
Spam 

Sweden and Norway 
Other parts • 




Tons. 
. 8,800,000 
, 2,200,000 
1,500,000 
, 1,550,000 
. 1,000,000 
, 1,400,000 
. 7,650,000 


Lbs. 


per Inhab. 
220 
108 
40 
118 
140 
470 

• • • 


Total 


19,100,000 




• •• 


K. — French Consum 


PTioN OP Coal. 

ANSUA.L AveUAOE. 




Yearn. "^ Tons (t 

1830-40 . . a 

1860-65 . .17 
1875-82 . . 24 


housai 
1,600 
,500 
,700 


ids). Lbs. 


per liiliabitant. ^* 
245 
1,110 
1,470 



France consumes 19 million tons of native, and 8 million 

tons of imported coaL The French collieries in 1879 gave 
tliis result : — 

Amount. Per ton. 

Wages .... £4,040,000 £048 

Other expenses . . . 8,320,000 3 11 

^'et profit .... 1,480,000 019 



Value . £8,840,000 £0 10 

L. — Harze*s Tabt.r of Production. 

Tons (Thousands Omitted). 



Tear. 
1831 
1841 
1851 
1861 
1871 
18S0 



liclgitim. 


France. 


Qerinany. 


2,305 


1,509 


1,700 


4,028 


8,410 


3,341 


6,234 


1,485 


6,041 


10,057 


9,423 


15,080 


13,733 


13,259 


32.843 


16,867 


19,362 


52,048 



This seems to omit the ** brown coal " of Germany. See A. 



92 



COAST TRAFFIC'-COBDEN TREATY. 



M. — Gravity and Carbon. 



Weight, 


Per- 


• 


Weight, Per- 


lbs. per 


centAffo 




Ibe. per oenUge 


cubic yd. Carbon. 




cubic yd. Carbou. 


Rhode Island . 8,054 


86 


Newcastle . 


, . 2,160 87 


Massachusetts . 2,882 


97 


Peat . . . 


. . 2,160 57 


Pennsylvania . 2,715 


89 


Marseilles . 


. 2,080 63 


Mayenne (Fr.). 2,293 


91 


Greek. . 


. . 2,020 60 


Swansea . . . 2,266 


89 


Westphalia . 
Wood. . 


. . 1,840 63 


Lancashire . . 2,240 


88 


. . 1,100 60 


See Coke, 









COAST TRAFFIO.— In the United Kingdom in 1880 the 
port entries for coast traffic amounted to 36 million tons, being 
an average of 32 voyages per annum for 12,580 vessels, with 
aggregate of 1,130,000 tons, engaged in this trade — average 
per vessel 90 tons. 

In France the coast traffic is done by : — 





Mediterranean. 


Other Porte 


TotaL 


Vessels . 

Tons 

Average tons . 


. 50,700 

2,260,000 

45 


10,130 

1,255,000 

124 


60,830 

3,515,000 

59 



There is no return of the tonnage entries. 

In Italy the coast traffic is double the amount of the 
entries from the high seas, and is rapidly increasing : — 



1870 
1879 



Tons. 
5,930,000 
8,848,000 



This shows an increase of 40 per cent 

The United States show the following tonnage of American 
vessels engaged in coasting trade : — 

Tons. 

1860 2,645,000 

1870 2,688,000 

1881 2,646,000 



GOBDEN TBEATY, in 1860, reduced duty on French 
wines by one-half, the French reducing duties on coal and 
iron, and stipulating that no import duties in France were 
to exceed 25 per cent ad valorem. 



COCHINEAL—COFFEE. 



93 



. — Canaij Islands exported in 1880 three 
million Iba, valued at £350,000. Great Britain imports 
thrae million Iba, against five million lbs. ten years ago. 



OOOOA, 



Tmt. 

18S1 
1841 
1851 
1861 
1871 
1881 



CSonmimptUm in Unito<l Kingdom. 



440,000 
1,220,000 
5,810,000 
4,520,000 
7,252,000 
10,885,000 



Duty, 
per lb. 

6d. 
2d. 
2d. 
Id. 
Id. 
Id. 



Prioe, CoDsumptinn, 

per Ih. OB. per lubab. 

Od. i 

7d. i 

5d. 8 

6d. 2i 

5id. 4 

Bd. 5 



OOD. — The aTerage take is as follows : — 



GrMtBiitoin 
Traiioe • 
Norway • 
CSHukla . 



Million Vfah. 

8 
21 
65 
28 



Total . 122 



Tons. 

18,000 

84,000 

110,000 

45,000 

202,000 



Value. 

£200,000 
840,000 

1.050,000 
520,000 

£2,110,000 



The production of cod-liver oil averages 900,000 gallons 
yearly, chiefly in Norway and Canada, 100 livers yielding 
one gallon of oiL See Fisheries, 



COFFEE. 



A. — PBomjcnoN. 

Tone (Thoosundfi). 



Brazil . 
Jmva 
Ceyloo 
Wert Indies 
AM» . 
M«niH% fta 



Total 



1855. 

163 
70 
29 
28 
22 
9 

321 



1880. 

833 
90 
53 
42 
86 
85 

580 



Value of Crop 
(1880). 
M illious £. 

22 
7 
4 
3 
8 
3 

42 



R — Increase of Production. 



Year. 

1865 
1875 
1881 



IFm^m 


Thouaand 


Tear. 


Tuna. 


1832 


. 95 


1844 


. 265 


1855 


. 821 



ThouMud 

Tona. 
. 422 
. 505 
. 589 




C. — CossumMiom of Coffkb. 



Toua. Inlutduul. 

nn]t«d Eingdom .... 15 08 

FniKw G5 B-3 

German; 110 6-2 

BdsbU 20 0-4 

AiutrU 40 S-3 

Italy 14 11 

Belgium BDd HollBiid ... GO 11-3 

Scandinavia 20 S-3 

Europe SU S-3 

UnHedSUtea . . . . ]«6 7-3 

BniU 82 U-0 

CaloDiei,ftc 88 2-0 

, Total . ess 

The coffee fields of Brazil cover 2 million acres, with 800 
nilUoQ trees — that is, 400 per acre, each tree averaging 
almost 1 lb. per annum, the industry employing 800,000 

bands. 

D.— CoNSDMPnoN m Unitbd Eikqdou. 



A. — AoB OP EniTisH Gold Coin (1882). 

Dlt< minted. 

Before 1840 
184CH8E0 
1851-I8flO 
1861-1870 
1871-1881 



On an average every £100 of gold coin in dso in 1S83 
wanted half-a-sovereign to make weight, according to iho 
bonkers' ceosus. 




B. — Gold Coikb ot all NATiona. 



CnrntTf. 


Sum. 


Wdsfa^<>. 


«»!». 


Valoa. 




Dneit . . . 


0-llS 


es6 


£0 6 




Crown . 




O'ssr 


900 




BoUVte . . . 


DoaUooD 




0-887 


870 






SD-mllni 




0-575 


917 




Choi. . . . 


Condor . . 




0-4BS 


SOO 


1 18 3 


Dtemaik . . 


lO-tWer 




0-427 


8SS 


1 18 


r»nat . . . 


SO-fMM* 




0-207 


699 


16 


G«f»>.j . . 


ItMdMlw 




0427 


908 


1 18 i 


Gmm* . . . 


XT. 




O'lSfi 


900 


14 4 


HollMid. . . 


ji^rr- 




O-Slfi 


899 


16 8 


ladCft . . . 




0-874 


916 


1 




Cotang. 




0-862 


5S8 


18 6 


Pntfa . . . 










16 




6-m>ble. 




0-210 


916 


16 8 




Alfoow. 




0-SM 


696 




sW^do. . . 


Dnckt . 




0-111 






TWkey. . . 




0-S31 


916 


18 3 



C— SiLVBR Coins op all NATiOKa 



Couutiy. 


K.me. IWdKhtoi. 


Flneiuu. 


VmluK 


Ai»ttu. . 


Florin . . 


0-387 


BOO 


£0 2 




DoUw . 




0-696 


900 


3 


Bolivia . . 


H»lt-doUw 




0-432 


667 


18 


BTadl . . 


1 MUni . 




0-410 


918 




Chili. . . 


Dollar . 




0-801 


900 




Chiiu . . 


TmI . . 










Denmuk . 


1 2-rie»iAl«r 




0*27 


877 


4 7 


FruM . . 






0-81H) 


900 


4 


Q«nnwiv . 


1 ThAkr . 




0'S95 


000 


8 


t:>«t B'rlUin 


1 Sbillfng . 




0182 


825 


1 








, 0-719 


BOO 


8 8 


HoUaiKi. . 


. ai-guild«r 




1 0-804 


914 


4 2 




'Rupe. . 






916 


1 10 


J.p.n . . 


.Iteebu . 




0-279 


8B0 


16 




K«n. . 








10 








0-6fi7 


875 


3 4 




P«et- . 




' 0-188 


899 


10 


RwcdeD. . . 


Riidkler 






750 




Tnrke/ . . 


! 20-piMtTe)i 




1 0-770 


830 


S 7 



Gold coin loses 1 per cent of its weight in 50 years ; silver 
coin 1 per cent, in 10 yenrs. 



96 



COIN. 



D. — Actual Amount of Coin. 







] 


MlLLIOVS £ 


• 


PerlnhabiUnt 












Gold. 


SUyer. 


Total. 






United Kingdom . . > 124 


19 


148 


£4 1 





France .... 


191 


110 


801 


8 


6 


Germany 


, 70 


46 


116 


2 12 





Rusaia .... 


22 


12 


84 


7 





Anstna 


10 


10 


20 


11 





Italy .... 


16 


10 


25 


17 





Spain and Portngal 
Holland and Belgium . 


40 


17 


67 


2 16 





16 


25 


41 


4 





Scandinavia . 


6 


2 


8 


18 


6 


Switzerland . 


4 


8 


7 


2 12 





Turkey and Greece 
Europe 


S 


2 


6 


10 





601 


255 


756 


2 8 





United States 




110 


86 


146 


2 17 





Spanish America 




16 


11 


26 


1 1 





India . 




16 


140 


156 


15 





Japan . 




10 


10 


20 


12 





Australia 




15 


1 


16 


5 10 





South Africa 




6 


1 


6 


5 15 





Canada . 




1 


1 


2 


9 





The World 


1 . 


673 


455 


1,128 


1 16 


4 



E. — Coin Minted from 1850 to December 1881. 



MtLLIOWS £^ 



Gold. 



United Kingdom 

France . 

Germany 

Russia . 

Austria 

Italy . 

Spain . 

Portugal 

Belgium 

Holland 

Scandinavia 

Europe 
United SUtes 
Australia 
India 

The World 



158 

299 

89 

116 

14 

10 

17 

13 

23 

6 

5 



Silver. 



13 
45 
66 
20 
88 
20 
10 

1 
18 
80 

2 



ToUL 



Per Head of 

medium 
Population. 



744 

213 

63 

2 



1,022 



253 
46 

• • • 

196 



495 



166 


£5 7 





844 


9 11 





145 


3 18 





135 


1 15 





62 


1 10 





80 


1 4 





27 


1 16 





14 


8 15 





41 


8 2 





86 


10 3 





7 


1 1 





997 


8 10 


6 


259 


8 9 





63 


85 2 





198 


1 2 




1 



1,517 



8 1 



COIN. 97 

F. — Coin Minted in Grbat Britain since 1200. 



• 




TeousAKDa. 






Poiiod. 








AnnuAl 
Average. 


Ould. 


SilTer. 


Total. 


1200-1420 . . 


£36 


£183 


£218 


£990 


14S1-1509 . . 


19 


164 


183 


2,100 


1510-1608 . . 


1.476 


5,485 


6,960 


74,800 


1604-1688 . . 


18,482 


17.421 


80,853 


867,000 


1680-1760 . . 


26,058 


8,239 


34,297 


444,00tf 


1761-1820 . . 


76.447 


6,828 


82,275 


1,870,000 


1821-1887 , . 


47,815 


8,338 


50,653 


8,170,000 


1838-1880 . . 


246,908 


17,259 


264,167 


6,140,000 



The last period ends with December 1880, and includes 
JU7,352,000 gold minted in Australia. 

G. — United States Mint. 



Period. 


MlLUONM &. 


Anoaal 
ATenge. 


Gold. 


SUver. 


ToUL 


1798-1820 . . 
1821-1840 . . 
1841-1850 . . 
1851-1860 . . 
1861-1881 . . 


1-3 

1-9 

19-8 

66 

147-2 


2-2 

8-9 

4-5 

9-3 

37 1 


3-5 

10-8 

24-3 

76-3 

184-3 


01 
0-5 
2 4 
7-5 

8-8 



H. — Quantity of Coin in the World since 1600. 

MiLLtOXd £. 



Date(A.DX 


'^In. 


Commerce. 


Ratio of Coin 
lo Commerce, 


1600 . 


130 


35 


371 


1700 . 


297 


94 


316 . 


1809 . 


380 


286 


133 


1830 . 


313 


868 


85 


1880 . 


. 1128 


2650 


42 



I. — Quantity of Coin in Great Britain since 1560. 





Thousakda. 






Ratio to 
Com- 


Teer. 








Per Inhabitant. 1 




Gold. 


Silver. 


Total. 






merce. 


1560 


£300 


£800 


£1,100 


£0 4 


6 


41 


1688 


8,500 


3,000 


11,500 


2 2 





140 


1711 


12,000 


4,000 


16.000 


2 15 





107 


1798 


37,000 


8,000 


45,000 


4 10 





70 


1844 


51,000 


10.000 


61,000 


2 5 


6 


45 


1858 


90,000 


14,800 


104,800' 


3 13 





40 


1872 


107.600 


17,000 


124,600 


3 19 





23 


1881 


123.600 


19,300 


142,900 


4 


o 


2". 



G 



COIItS—COKB. 
K. — Com IK Fbancb mien 1784. 



Tmt. 




FWlBhibltuM. 


Gold. 


BUTn. 


Total 


]7Si 
ISOS 
1840 
1880 


S 

s 

i 

190 


111 
no 


SB 

103 
116 
SCO 


£S 13 
a 11 
» 7 
SOS 



L. — Coin in United Statb sinck 1620. 



r«r. 




A Per InbuUMnt. 


1830 . 


. £7,400.000 £1 fi 


1849 . 


. 29,800,000 14 


1SE4 . 


. 60.800,000 1 16 


1880 . 


. 148,000,000 S 17 


See Gold, Silver, Mint, Money. 


IL- 


Old Engubh Gold Coiks. 


N.m^ 


Dits. Nomlul Tilus. In lament Montr. 


Noble . . 


. 1345 £0 6 H £1 1 10 


Angel . 


. 1465 6 8 11 


Crown . . 


. 1S30 G 7 6 




. 1551 1 10 18 


NobiB . . 


. 1600 15 16 


SoTareign 


. 1626 10 lit 




N'.— Old Fbbsch Coins. 


IM.. K.««. 


*^;«' 


D.U. s«-. *.-;- 


1336 Angel . 


£0 "ir 8 


1507 Purcnpino .£090 




9 


1539 Salamander 9 


1S89 Eiterlin. 


3 


1550 Henri , . 9 £ 


1294 Rofal . 


IB 


1576 Ftano . . 3 3 


1346 Coiinmne 


15 


1840 Loui* . . l<i 8 


14S8 MoutOD. 


5 6 


1862 „ diver 4 8 


1430 Koykl . 


10 4 


1666 Lily, gold . 10 i* 


1435 Ecu . . 


8 4 


1B56 „ aUTor. 1 b 


0.— Eon 


OPKAN Coi.s-a OF 18th Centubt. 




Penra. Fnif*. 


French Lyre . 


. 10 Spuuhduot . . 40 


Geneva „ . 


. 17 Geno«e „ . . 49 




. 19 Venetiui „ . . CI 


AoMiuuiaorin 


. 21 Komuioido . 55 


OOEE. 




T 


IgldnwnkTeB TWd IVam ■ Ton 


Wertphdi. . . 


86 per rent PMnwylvnnia . 89 per cent 




41 „ Mayenne ... SO „ 


LMncaMhir, . . 


5S „ 


Wale. . . . . Bl „ 



COID— COLONIES. 



99 



COLD. — The gnateat d^p^es of cold lecarded in England 
mn 16 below nro at London on Christmas Day, 1796, and 
8 below lero at Nottingham on Chtiitmas Day, 1860. Sea 
Meteoroiogj/ tnd Frott 

OOLONIEfl, BSITI8E.— Thair growth in 20 ;eaia haa 
baan aa foUowa : — 



A. 




AKD CowaRCB. 










IUUqo 


n.c™,. 








18W 


issa 


ie«K 


im. 


Pop. 














P..^.t 




Autnlla . . 


I,9GS 


a.888 


49,950 






78 


Cuud* . . . 






23,713 


35.ioa 


30 


61 


Smth Africa . 


S69 




6,041 


21.113 


261 


320 


WcatATrica . 


210 








US 














16 


12 


Cejlon . . . 


1,919 


2,558 


6,102 


9,980 


33 


83 


StnulxSettiL . 


S82 




H,<80 


29,685 


10 


105 


Wotlntliet . 


1,0?6 


1,365 


11,169 


16.460 


27 


48 


Vwioos. . , 


192 


i33 


5,623 <1,870 


132 


616 


Cjprui . . . 




aao 


410 






Colonial. . 


9,099 


u.m 


120,993 S52,O0S 


53 


109 


India. . . . 
ToUI . 


1*3,271 2U,600 


89,610 109,820 


49 


57 


152,300 


228,B-* 


180,503 


331,823 


50 


90 



B. — Revesde and Sbbt. 







nu 




R.t.,o,l™-. 1 






{Tliouui.d* £>. 


law. 


ISM. 


18W. 


im 


Ranntio. 


Debt 
















Auitnlik . . 


6,780 


19,315 


10,679 


94.312 


233 


781 






6.310 


14,232 


36,800 


158 


167 


Sodth Africa . 




8,770 


418 


13.870 


310 


3,360 


W«t Africa . 


66 






104 


360 




MuritJui . . 


553 


764 




800 


36 




Ceylon . . . 


767 


1,383 


ioo 


671 


80 


671 




920 


1,880 


1.496 


1.450 






Cjp™ . . . 














Colonic. . 


11,276 












33,761 


27.035 


148,5871 2<10 


448 


tnaia. . . . 
Total . 


39.706 


67,615 


98.107 |163.ei0j 70 


68 


60.981 


101.376 526,142 |302,177| 99 


143 



lOO 



COLO UR'BLIND^COMMERCB. 



c- 


-l^TioB FEB Inhabitant in 


1880. 






Comineros* 


Bemrae. 


Debt 


Ban way 
(kpiUL 


Australia • • 


£80 


£6 16 


£32 


£20 


Canada . 






8 


15 


8 


18 


South Africa , 






16 


2 15 


10 


6 


West Africa . 






6 


10 


• » » 


• • • 


Mauritiaa 






16 


10 


2 


2 


Ceylon • 






4 


11 


• • • 


1 


West Indies , 






12 


17 


1 


1 


Cyprus . 
In&a . 






8 


16 


••• 


••• 






\ 


6 2 


i 


1 



OOLOUR-BLIND. — In the schools of the United States 
4 per cent of male children were found colour-blind, and 
less than 1 per cent, of female. It is stated that similar 
results have been shown in Europe. 

COMETS. 







MiLUOXs OF Mii.n fkom 




Name. 


Yean of 
Bevolution. 


Bum. 


Next 

Bet urn. 


Greatest 


Least 






Distance. 


Distance. 




HaUey . 


77 


8,200 


56 


1910 


Mechain . 






14 


• • • 


• • ■ 


1885 


Faye 






8 


603 


192 


1888 


D* Arrest . 






7 


• • • 


• • • 


1883 


Biela 






7 


585 


82 


1886 


Brorsen . 






6 


637 


64 


1884 


Winnecke 






6 


• • • 


• • • 


1885 


DeVico . 






6 


475 


110 


1883 


Encke . 




• 1 8 


887 


32 


1884 



COMMERCE. 

A. — Ratio of Commerce per Inhabitant. 



United Kingdom 
France. . . . 
Grermany . . . 
Russia .... 
Austria . . 
Italy .... 
Spi^ and Portugal 
Holland . . . 
Belgium . • . 
Scandinavia • . 
Europe ... 
United States . 



1880. 



£3 
1 
1 




5 
8 
1 
1 
2 



12 
2 
4 
8 6 

13 

13 6 

14 8 



14 

18 

12 

4 








8 




165a 



£6 1 
2 8 
8 3 
11 

19 

1 6 

1 3 
14 16 

8 3 

2 17 
2 2 
2 18 









i 

; 



6 
4 



1S70. 


188a 


£14 16 





£16 6 





6 4 





9 


6 


5 6 





7 1 





1 7 


1 10 





2 7 





8 7 


6 


8 1 





3 6 


6 


2 2 





2 13 





19 8 


0! 30 2 





12 12 


21 1 





6 15 


6 10 


6 


4 18 


2| 6 9 


6 


4 9 


8 


6 1 






COMMERCE. 



loi 



B. — Agorxgats 


OF Kjet Imports and E 


XFORTE 


L 








MlLUOMB &. 






183a 


1840. 


1850. 


I860. 


1870. 


1880. 


United Kingdom . 


88 


113 


169 


318 


459 


571 


Frmnoo • 


87 


66 


75 


167 


227 


839 


Germany . 


83 


56 


105 


160 


212 


815 


XVUsBUk • • t 


20 


25 


82 


46 


100 


121 


Austria . 


16 


22 


29 


51 


83 


128 


lUly 


11 


17 


26 


46 


74 


96 


Spain and Portugal . 
Holland . 


11 


14 


20 


80 


41 


54 


16 


27 


44 


56 


71 


121 


Belgium . 


14 


20 


85 


48 


64 


116 


Scandinavia 

£nrope. • • 


8 


12 


17 


80 


42 


55 


254 


872 


552 


952 


1,373 


1,916 


United States . 


25 


43 


64 


187 


172 


809 


South America 


14 


22 


88 


62 


85 


101 


British Colonies 
The World . 


29 


62 


93 


190 


241 


862 


822 


499 


747 


1,341 


1,871 


2,688 



C. — Aliquot Parts of Commerce 


SINCE 


1830 


• 


I 
1 


1830. 


1840. 


1850. 


1860. 


1870. 


18S0. 
21-2 


1 nited Kingdom 


27-3 


22-7 


22-5 


23-8 


24-5 


France . • 


11-5 


13 3 


101 


12-5 


12-2 


12-6 




10-3 


11-2 


140 


11-9 


11-5 


11-7 


Russia 


6-2 


5-0 


4-4 


3-4 


5-3 


4-5 


Austria . . • 


5-0 


4-4 


3-9 


3-8 


4-4 


4-7 


July 


3-4 


3 4 


3 5 


3-4 


3-9 


3-6 


Spain and Portugal . 


3-4 


2-8 


2-7 


2-2 


2 2 


2 


Holland . 


5 


5-4 


5-9 


4-2 


3-7 


4-5 


Belgium . 


4 3 


4 


47 


3 6 


3-4 


4-4 


Scandinavia . 
Europe 


2-5 


2-4 


2 3 


2-2 


2 3 


2-1 


78-9 


74-6 


74-0 


71-0 


73-4 


71-3 


United SUtes . 


7-8 


8-6 


8-5 


10-2 


9*2 


11-5 


South America 


4-3 


4-4 


5 1 


4-6 


4-5 


37 


British Colonies 
The World . 


9 


12-4 


12-4 


14-2 


12-9 


13-5 


100 


100 


100 


100 


1000 


100 



D. — Articles of Bulk Exchanged since 1860. 



Coal, tons . 
Iron, „ 
Meat, cwis. . 



Mllliona per Annum. 

, ^' 

18«l-70. 1871-80. 1880. 

14*3 224 30-6 

1-9 8-6 47 

2-4 7-6 13-2 



Millions per Annum. 



1861-70. 



Grain, tons . 4*4 
Cotton, cwts. 9*8 
Wool, „ 2-4 



1871-80. 1880. 

101 10-5 

19-8 23-2 

5-0 5-9 



I02 



COMMERCE. 



E. — COHHERCE OF 1 


Decade 


ENDIKO 


December 1880. 




HlLUONS £ 














Annual lUiio 
to Medium 




1 






Imports. 


Exports. 


ToUl. 


PopulftiioD. 


United Kingdom 


8.714 


2,778 


6,492 


£19 12 


France 


1,568 


1.894 


2,962 


8 10 


Germany . • 


1,740 


1,270 


8,010 


7 2 6 


Russia . • 


490 


480 


970 


1 4 


Austria • • • 


570 


505 


1,075 


8 2 


Itely. 


472 


444 


916 


8 7 


Spain and Portugal . 


258 


242 


495 


2 9 6 


Belgium . 


562 


441 


1,003 


19 8 


Holland . 


680 


432 


1,062 


27 5 


Scandinavia 


848 


262 


610 


7 12 


Greece, Turkey, &c. . 
Europe . 


174 


159 


833 


3 5 


10,621 


8,407 


18.928 


6 6 


United SUtes . 


988 


1,122 


2,110 


4 14 


Canada 


179 


151 


830 


8 2 


South America . 


587 


658 


1,245 


4 16 


Australia . 


402 


843 


745 


80 1 


China and Japan 


289 


271 


560 


• • • 


Java .... 


91 


165 


256 


16 


India 


868 


597 


965 


9 


Egypt 


52 


186 


188 


8 15 


Various 
The World . 


818 


811 


629 


• ■ • 


18,795 


12,161 


25,956 


• •• 





F. — Growth of 


British Commerce. 




Year. 


Reign. 


TROVBAKMdL 


CoBBmsrce 

InhsbiUnt 


Imports. 


Exports. 


TotsL 


1355 


Edward IIL 


89 


294 


833 


£0 2 10 


1573 


Elizabeth . 


1,650 


1,880 


8.530 


15 


1614 


James I. . 


2,141 


2,091 


4.232 


16 6 


1687 


James II. . 


4,200 


4,087 


8.287 


1 10 2 


1714 


Anne . . 


6,850 


8.008 


14,858 


2 15 


1761 


George IIL 


10,292 


16,039 


26,331 


4 1 3 


1801 


»» 


81,420 


86,930 


68.350 


4 6 6 


1835 


William IV. 


48,912 


47,021 


95.933 


8 15 4 


1855 


Victoria . 


133,720 


115,822 


249.542 


8 18 8 


1880 


>t 


847,876 


223,060 


570,936 


16 6 



The returns before 1800 are for England only, after that 
date for the United Kingdonu 



COMMERCE. 



103 



G 


• **"^ 


Balancb of 

• 


British Trade. (^ 




HiLUOKS £ Bteruko. 


Imports from 


Exports to 


Surplus 
ImportB. 


SurpluB 
Exiiorts. 


1801-70. 1871-80. 


1861-70. 
230 


1871-80. 


France .... 


298 


421 


283 


206 


■ • • 


Germany. . • . 


162 


217 


261 


884 


• • • 


216 


Ronia .... 


169 


200 


69 


101 


199 


• ■ • 


Austria .... 


10 


12 


13 


14 


• • • 


5 


Ital^ 

Spain ..... 


83 


39 


41 


74 


• • • 


43 


54 


94 


83 


43 


72 




■'f"""" • • • • • 
Portugal .... 


28 


87 


22 


27 


11 


« • • 


Belgium .... 
HoUand .... 


71 


131 


68 


128 


6 


• • • 


110 


175 


145 


193 


• • • 


53 


Denmark. . . . 


20 


40 


14 


23 


23 


• • • 


Swedenand Norway 


56 


97 


22 


53 


78 


« • • 


(x^reeoe .... 


11 


18 


8 


10 


11 


• •• 


Roomania . . . 


8 


9 


4 


9 


4 


• •• 


Turkey .... 
£urope .... 


54 


57 


67 


70 


• « « 


26 


1,079 


1,547 


997 


1,362 


267 


• • « 


United SUtes . . 


360 


773 


233 


299 


601 


• • • 


Brazil 


69 
23 


63 
26 


55 
29 


68 
39 


■ • • 
• • • 


1 
19 


River Plate . . . 


ChiU 


33 
35 
19 


39 
45 
24 


18 
13 
25 


21 
17 
30 


33 
50 

■ • « 


• • • 

• • • 

12 


Peru 


Central America . 


Mexico .... 


11 


5 


13 


10 


• • • 


7 


Spanish Colonies . 


60 


51 


33 


37 


41 


• • • 


Portuguese „ 


4 


3 


2 


2 


3 


• • • 


Java 


1 
113 


14 
132 


10 
54 


15 

78 


• • • 

113 


10 

• • « 


China and Japan . 


Egypt 


158 


114 


60 


40 


172 


• • • 


Various .... 

Foreign countries 

India 


42 


54 


63 


48 


• • • 


15 


1,997 


2.890 


1,605 


2,066 


1,216 


• • • 


845 


299 


197 


241 


206 


• • • 


Australia . . . 




103 


201 


128 


188 


• • • 


12 


Canada . . , 




75 


108 


60 


87 


36 


• • • 


West Indies. . 




69 


67 


32 


32 


72 


• • • 


Singapore . 




21 


29 


16 


23 


11 


• • • 


Ceylon . . . 




33 


86 


8 


10 


51 


« • • 


South Africa 




23 


42 


18 


49 


• fl • 


2 


Hong Kong . , 




7 


11 


21 


35 


• ■ • 


88 


Various . . , 




28 


31 


44 


47 


• • • 


32 


. Total colonies . 


704 


824 


624 


712 


292 


• • • 


Grand total . 


» • 


2,701 


3,714 


2,129 


2.778 


1,508 


• ■ • 



I04 



COMMERCE. 



IL — Balance of United States Trade (1871-81). 





'MnxioMS £ Bterlivo. 


Imports 


^po'^to. S^;!! 


Burplua 
Exports. 


Great Britain 
France .... 
Germany . . . 
Cuba .... 
Bradl .... 
Varioiis. . . • 

Total. . . . 


829 
104 

86 
145 

84 
273 


735 
112 
114 
29 
15 
213 


• •• 

• • « 

• • ■ 

116 
69 
60 


406 

8 

28 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 


1,021 


1,218 


197 



I. — Balance op French Trade (1871-80). 





IfiLUOvs £ Brsauxo. 


Imports 
from. 


Exports to. 


Surplus 
Impurts. 


Surplus 
Exports. 


Great Britain . 


283 


421 


• • • 


138 


Germany • . . 


141 


151 


• •• 


10 


Belgium . . . 


173 


184 


• • • 


11 


United States . 


140 


109 


31 




Italy .... 


146 


79 


67 




Russia .... 


90 


14 


76 




Spain .... 
Various. . . . 

Total. . . . 


59 


53 


6 




528 


379 


19 




1,560 


1,390 


170 


• • • 



K. — Components 


OP British Commerce. 




Imports, Miluoks^. 


Valub 


PSE IVHABITAirr. 


1870. 


1880. 


1870. 


1880. 


Grain. 


36-7 


69-5 


£1 8 


4 


£2 1 


Cotton 




63 -6 


42*8 


1 IS 


6 


1 5 


Manufactures 




26 5 


337 


16 


8 


19 6 


Meat . 




7-7 


26-5 


5 





15 


Wool . 




15-8 


26-4 


10 





15 


Suffar . 
Dairy produce 




17-6 


280 


11 


6 


18 6 




11-9 


21-2 


7 


8 


12 8 


Tea, eoffee . 




15-4 


19-3 


9 


9 


11 4 


Timber 




13-2 


16-8 


8 


4 


9 8 


Minerab . 




8-9 


15-5 


5 


9 


9 


Flax, kc . 




10 4 


10-1 


6 


8 


6 


Sundries . 




85 4 


1 106-2 


! 2 15 


; 3 8 1 


Total imports . 


1 


803-0 


4110 


9 13 

1 


2 


11 19 8 



COMMERCE. 



105 



CoMPONnrra or British CoionERCE — continued. 



L 



Cotton goods 

Iron 

Woolkni 

Hftrdwaro 

linen, jute 

Co^ . 

Sundries 

Britidi 
Goods in tnniit 

Totsl exports 



ExFOftn, MiLUoxs A. Yalvs per Ikhabitaitt. 



1870. 



71-4 
26-5 
26*6 
16*4 
10*4 
5-6 
427 



199-6 
45-5 



1880. 



76*6 
29*7 
20-6 
19-5 
9*8 
8-4 
60-0 



223-1 
64-0 



245-1 287-1 



187a 



£2 5 

17 

17 

10 6 

6 8 

8 6 

17 



6 
1 



6 
9 



8 
4 



7 16 



1880. 



£2 4 
19 
12 
11 
6 

6 

1 15 







6 

6 



6 12 
1 15 








8 7 



See ImpartSj Exports^ &c. 

L. — ComiERCs OF Fbance. 



1 

Totf. 


HiLUoiis £. 


Pttr 








InhabiUnt 




Importa. 


Exports. 


ToUL 


(BhUUngt). 


1716 . 


4 


5 


9 


9 


1750 . 






13 


14 


27 


21 


1788 . 






17 


17 


34 


27 


ISOl . 






17 


12 


29 


21 


1810 . 






13 


15 


28 


20 


1820 . 






15 


18 


33 


22 


1830 . 






18 


19 


37 


23 


1840 . 






32 


34 


66 


38 


1850 . 






32 


43 


75 


42 


I860 . 






76 


91 


107 


89 


1870 . 






115 


112 


227 


124 


1882 . 






109 


144 


343 


181 



M. — Commerce BET?rEEN France and United Kingdom. 



period. 

1831-40 . 

1841-50 . 
" 1851-60 . 
1 1861-70 . 

1871-80 . 

1881 


Ml LUCKS £. 




Imp<>rU 

from United 

Kingdom. 


Eznorto to 

United 
Klugdum. 


Totol 
Ezchnnged. 


Trade or 
Ffsdco. 


Ratio with 

United 
Kingdom. 


16 
81 
84 
230 
284 
30 


30 

55 

163 

298 

421 

40 


46 

86 

247 

528 

705 

70 


563 

735 

1,270 

2,070 

2,962 

842 


Per cent 
12 
12 
20 
25 
24 
21 


51 years . 


; 675 

• 


1,007 


1,682 


7,942 


21 



io6 



COMMERCE. 



N. — Distribution of British Comhercb. 



Wlth- 


MiLUONS &. 


AUQUOT FABTa 
















1860. 


1870. 


188a 


I860. 


1870. 


1880. 


Colonies 


89 


120 


174 


23-7 


21-9 


24*9 - 


United SUtes 


68 


81 


146 


18-1 


14-8 


207 . 


Fiance . 


31 


60 


71 


8-2 


110 


101 


Germany 


34 


48 


68 


9 


7-8 


7-6 


Holland 


18 


81 


42 


4-8 


6*6 


6-0 


Russia . . . 


22 


81 


27 


6 


6*6 


8-9 


Belgium 


8 


20 


24 


2-2 


8-6 


86 


Scandinavia . 


9 


17 


24 


2*4 


81 


8-6 


Spanish-America . 


13 


26 


22 


8-4 


4-7 


8-2 


Spain and Portugal 


11 


14 


21 


8 


2 6 


80 


Brazil . 


7 


12 


12 


1*9 


2-2 


17 


Egyp* • 


13 


23 


12 


8-4 


4-2 


17 


Turkey , 


11 


14 


11 


80 


2 6 


1-6 


Italy . 


7 


10 


10 


1-9 


1-8 


1-4 


Various . 
The World. 


34 


46 


60 


90 


8-7 


7*2 


376 


648 


698 


100 


1000 


1000 



The above includes not only imports and exports, but also 
goods in transit 



O. — CoMMERCB OP United States. 



Year. 


Millions £ Sterliug. 


BritlAb 
Batio. 


Trade, per Inhabitant 
(SbUliiipi). 


ToUU 


With Great 
Britain. 


TotaL 


With Great 
liiiU;n. 








Per cent. 






1790 . . 


9 


6 


65 


45 


25 


1800 . . 


25 


15 


60 


94 


57 


1810 . . 


1>6 


16 


62 


72 


44 


1820 . . 


'J6 


15 


57 


64 


31 


1830 . . 


25 


14 


66 


89 


22 


1840 . . 


44 


23 


53 


64 


29 


1850 . . 


64 


82 


50 


64 


27 


1860 . . 


137 


68 


50 


88 


44 


1870 . . 


172 


81 


47 


89 


42 


1880 . . 


309 


145 


47 


121 


68 



The above is exclusive of bullion. 



COMPANIES, JOINT-STOCK. 



107 



P. — CoMMBBCi or All Nations (1883-84). 



Graa Britain 



G^muHiy 



Anrtria 

iu]]r 

Spsinaad Portiigal 
Belginm • 

SeandiiuiTl* 
Tnrkoj, kc 



wmoBiA. 


IrapnrU. 


Ezporto. 


. 890 


296 


. 199 


141 


. 168 


164 


. 71 


78 


. 62 


76 


. 61 


47 


al 41 


86 


. 62 


64 


. 87 


67 


88 


80 


. 42 


84 



Europe 



. 1.206 1,012 





IIUllunB£. 




Imperil. 


Exports. 


United States . 


140 


150 


Canada . 


28 


21 


Australia. 


64 


62 


B. America 


64 


74 


S. Africa. 


9 


9 


India . 


66 


86 


China 


24 


21 


Japan 


6 


7 


Java 


12 


14 


Egypt . 


. 7 


14 


Vanons . 


66 


67 


World . 


. 1,692 


1,626 



OOMPAHIES, jonrrsTOOE. 



A. — New Companies in 1881. 



Great Britain*, 
yrance 
Germany 
Austria . 

Total 



MlLLIO!CB £. 

"fi^jccted. 
168 



160 
70 
40 

438 



Eatablished. 
66 
94 
60 
28 

288 



New Capital 
per luhab. 

£1 18 

2 11 

12 

16 



£1 12 



B. — Registebbd in Great Britain singe 18G2. 



Tetf*. 


Number. 


Capita], 
MUlioua £. 


New CapitoL 

Pi-r Annum, 

Millioua £. 


Averajfc Capital 
lier Compuiy. 


1862-70 . . 
1871-80 . . 

1881 .... 

1882 .... 


6,179 

10,448 

1,886 

1,471 


1,010 
930 
168 
217 


112 

93 

168 

217 


£163,000 

90,000 

121,000 

148,000 



loS COM PENS A TION'-CONSCIENCB'MONBY. 



C. — Capital op New Companibs (Great Britain). 

M ILLI0II8 £. 



Tears. 


StlU-born. 


EstablUhed. 


TotaL 


1862-^0 . 


. 1,080 


860 


1,940 


1881 


. . 102 


66 


168 


1882 


. . 159 


68 


217 



Total 



1,841 



984 



2,825 



D.— 



Companies Estabushed (Great Britain). 

If ILUOS8 £.1 





; 1881. 


1882. 


Railways 


. 23 


22 


Electricity . 


. 8 


12 


Lands . 


4 


6 


Mining 


. . 6 


8 


Banks . 


• 4 


'2 


Sundry 


. 26 


13 



Total 



66 



68 



£. — Companies Established in all Nations. 



Millions £. 



Tears. 

1871-74 
1875-78 
1879-82 



Amount, CftpiUl. Annual Averag*^ 
1,230 308 

420 105 

820 205 



Total . . 2,470 206 

F. — French Companies in 1881. 

Millions £. 

Banks 83 

Railways 8 

Newspapers 3 

RealesUte 14 

Mining 4 

Various 32 



ToUl 



94 



COMPENSATION. — Tho railway companies of Great 
Britain pay £1300 a day for injuries done, through their 
culpable neglect, to passengers or merchandise. 

CONSOIENOE-MONEY.— Between the years 1870 and 
1880 the average received by the Chancellor of the Ex- 
chequer, for unpaid taxes, was X9 100 per annum. 



CONSOLS-^CON VBYA NCES. 



109 



00H80L& 

A. — Quotations op National Dbbt bincb 1740. 



Period. 


MaTiimiin. 


Ifinimum. 


Ayenge. 


Debt» 
MUliona^. 


1740-60 . 


104 


' 82 


98-5 


78 


1761-80 . 


91 


61 


821 


189 


1781-1800 . 


97 


47 


67-2 


240 


1801-20 . 


84 


50 


64-9 


841 


1821-40 . 


97 


69 


85*8 


781 


1841-60 . 


102 


79 


93*4 


786 


1861-81 


108 


84 


93 1 


776 



B. — Holders of Fund& 



Averafftt. 


1830. 


1848. 


1880. 


£100,000 . 


172 


177 


283 


60,000 . 


1,810 


1,550 


1,892 


10,000 . 


. 22,189 


20,561 


19,140 


8,000 . 


. 124,014 


120,487 


112,077 


600 . 


.. 182,960 


141,352 


103,122 



Total • . 281,145 284,127 236,514 

Unclaimed dividends in March 1882 amounted to 
£3,027,000. For French funds, see Rentes. 

CONSUMPTION. — In England and Wales 14 per cent, 
of males, and 13.} per cent, of females, die of consumption. 
In 1880 in the United States the deaths from consumption 
were 92,210, or 13 per cent See pages 147 and 349. 

CONYETANOES. — ^London cabs carry 30 million, Paris 
cabs 18 million passengers yearly; the first earn £2,200,000, 
the second, £1,080,000 per annum. The London Omnibus 
Co. has 1620 busses, carries 54 million passengers yearly, for 
£550,000. The Paris local traffic is as follows : — 

Tramways . . .119 £740,000 1-5 

OmnibuB .... 90 690,000 1*9 

Steamboats, &c. . .25 175,000 1*7 



Total . . .234 £1,605,000 16 

The Paris local traffic was 72 millions in 1860, rising to 108 
millions in 1870, and 234 millions in 1880. 

The tramways of the United Kingdom carried 206 
million passengers in 1880, averaging 2d. each. See Tram- 
tcays, Railtpays, Passengers, Cabs, 



no CONVICTS-COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES. 

OONVIOTS. — See Crinifi, Prisons. 

OOOLIES. — ^The emigration from India averages 22,000 
yearly, the number registered abroad in 1880 being 335,000, 
viz. : — 

Manriiitts . 141,000 t Bourbon • 
Demerara . 54,000 Trinidad • 



43,000 I NaUl . . 18,000 
26,000 I Jamjuca, &a 68,000 



Numbers of Chinese coolies emigrate to Cuba and Peru, 
where they are ill-treated. Cuba imported 116,000^ in the 
years 186&-73, and refused to let them return to China on 
the expiration of their contracts ; 67,000 died. The number 
imported into Peru in the year 1871 was 38,650, of whom 
many were put to death. In 1880, in one province 2000 
were massacred. 

OO-OPEEATIVE SOCIETIES. 

A. — Grbat Britain. 



T«ar. 


SocietlM. 


ThouKmd 
^Membera. 


Capitol 
TbouMiidsiL 


Mimona£. 


1861 . 
1871 . 
1881 . 


66 

749 

1,118 


38 

249 

1,083 


865 
2.5S0 
6,850 


11 

8-2 

24*4 



B. — ^Balangb-Sheet op Fivb Principal Societies. 



Purchases 
Wogos . 



. £3,973,000 I Rent,ga«,&c. 
237,000 I Net profit . 
Sales . . . £4,273,000 



£23,000 
40,000 



C. — German, Schultz-Delttsch, Societies. 



Tewn. 

1860 
1870 
1880 



Sodctfot. 

133 

740 

3,123 



Thousand 
Members. 

32 

315 

1,108 



R0Aci'V0, 

Thoutanda £• 

80 

2,200 

8,480 



Tho first society was established at Rochdale, Lancashire, 
in 1844, by 28 workmen, with a capital of X28. The shares 
of some of the London societies are now worth 105 times 
the amount paid on subscription. The Schultz-Delitsch 
societies in Germany have an effective capital of 18| millions 
sterling, and their turn-over for 1880 was 140 millions 
sterling. 



A. — PsoDuonoir. 







FijuCoF 


M,To«. 




IWOl 


IBM, 


1870. 


IBSO. 


GiMtBriUin . 

Sp^n .... 

AtutrU,4c. . . . 

Eotupa. 
Vaited SUtta . 
Cbili . . . . 
AoltnU* 

Total . . 


11,800 
3,300 
1,650 
8,000 
200 
2,800 
l.flOO 


13,510 

a.500 

3,200 
5,600 
300 

2,200 
l.flOO 


■7,220 
4,900 
6.850 
6,500 
1,100 
2,000 
2,000 


S,44tl 

6.100 
10,140 

6,100 
31,300 

1,800 

2,200 


86.860 
2,700 

14,800 
2.400 


E9.140 
6.530 

26.100 
7,600 


2B.B70 
12.850 

30,eoo 

9,700 


49,880 
20.260 

se.soo 

13.100 


45.250 


67,370 


82,120 


130,040 



The pcoductioa increasea rapidly in the Uuit«d States, 
U)« yield for 1881 being 34,200 tona fine copper, valued at 
£2,200,000. The above table does not include Japan, which 
producca 3000 tons yearly, all being retained for homo con- 
eumption. The ratio of copper to copper ore is aa follows : — 



Gennuiy . 



i:om: 



England , 

Ai»trali» . . . la 
United States . . IS 
Ores vary from 50 to 80 shillings per ton, and refined 



c<>p[H:r avenges £70 a ton. 

B. — British Coppeh Trade. 





Toi»,Tb 




Fins 


t«r. 








^■e 


Imporua. 


Exported. 


iifii-irt*. 


EiinrI*. 


1S50 . . 


61 


11 


£1,412 


£1,080 




1851-60 . 


78 


26 


■2,254 


2,.'iai 


BS 


1860 . . 


109 




3.104 


3,153 


107 


1S61-70 . 


133 


46 


4,016 


3,544 


89 


l^Tli . . 


137 


52 


4,0a9 


3,r7-J 


-0 


i?:i-fto . 


147 






4,41 :l 




1B=I . . 


\S2 


05 


4,593 


4,->S4 


6S 


Tho impo 


rts inclo 


Ue, boa 


idea copp 


et, a qui 


ntity of 



" rcgulus," 01 half-smelted ore. 



112 CORONERS' INQUBSTS-^CORPULBNCB. 



C. — British Copper Mines. 
Annual Yield of ComsL, and Value. 



Period. 


Tons. 


Vftlae. 


Period. 


Tom. 


Velue. 


1725-45 


560 


£84,000 


1801-20 


5,880 


£720,000 


1746-65 


1,030 


160,000 


1821-40 


13,220 


1.360,000 


1766-85 


2,020 


290,000 


1841-60 


12,840 


1.355,000 


1786-1800 


2,710 


430,000 


1861-80 


8,070 


686,000 



OOBONEBS' INQUESTS. — Average, 5 per cent on the 
number of deaths yearly in England and Wales : — 

A.— Returns for 1879-1881. 



Suicide . 
Murder . 
Drink . 
Hunger . 
Accidents 
Natural deaths 



Total 



1879. 


1880. 


1881. 


1,941 


1,930 


1,918 


302 


309 


356 


418 


447 


• • • 


312 


286 


• • • 


13,850 


18.676 


11,404 


10,233 


9,940 


• • • 



27,056 



26,588 



27,466 



B. — Analysis op 1879. 





Males. 


Females. 


ToUl 


Executed 


13 


4 


17 


Murder . . . . 


75 


78 


lf»3 


Homicide 


97 


52 


149 


Drink . . . . 


241 


177 


418 


Hunger . 


188 


124 


312 


Suicide . 


1,461 


480 


1,941 


Accidentally drowned 


2,785 


905 


3.690 


Killed bj cabs 


225 


130 


355 


„ by railways . 


1.120 


15 


1,135 


„ in mines 


1,037 


• • • 


1,037 


Srndry accidents . 


4.941 


2.675 


7.616 


Natural deaths 


6,050 


4,183 


10.233 



Total . 



18,233 



8,823 



27.056 



Inquests cost on an average 64 shillings each. See Deathi 
(violent). 

OOBPULENOR 



Name. 


Weight. 


Age. 


Reeidenoe. 


James Mansfield . 
Mr. Bright . 
Dan. Lunbert 


. 476 
596 
739 


82 
29 
40 


Debden, Mon. 
Maldon, Ess. 
Stamford, Lin. 



COTTAGES^COTTON. 



"3 



COTTAGES. — To pay 6 per cent on coet : — 

8 £120 8 

5 160 4 

6 200 5 

The Peabody buildings are lented at 2 shillings per room 
weekly, but the cost of site in London is considerable. The 
8oci^t2 Montmartre in Paris has also built workmen's tene- 
mentSy averaging 9 shillings a week, or double the Peabody 
average. See DwellingB. 

CX>TTOH. 

A. — Produchon in Miluons Lbs. 





18S0. 


1840. 


1860. 


1870. 


18801 


United SUtet . 


860 


880 


1.870 


1,540 


8,161 


IndU 


, 194 


212 


420 


625 


540 


Iranoiu • 


18 


80 


61 


240 


282 


74 
636 


70 


40 


69 


56 


ToUl . 


1,102 


2,391 


2,474 


4,039 


B.- 


-CoNSUlIPTIOir IK 


Miluons Lbs. 






1830. 


1840. 


18<iO. 


1870. 


1880. 


GiratBriUin . 


250 


454 


1,140 


1,101 


1,404 


L'nited SUtei . 


52 


135 


410 


530 


961 




56 


120 


220 


260 


890 


France . 


S7 


110 


215 


250 


840 


Variuiu . 


. 162 


231 


286 


239 


649 



Tutal . 



607 1,050 2,271 2,380 

C. — Cotton Manufactures. 



8,744 





Million 
Hl'iDdlw. 


Million LU. 
Cutton. 


Opemtfvea, 
TUouimikIn. 


C«>ttoii, 
Ope>»iiTO. 


Manu- 
fiictiireii, 1 
MilUouk£. i 

1 


Great BriUin . 


40-2 


1,404 


482 


2,940 


95 


United SUtes . 


i 11-2 


911 


260 


3,510 


74 


< icrrmany . . . 


5*4 


390 


150 


2,600 


24 


France . . . 


4-8 


310 


200 


1.700 


20 


Ruuia . . . 


8-4 


140 


ISO 


780 


18 , 


Ati-ttria . . . 


1 22 


150 


100 


1,500 


13 ; 


Spain .... 


1-6 


100 


bO 


1.250 


9 


India .... 


1-2 


80 


80 


1.000 


8 


Italv . . . . 


1-0 


90 


50 


1,800 


8 


Beldam and 
Holland . 


11 


56 


86 


1,550 


6 


Switzerland, &c 


2-2 


73 
1 3,744 


55 
1,673 


1,360 


7 


Total . . . 


' 74-3 


2,240 


282 



u 



114 



COTTON. 



D. — Bbitibh (Jotton Ikdustbt. 



Tear. 


MiUiona. 


Valtte, If ilUons £. 


Contamad, 

Raw Cotton. 

Lba. 


Prodocad, 
Cloth, 
Yards. 


Exported, 
Tarn, 
Lba. 


Raw 
Cotton. 


All 
Product 


Net. 


1820 . 
1821-30 
1830 . 
1831-40 
1840 . 
1841-50 
1850 . 
1851-60 
1860 . 
1861-70 
1870 . 
1871-80 
1881 . 


119 

181 

245 

336 

452 

521 

588 

852 

1,140 

793 

1,101 

1,270 

1,471 


425 
620 
795 
1,065 
1,445 
1,666 
2,025 
2,980 
4,150 
2,890 
4,025 
4,602 
5,845 


23 

39 

64 

90 

118 

136 

124 

171 

197 

136 

186 

222 

255 


7 
6 
7 
11 
11 
11 
17 
24 
81 
43 
46 
39 
39 


27 
28 
32 
34 
38 
38 
42 
58 
79 
76 
- 93 
94 
95 


20 
22 
25 
23 
25 
25 
25 
34 
48 
33 
47 
55 
56 



E. — PROPucnoN OP 


Cotton Cloth (Great Britain). 


Year. 


MilUon Tarda. 


Value, 
lUUion8£. 


Pence 
per Yard. 










Made. 


Exported. 


Home JJwt. 






1820 . . 


425 


249 


176 


22 


12-4 


1821-30. 


620 


340 


280 


23 


8-9 


1830 . . 


795 


445 


350 


26 


7-8 


1831-40 


1,065 


589 


476 


27 


61 


1840 . . 


1,445 


791 


654 


28 


4-6 


1841-50 


1,666 


965 


701 


28 


40 


1850 . 


2.025 


1,848 


677 


33 


3-9 


1851-60 


2,980 


1,988 


992 


46 


3-7 


1860 . 


4,160 


2,765 1,385 


63 


3-7 


1861-70 


2,890 


2,444 


446 


59 


4*9 


1870 . 


4,025 


3,267 


758 


71 


4*2 


1871-80 


4,602 


3,693 


909 


73 


3-8 


1881 . 


5,345 


. 4,777 


568 


75 


3-3 

• 1 



F. — Results « 


3P British Cotton Manufacturer. 




V 
^^ctr Cotton. 


due in Millions £. 


Rat to of 

Renult. 

percent. 

72 
63 
44 

58 


Manuf.tc'tures. ; Net Remilt. 


■■ ■ ■■ ■ 

1821-40 . . . 
1841-60 . . . 
1861-70 . . . 
1871-81 . . . 

Total, 61 years 


170 
850 
430 
429 


620 

960 

760 

1,035 


450 
610 
330 
606 


1.379 


3.375 1 1.906 


59 



COTTON. 



xtS 



G. — ^ExpoBT OF British Cotton Goods. 



• 


JfUltoDO. 




Exports per Inhabitant | 


^M- 






Value, 








Tmt. 


Taixk, 


Lbi. 


Thouaanda. 


Tarda, 


Lba. 


Value, 




Cloth. 


Tarn. 




Cloth. 


Tarn. 


Shllliugs. 


1820 . 


249 


23 


£16,480 


12 


1 


17 


1821-30 


840 


39 


17,210 


15 


2 


15 


1880 . 


445 


65 


19,420 


19 


3 


16 


1831-40 


589 


90 


21,390 


23 


4 


16 


1840 . 


791 


118 


24,780 


29 


5 


18 


1841-50 


965 


137 


24,215 


85 


5 


17 


1850 . 


1,848 


131 


28,280 


50 


5 


21 


1851-30 


1,983 


171 


38,030 


70 


6 


27 


1860 . 


2,765 


197 


52,010 


95 


7 


86 


1331 70 


2,444 


186 


59,620 


81 


4 


40 


1870 . 


3,267 


186 


71,415 


105 


6 


47 


1871-80 


8,693 


222 


71,930 


110 


7 


43 


1881 . 


4,777 


255 


79,090 


185 


8 


45 



H.- 


-Plain 


AND Printed Exports (B] 


rittrh) 


» 




Million Tarda. 


Value, Thouaanda. 


Per Yard. Pence. 1 


T«ir 














A VUI . 


Plain. 


Printed. 


Plain. 


Printed. 


Plain. 


Printed. 


1820 . 


114 


135 


£5,510 


£7,705 


11-6 


13-7 


1821-30 


172 


168 


5,890 


7,220 


8-2 


10-3 


1830 . 


245 


200 


6,625 


7,690 


6-5 


9 1 


1831-40 


814 


276 


6,812 


7,616 


6-2 


6-5 


1840 . 


483 


868 


7,830 


8,492 


3-6 


5-6 


1841-50 


584 


881 


8,340 


7,710 


3-4 


4^ 


1850 . 


768 


690 


9,697 


12,277 


3 


5-0 


1851-60 


1,252 


736 


16,330 


14,790 


2-9 


4-8 


1860 . 


1,790 


975 


22,954 


19,188 


31 


47 


1861-70 


1,606 


838 


28,110 


20,040 


4-2 


5-7 


1870 . 


2,294 


973 


88,922 


22,823 


85 


5-6 


1871-80 


2,692 


1,101 


32,740 


25,320 


3 


6-5 


1881 . 


3,361 


1,416 


87,170 


28,755 


2-6 


4 



L — Ratio of Puiin and Printed Exports. 





Quantity. 

- 


Valao. 


Plain. 


Printed. 


Total. 


Plain. 


Printed. 


Total. 


1821-40 . 
1841-60 . 
1861-70 . 
1871-81 . 


52 
61 
66 
70 


48 
39 
34 
80 


100 
100 
100 
100 


46 
51 
58 
67 


54 
49 
42 
43 


100 
100 
100 
100 



Ii6 



COTTON. 



K. — CoNBUicsRs OP British Cotton Goods (1880X 



MiUlon 
Tftrdu 



India . . • 
China and Japan . 
Torkey and ^gjpt 
Booth America . 
Snrope . 
West Indies 
United SUtes . 
Yarioos 




Mimon 
Lbs. Yarn. 

48 
47 
12 

• •• 

94 



15 



Total Value 

(ThousaiMii 

omittwIX 

£20,010 

8,185 

7,680 

6,740 

10,830 

1,810 

1,750 

18,180 



Batio. 



Total . . 4,496 216 £69,585 100*0 

L. — Production of Cotton Yarn, Gbbat Britain. 





M illifNi Lbs. 


Ratio 


Span Tan, 


SwinVsRi, 

Lba. per 

Inhsb. 


Tear. 






Exported, 


Value 




Spun. 


Exported. 


percent. 


(Thousands). 


1820 . . . 


108 


28 


21 


£13,510 


5 


1821-30 






163 


39 


24 


11,330 


7 


1830 . 






223 


64 


28 


13,960 


9 


1831-40 






303 


90 


30 


17,705 


12 


1840 . 






407 


118 


29 


23,680 


15 


1841-50 






469 


136 


29 


25,450 


17 


1850 . 






529 


124 


23 


25,930 


20 


1851-60 






767 


171 


23 


84,880 


27 


1860 . . 






1,027 


197 


19 


51,240 


85 


1861-70 . 






714 


136 


19 


59,470 


24 


1870 . . 






991 


186 


19 


78,360 


82 


1871-80 . 






1,142 


222 


19 


71,110 


84 


1881 . . 






1,324 


255 


19 


68,470 


88 



M. — Prices of Cotton, Yarn, Cauco, Great Britain. 



Tears. 


Penoe. 


Ratio. 


RswCotton, 
Lbs. 


Tarn, Lbs. 


' Calico, 
Yards. 


Cotton. 


Tarn. 


Calico, 
Yards. 


1802-10 . 
1811-20 . 
1821-30 . 
1881-40 . 
1841-50 . 
1851-60 . 
1861-70 . 
1871-60 . 
1881 . . 


22-2 
21-3 
8-3 
7-9 
5 3 
5-9 
12-8 
7 1 
6-3 


39 
83 
17 
14 
13 
11 
20 
15 
13 


20-5 
16-8 
8-2 
5-2 
3-4 
2-9 
4-2 
8 
2-2 


100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 


177 
155 
205 
177 
245 
186 
156 
211 
206 


93 
79 
99 
66 
64 
49 
83 
42 
35 



COTTON. 



117 



N. — Coot of PRODucnoir (1880). 

Pek 100 Taeob, Pbtci. 





CaUcol 


Prints. 




Britich 


. 276 


384 




Amerieta . 


. 424 


592 




Greek 


. 353 


• • • 




Chiaeie . 


. 310 


510 




Gennao 


. 298 


408 




FkBnch 


. 812 


425 




0. — Lbngth of Fibre. 






IndiM. 






Inobw. 


SMiiluid . . .1-61 


Bndlka 


• 


. 1-17 


ESJptiMi . 1-41 


, New Orleans 


. 


. 1-02 


PeniTiMi • 1-30 


East Indian. 


• 


. 0-89 



P. — Crop of Ukitkd States. 



1803 . . . 

1810 . . . 

1820 . . . 

1830 . . . 
1831-40 (aver. 

1840 . . . 

1841-50 . 

1850 . . . 

1851-60 . 

1860 . . . 

1861-70 . 

1870 . . . 

1871-80 . 

1881 . . . 



miUoiMOf LiML 


Crop. 


Exported. 


41 


40 


99 


95 


135 


125 


350 


298 


720 


610 


878 


744 


1,140 


920 


890 


665 


1.610 


1,260 


1,880 


1,446 


920 


505 


1,540 


1,010 


2,128 


1,465 


3,161 


2,170 



Ratio of 
Ezporta, 
Iier Cent. 



98 
96 
92 
85 
87 
84 
80 
75 
78 
77 
55 
66 
70 
69 



Price per 
Lb. 



17d. 

15 

13 
6 

6-2 
4-5 
4-2 
6-2 
5-3 
5-2 

18-2 

10-3 
7 
61 



Produetion. 

Lbe. per 
Inhsbitant. 



7 
14 
14 
27 
48 
52 
57 
39 
60 
60 
27 
40 
46 
63 



Q. — Cotton Cultivation. 





Acre*, 
Tiiouaxnda. 


Crop. 
Itillioua LU. 


Value. 
MiUiooB £. 


Lba. Cotton 
per Acre. 


United States 

India 

Egypt . 

Brazil 

West Indies, 9lc . 

Total . 


13.613 

5,200 

872 

150 

100 


3,161 

540 

282 

42 

14 


63-4 

123 

9 2 

1-2 

0-4 


234 
104 
824 

280 
140 


19,935 4,039 865 


202 



1 18 COURTS'MARTIAL-'COUSINS. 

One man can cultivate 12 acres, or, with machinery, 30 
acres. Seed cotton weighs 3 times as much as ginned cotton 
or cotton-wool, the seed forming two-thirds. Thus, in the 
above table, in the United States, a yield of 234 lbs. cotton 
means that before ginned the crop averaged 700 lbs. seed- 
cotton per acre. 

In Table C. the value of manufactured cotton goods in 
United States, Bussia, and Spain, is artificially enhiuiced by 
protective tariifs. The consumption of cotton per operative 
is higher in United States than England, because the 
Americans have a greater proportion of men than in England 
in the mills. In 1881 Great Britain manufactured 5350 
million yards of cotton-cloth, and exported 4800 million yards, 
home consumption being only one-tenth of the quantity 
produced. Great Britain consumes .one-third of the world's 
crop of cotton, but produces only 27 per cent of the cotton- 
cloth, the rest being exported as yam. England gets her 
raw cotton one halfpenny per lb. cheaper than Germany. 

OOUBTS-MABTIAL. — In the British army the number of 
men tried was : — 

Tear. 

1865 . 

1876 . 

1880 . 

Almost one-fourth of the offences (23 per cent) proceeded 
from drink. The number of men discha^^ for bad conduct 
was : — 

1870 . . . 1,616 1 1880 . • . 1,826 

The average for the decade was 1752, or less than 1 per 
cent of the force. 

OOUSINS, MAKBIAGE OF. 

Par 1000 Per inoo 

Xarriagoa. lUrrUffM. 

London . . . . 15 I Nobility . • . .45 

EngUnd . . . . 21 | Pranoe . • . .20 

Barrenness is 3 times more frequent than in ordinary 
marriages. Tl:e idiots in asylums in England show 14 per 
cent children of cousins. 

According to Huth 7 per cent of deaf and dumb children 
(1861) were found to be children of cousins. In Italy 9 
per cent of such marriages are barren, or more than double 
the ordinary ratio. 



Number. 


Batio of Arm J. 


18,590 


8-4 


12,217 


6-7 


18,711 


72 



COWS—CRIitB. 







Cow. 






Antlb). 






Uh.b. 






iJfiib. 


UiOtodKiDgdom . 


9.906 


2H 


1,980 


690 


H 






80 




EGO 


34 


Oa«»j. . . 




34 




810 


40 






29 












3S 




690 








IS 


700 


ISO 


13 


BelgiDED ud BoUuid 


3,623 


IS 


720 


166 


19 


2.708 


S9 


640 


170 


36 






54 




240 






1,036 






60 




Ennpc . . 


3.858 


46 
30 


670 


130 


34 


92,346 


18,260 


4,606 


36 


United Statai. . 


33.360 


S5 


6.660 


1,760 


75 


CuHUb . . . 


2,702 


SI 


640 


136 


65 


AmMU.. . . 


7.8B3 


S70 


400 


100 


S4 


Bifei FUte . . 


18,390 


610 


1,000 


200 


160 


Algni. . . . 


1,204 


40 




60 


87 


C.p.Cdony . . 
The World . . 


1.830 

i:.T,i95 


110 

43~ 


100 


25 


60 
38 


27,160 


6,Sd6 



For conauniption of beef, see Meat. 

OBEHATIOK. — A body veigbing 1 40 lbs. produc 
uhea ; time for bnmitig, 55 minutes. 



A. — Ukited Kinodoh bixce 1840, 



F«lod. 




BoDtlud. 


InUnd. 


UulWd ElDgdau, 


1840-49 . 


. 27,910 


4.045 


25.320 


67,176 


1860-59 . 


. 23,92* 


3,860 


13,640 


41,424 


1860-69 . 


19,230 


8.S15 


6,060 


27,605 


1870-79 . 


15.290 


3,110 


4,412 


22,812 



B.— Atbraqe Committals fkr 100,000 Ikbabitanis. 

Fvlod. SogUnd. SeotluuL InUud. Unlt<il Klnplan. 



I20 



CRIME. 



C. — United Kingdom, Convictions since 1840. 

Annual Average. 



Period. 
1840-49 
1850-59 
1860-69 
1870-79 



Euglaiid. Scotland. Ireland. United Kingdom. 

21,280 3,029 11,780 36,089 

18,291 2,902 7,705 28.898 

14,530 2,463 2,918 19,911 

11,720 2,190 2,492 16,402 



D. — Eatio of Convictions to Committaus, per Cent. 



Period. 
1840-49 
1850-59 
1860-69 
1870-79 



England. Scotland. IreUnd. United Kingdom 

76 75 47 68 

76 74 58 70 

76 74 58 72 

78 71 56 72 



Marder. 
Homicide 
Attempt to kill 
Infantioide 



R — England and Wales (1879). 

Number 

of Crinie.i. 

148 



234 

814 

88 



Bape, Ac. 

Burglary 
AflSMilt, &a 



Number 
of Crimea. 
521 
5,297 
8,211 



Totid 15,318 

The above does not include cases of larceny, which are 
counted among minor offences, Table H. 

F. — Arrests for Crime, England and Wales (1879). 

Arrested . 
DiBoha^ed 
Tried 
Acquitted 
Convicted . 

G. — Sentences on Criminals (1879). 

34 



Males. 


Females. 


TotaL 


18,877 


5.281 


28,658 


6,135 


2,210 


8,345 


12,242 


3,071 


15,318 


■ • • 


• •• 


2,788 


• « • 


• • • 


12,525 



Death . 

Penal servitude for life 10 

Da over 10 years . 91 

From 2 to 10 years . 1,401 



Imprison, under 2 years 4,553 

Do. under 6 months . 5,887 

To Reformatories 195 

Fined .... 354 



Tutal 12,525 

II. — Minor Offences, England and Wales (1881). 



Drunkenness . 

Larceny . 

Injury to property , 

Against bye-laws 

Anault . 

Against education laws 67,350 

Sundry . . . 224,736 



Offence*. 

174,480 
50,800 
21,030 
46,357 
84,284 



Total 



669,037 



Fined 

Prison, 6 months 

Under 6 months 

Bailed 

Reformatory . 

Various . 

Discharged 

Total . 



Sentences. 

367,334 

2,095 

97,003 

16,003 

3,601 

44,930 

138,071 

669,037 



CRIME. 



121 



L — Cbdiinal Population of Englakd (1880). 



I^^ealltj. 
Conviet priM»ui 
Local pnaooi . 
AtlMge. 

ToUl 



Mftlaa. 

9,184 
14,607 
31,992 

65,783 



Females. 
1,118 
8,420 
9,056 

18,589 



TbtoL 
10,297 
18,027 
41,048 

69,372 



E. — Batio of Ages in Local Prisons (1880). 

Under 21 yean 20-6 

21 to 40 , 547 

41 to 60 , 20-8 

Over 60 „ .... • 8-9 

100-0 



Lb — Scotland, Pbison Population. 



Tssr. 


Males. 


Fomsles. 


Total. 


POT 100.000 
Inhabitants. 


1840 . . . 1,862 


686 


2,048 


80 


1850 . . . 2,042 


1,017 


3,059 


108 


18«0 . . . 1,106 


1.059 


2,165 


71 


1870 . . . 1,7J0 


1,099 


2,825 


83 


IfcSO . . . 2,005 


l,0u8 


3,073 


83 


M. — Murders 


IN ALL Countries. 






Annual 




Ratio per 




AviTtge. 


MilUiin D«atliS. 


England . . • . 


877 




711 


Ireland . 






91 




883 


France . 






6G2 




796 


Geruiany . 






9i)5 




837 


Kusi«ia 






. 2,400 




970 


Austria . 






590 




930 


Italy 






. 2,470 




8,024 


Spain 






. 1,600 




3,200 


Belgium . 






90 




720 


Scandinavia 






120 




800 


I'nited SUtes . 






. 2.060 




2.460 



Total 



11,455 



1,432 



The above includes homicides, and in some countries 
infanticide. The deliberate murders (excluding infanticide 
and manslaughter) are about one-third of the above, and in 
SSpain and Italy one-sixth. 



N. — Fraxcr, Ratios of CRiHuiAt& 



Under 20 
SO to 40 
40 to 60 
O»ot60 



Of the total only 64 per cent could T«ad and write. The 
ratio of habitual cnminab has increased as follows: — 



0. — Convicts is Pedal Skrtitudk. 



j ,-. 


KumbB-. Anng.. 


CoBTkupu- 100.000 InlobL 1 


EngU.d. 


p™™. 


EniUad.. 


rfBc 


i ]S3o-4a . 
i8ii-eo . 

1 1861-70 . 
1871-80 . 


lo'.sso 

B,OM 


16,830 
18,330 
18,210 

16,630 


M6 

ses 


611 
filS 
489 
458 



P. — Crime ik Beloicu. 

imbwof P»10.000 I y Number of Per 10.00 



— Crime in Fbascb. 





OtbDOU 


par lOI^DOO labAltuU. 1 


















23 


SOS 


231 




21 


ses 


310 




18 


4S4 


443 




11 




S9S 


1870-79 .■ . . 


12 


433 


444 



In Italy the average number of crimes in the years 1874-76 
WHS 7085, of which 2470 were murders or hoiiuciiie& 



fiRISES— CUSTOMS. 



"3 



—The most nmukablB since the middle of the 
18th century have been u follows : — 
178& Aautaid>iii,(>lpiutliigwlUitliafaoiiMofDaNeQlTUIa. Ailuio, 

10 tn HoiUDd, SO in Bnjdsad. 37 in EuabnrB. 
1TT& FsUdrs ia HoUasd UMedliiff 10 mUlunu. 
1799. HsBibiin-, 83 fsflora, S mUlIiiu. Psnie kt LlTcipooL Pariia- 

mant liot hBlf-K-mflUon in Exchequer billa on gomli. 
1814. Sat/mad, 840 buki nupanded. 
18SS. IfMchMter, fuliiTCa 3 milliii^ 
ISSl. CUoBtt^ unarm U wmoBM. 
1SS7. Unhad BtotM, -WUdiat'' criiii; >U buika cloud 
1639. Buk of gngi^wl uTwl bj Bank of Fruo& Severe >1m> In 

Fnnce, whara 98 ooo^iaiuaa tailad for B millloni. 
18M. Kogland. Stataloanitomandiaiiti. Bank at England reformsd. 
1847. Enriand, fallDna SO "^"i""' ; diKaant IS per cent 
1857. Uiutad Btatca, 7800 booiM faOad for 111 miUioni. 
1868> London, Oraraud-Ooiiiaj eriiii ; faUoraa axceedod 100 mUlioni, 
ODSRENT. — In the Pacific Ocean a bottle was thrown 
OTerboard in 4° S. and 119° W., and after 455 days was picked 
up, June 1881, in the Feqea Islands, having been carried 
6700 miles, or 16 miles a day. 
(TUBTOHB. 

A, CfBTOIIS-KEVEItDB OF ALL XATIOKfl. 





AluoiiM 


^!^.'" 


ShilllBK., 




(Thuunudi^X 


per InhAhlUiiL 






1871-80. 


im. 




18TI-80 


mi. 










Per Cent 






United Kingilom . 


20,110 


19,134 


330 ' 


12-5 


11-6 






10,320 


12,615 


3-78 


B-7 


7-5 






8,640 


e,630 


3 -23 


4-0 


4'2 


Ku»ia . . 




10.625 


12,170 


lOfla 


3-0 


31 


Autria 




2.ei0 


S,0SO 


2'33 


1-B 


1'6 


i'^.: : 




6,080 


6,B70 


6'80 


3-6 


3-9 




4,410 


4,760 


12-10 


C-5 


67 


Portugal . 




1,790 


2.160 


16-^2 


8 '5 


lO'I 


SZ : 




780 


1,010 


0'87 


31 


8-9 




415 


430 


0-36 


2-2 


2-2 


Denmark . 




sno 


980 


5-12 


10-0 


10-0 


Sweden and Norway . 
Enrnpa . 


2,31)0 


2,515 


7-05 


76 


7-6 


43,020 


74,104 


3^0 


4-4 


1-6 


United SUtei 




2S,030 


40,590 


1310 


12-0 


166 


CH»da 




2,716 


2.880 


8-23 


13-0 


12 8 


Aoftnli. . 




4,250 


8,2-26 


6-U 


31-0 


IS'O 


B«zU . . 




8,680 


7,310 


20-32 


13-1 


15-2 


India . 




£.220 


2.830 


2-33 


0-2 


0-2 


Egjpt. . 




780 


90G 


4-51 


1^ 


41 


The World 




110.695 131,315 


6-10 


3-9 


~rr 



124 



CUSTOMS. 



R — British Customs-Rbvbnur. 

Ratio to ShUlinfi. 

CommerM. par Inl^W 

0*42 01 

4-22 0-8 

670 2*0 

10*40 51 

10-02 18*0 

28-10 18-1 

20-05 18*0 

4-95 14-2 

8-86 11-4 



Tear. 






Thoiiauuii£. 


1580 ... 14 


1614 






178 


1684 






580 


1720 






1,555 


1800 






6.788 


1827 






21,009 


1844 






24,277 


1866 






21,276 


1881 






19,184 



C — ^Incidence of British Ccstohb. 



Spirits 
Wine 
Tea . 
Coffee 
Fruits 
Tobacco, &C. 

Total . 



Amount Paid bj CIsMai. 



Rich. 



£170,000 

455,000 

160,000 

11,000 

35,000 

870,000 



£1,201,000 £6,808,000 



Middle. 



£1,350,000 
885.000 
1,288,000 
90,000 
285,000 
2,890,000 



Working. 



£2,708,000 

26,000 

2,526,000 

212,000 

190,000 

5,620,000 



Tbtal 



£4,228.000 

1,866,000 

8,974,000 

818,000 

510,000 

8,890.000 



£11,267,000 £19,276,000 



I). — iNaDENCB, PER HeAD, OF EACH ClaSS. 





Rich. 


Middle. 


Working. 


ToUlL 


Spirita .... 
Wine .... 

Tea 

Coffee .... 
Fniite .... 
Tobacco, &C. . . 

Total . . . 


£0 







2 11 
7 10 
2 9 
2 
7 
6 5 


£0 2 10 
1 10 
2 9 
2 
7 
5 6 


£0 2 8 

• ■ • 

2 1 
2 
2 
5 


£0 2 5 
10 
2 8 
2 
8 
5 5 


£1 


8 


£0 18 8 


£0 9 8 


£0 11 4 



Tho working classes form 69 per cent, the middle class 
28 per cent, and the upper class 3 per cent of the popula- 
tion of tho United Kingdom, as appears from the Probate 
returns (1877). 



DEAF AND DUMB. 



125 



D 



DEAF AND DUMB. 



A. — Number in Viriocs Countries. 





Number. 


Fcr Million Inhab. 


1831. 


1871. 


1831. 


1871. 


United KiDgdom 


14,328 


19,237 


597 


611 


France 


20,189 


21,130 


630 


603 


Germany . 


20,470 


30,900 


724 


770 


RnHift 


27,884 


• • • 


631 


• • • 


AnstrU 


21,684 


34,450 


802 


980 


lulj. 


12,018 


19,800 


628 


702 


Spain 


7,255 


10,700 


633 


655 


Switzerland 


3,976 


6,820 


1,996 


2,620 


Belginm and Holland 


2,166 


3,050 


335 


358 


Denmark . 


1,260 


• « • 


1,114 


■ • • 


Sweden and Norway . 


2,397 


5,540 


605 


920 


United SUtes . 


6,030 


18,150 


4C0 


480 



B. — United Kingdom, per Million Inhabitants. 





1881. 


IS6I. 


1871. 


England 


545 


581 


504 


Scotland 


552 


753 


633 


Ireland 


664 


975 


1,028 


United Kingdom . 


597 


701 


611 



C. — Eeturns for United States. 



Tear. 


Number. 


Por Million 
luhabitantt. 


Rntlo 1^ Sex. 
Males. Females 


1850 


9,803 


427 


55 


45 


1860 


12.820 


413 


55 


45 


1870 


16,205 


422 


55 


45 


1880 


33,880 


678 


56 


44 



Sex ratio is in most countries 55 males to 45 females, but 
in Italy 58 to 42. 



i 



126 



DEATHS. 



D2ATHS. 



A. — Death-ratbb op Countries. 



^^* ^^ aiua 


lMl-70. 


1871-«). 


SOTmra. 


England . 


22-6 


21-8 


21-9 


Scotland . 


221 


21*8 


21-9 


Ireland 


16-8 


18-8 


17 5 


United Kingdon 


\ 21-4 


21-0 


21-2 


France 


22-9 


24*3 


28-6 


Germany . 


271 


271 


271 


Aostria Proper . 


80*4 


81-2 


80-8 


Hungary . , 


887 


401 


88-9 


Italy . 


801 


297 


29-9 


Spain. 


297 


297 


297 


Belgium . 


22-8 


22-6 


227 


Holland 


24-9 


24-8 


24*6 


Denmark . 


201 


19-8 


197 


Sweden 


20O 


18-4 


19-2 


Switzerland . 


24-0 


24-0 


24-0 



Where the same rate is quoted above in both decades it 
means that the rate previous to 1870 is only an estimate. 



R — Dbath-rate op Cities (1878-80) per 1000 iNHABiTANTa 

Alexandria . . 

Amsterdam . . 

Baltimore . . 

Belfast . . . 

Berlin. . . . 

Birmingham . 

Bombay . . . 

Bordeaux . . 

Boston • . 

Bradford . . . 

Breslau . . . 

Brighton . . . 

Bristol . . . 

Brooklyn . • 

Brussels . . . 

Bucharest . . 

Buda-Pesth . . 

Buenos Ayres . 

Calcutta . . . 
Chicago ... 

Christiania . . 

Copenhagen . . 

Cork . . • • 

Dresden . • . 



34-2 


Dublin . 


. . 271 


New York 


. . 26-2 


237 


Edinburgh 


. . 20-2 


Nottingham 


. 22-4 


211 


Geneva . 


. . 21-2 


Oldham . 


. . 22-8 


28-2 


Glasgow 


. . 25-8 


Palermo . 


. . 28-5 


27-6 


Hamburg 


. . 24-5 


Paris . . 


. . 28*6 


19-8 


Havanna 


, . 457 


PhiUdelphia 


. 20-8 


387 


Hull. . 


. . 28-8 


Portsmouth 


. . 197 


267 


Leeds 


. . 21-6 


Quebec 


. . 22-9 


23-5 


Leicester 


. . 21-8 


Kio Janeiro 


. . 39-4 


211 


Leipeic . . 


. . 261 


Rome . . . 


. 268 


32-6 


Liverpool , 


. . 267 


Rotterdam . 


. 238 


19-0 


London . , 


, . 211 


Rouen 


. . 313 


19-6 


Lyons . 


. . 247 


St Louis . 


. . 19-8 


25-6 


Madras . . 


. . 38-8 


St Petersbu 


r/. 61-4 


23-9 


Madrid. , 


. 87-4 


San Francisc 


x> . 181 


24-5 


Manchester 


. 25-5 


Sheffield . , 


. . 21-6 


86-2 


Marseilles , 


. 28-0 


Stockholm . 


. 247 


801 


Mexico . . 


. 30-9 


Sunderland , 


. 20-9 


811 


Milan . . 


. 30-6 


Turin . . 


. 25-6 


27-2 


Montreal . 


. 37'2 


Valparaiso . 


. 64-6 


18-8 


Munich . . 


. 82-8 


Venice . , 


. . 227 


221 


Naples . . 


. 331 


Vera Cruz . 


. 70-5 


261 


Newcastle . 


. 21-8 


Vienna . . 


. 29-0 


25-4 


New Orleat 


18 . 227 


Zurich . . 


. ^^ 



DEATHS. 



127 



C. — ^DXATH-RATB FOB AOES, PER 1000 INHABITANTS. 





Underfiw 


6-10. 


10-26. 


S6-46. 


46-66. 


66-06. 


06-75. 


I^ted Stotes . 


68-6 


6-6 


5-5 


10-2 


17-4 


81-8 


64-8 


58-8 


101 


5-4 


10*8 


17-6 


27 2 


61-4 


Frsnoo • • • 


75-6 


9-2 


8-8 


127 


16*6 


28*8 


66-8 


Pmarift . • . 


• • ■ 


9-2 


6*4 


11-5 


18*6 


83 


64*5 


Austria . . . 


1117 


9*8 


6-6 


11-8 


211 


41-5 


92-8 


Switzerland 


• ■ • 


8-6 


6-8 


11-6 


19-3 


88-4 


82-5 


Italjr . . . 
Spftm • • . 


110-6 


11-6 


7-8 


117 


17-3 


88 1 


70-1 


106-2 


117 


8*8 


12-9 


28-8 


42 


95 


Belgium. . . 


68-1 


127 


ST 


12-9 


190 


82-8 


74-5 


Sweden • • • 


67-6 


8-0 


4*8 


8-2 


147 


27-4 


62 6 


Bfedium* 


81-6 


97 


6-8 


11-4 


18*5 


88-5 


72-4 



I). — Deaths according to Season. 



RnglAod. 


Frmsce. 


Holland. 


Auatria. 


Italy. 


Medium. 


Spring . . 
Summer . 
Autumn . 
Winter . . 

Total . 


110 
96 
95 
99 


117 
88 
86 

109 


88 

91 

126 

95 


115 
82 
91 

112 


88 
105 
100 
107 


104 

92 

100 

104 


400 


400 


400 


400 


400 


400 



Wint4.*r 


Summer 


TotaL 


Winter 


Summer 


Half. 


Half. 


Half. 


Half. 


London . . 54 


46 


100 


Scotland . 55 


45 


York . . 56 


44 


100 


Sweden . 52 


48 


Manchester 57 


43 


100 


Stockholm 57 


43 


Chester . 58 


42 


100 


Switzerland 56 


44 


England 55 


45 


100 


Germany 52 


48 



ToUl. 

100 
100 
100 
100 
100 



E. — Deaths according to Months, 100 = Par. 



Month. 
January 
February 
March . 
April • 
May . 
June . 



Ixx'dnn. France. Germany. 



103 
99 

124 
91 

84 
99 



6 Months 600 



114 
112 
110 
107 
95 
88 

626 



104 
100 
113 
109 
110 
94 

630 



Month. London. France. Germany. 



July . . 89 
August . 95 
September 113 
October . 84 
November 92 
December 127 



6 Months 600 



87 
97 
102 
96 
94 
98 

574 



94 
89 
94 
92 
98 
103 

670 



128 



DBA THS. 



F. — Deaths in Classes (Professor Conrad). 

Affluent. Middle. Working. 

Still-born .... 28 



0- 1 year 

1- 6 yean 
5-15 

15-20 
20-80 
80-60 
Over 60 years 



M 



>f 



f> 



«t 



118 
95 
48 
85 
86 
247 
843 



53 

240 

192 

49 

24 

63 

204 

175 



53 

206 

220 

58 

21 

64 

222 

156 



Total . . • . 1,000 1,000 1,000 

G. — Death-rate op Married and Single. 



Age. 


O/mrhian 




France. 


CKXITLaxiv. 


Male. 


Femalei 


Married. 


Single. 


Married. 


Single. 


Married. 


Single. 


15-20 
20-30 
80-40 
40-50 
50-60 
60-70 


« • • 

7 2 
10-2 
15-5 
22-8 
44-0 


• • B 

13-6 
16 
19*8 
27-4 
52-4 


88 
7 
7 

11 
18 
39 


8 
12 
12 
18 
29 
55 


12 
9 
9 
10 
16 
37 


7 

8 
10 
14 
23 
49 * 



The above table does not include widowed persons. 

H. — Death-rate in Professions (Neison). 
Per 1000 Persons, Aqk 25 to 65 Years, Deaths per Aknux 



Ladies* maids 


• . < 


80 


Protestant clergy 


. 10-6 


Barristers . 




, 11-9 


Grooms . 




, 12-6 


Physicians . 
VaJets 




, 12-9 




. 167 


Attorneys . 




. 16 8 



Catholic priests . 


. 18-3 


Coachmen . 


. 18-4 


Surgeons . 


. 191 


Apothecaries 
Vvine merchants 


. 191 


. 25-0 


Innkeepers 


. 27-0 


Cabdrivers 


. 26^ 



All England 18*0 

L — Death-rate of Clergy. 

Age. 

Church of England . 
Catholic priests, English . 
German Protestant clergy 
Population of Germany 
Austrian Catholic priests • 
Austrian Greek clergy 
English male population . 

This table is more modem than Nelson's, and 
lower death-rate for clergy. 



25-45. 


45-W. 


2S-A5. 


. 5-4 


15-8 


101 


. 9-7 


26-9 


157 


. 5-8 


20 


11*8 


. 9-7 


25-9 


16-8 


. 80 


21-8 


15-2 


. 87 


22 1 


15-1 


. 11-5 


25 2 


18-4 



gives 



DEATHS. 



129 



K. — DSATH-RATBS IN SCOTLAND. 
Aoi 45 TO 55 Ykabs. 





FMrlO^ 




PerlOOa 


Per 1000. 


Fannen. • 


. 12 


Garpenten 


. 17 


Beer-Bellera • 28 


SlioeiDaken 


. 15 


Minen . . 


. 20 


Scotchmen .• 19 


Qrooen • • 


. 16 


Butchers . 


. 23 


Scotchwomen 16 



L — ^Instttutb of Franob (1795-1870). 



Age. 


Death-rate. 


Life-expectation, Tean. 


Institute. 


Oenend 
PdpuUtlon. 


Initttute. 


Qenerml 
Population. 


35-40 .... 
40-50 .... 
60-60 .... 
60-70 .... 
70-30 .... 


12 
14 
21 
44 

82 


13 
15 
22 
47 
90 


32 

26 

18 

12 

7 


29 
24 
17 
11 



M. — ^American and Engush Bates compared. 



Age. 


Annual Deaths per 1000 Inhabitants. I 


Massachusetts. 


Maryland. 


United States. EngLmd. 


Under 5 

5-10 
10-15 
15-25 
25-45 
45-65 
55-65 
65-75 


65-8 
107 
51 
5-8 
11-9 
16-4 
26-3 
469 


51-7 

9-5 

5-4 

5-4 

101 

18-2 

281 

56-5 


58-8 
101 
53 
5-6 
10-8 
17-6 
27-2 
51-4 


63-6 

6-6 

3*8 

6-4 

10-2 

17-4 

31-8 

64-3 



N. — Forty Years op Enqush Death-rates. 





Death-rate per 1000 Inhabitants per Annum. 


Age. 










1841-50. 


1851-«0. 


1861-70. 


l871-«0. 


Under 5 


662 


680 


68-6 


63-5 


5-20 


7-3 


7-2 


6-3 


5-3 


20-85 


9*8 


9-3 


90 


8-1 


35-55 


151 


14-6 


15-2 


15-3 


65-65 


301 


29-1 


30-5 


32-0 


65-75 


64-0 


620 


63-0 


650 



130 



DEA THS. 



English Dxath-rateb — eonttnuecL 



Age. 




IUIm. 




1 














• 


1841-M. 


1861-4M). 


1841-60. 


1841-60. 


1081-80. 


1841-80. 


0-5 


72-0 


71-0 


71-5 


621 


611 


61-6 


6-10 


8-8 


7-5 


8-1 


8-6 


7-r 


7-9 


10-15 


5-0 


4-2 


4-6 


6-2 


4-2 


47 


15-20 


6-9 


5-8 


6-3 


7-6 


6-2 


6-9 


20-25 


92 


8-0 


8-6 


8-8 


7-4 


81 


25-85 


9-8 


9-6 


97 


10-2 


92 


97 


85-45 


127 


137 


18-2 


12-6 


11-8 


UH 


45-55 


18-2 


19-4 


18-8 


157 


15-6 


16-6 


55-65 


81*4 


33-9 


32-6 


27-8 


28-4 


281 


65-75 


66-5 


67-8 


671 


69-9 


69-9 


69-9 


75-85 


147-4 


147-4 


147-4 


135-2 


134-0 


134-6 



1 

Period. 


Per 1000 InhabiUnU per Annum. 


Hale. 


Female. 


Total Pop. 


1841-50 . 
1851-60 . 
1861-70 . 
1871-80 


231 
231 
237 
22-6 


21-6 
21-4 
21-4 
20-1 


22-4 
223 
22-6 
21-3 



O. — Army Dbath-ratbs. 



French. 



station. 
France 
Algeria 



188S-6«i I 
123 I 
248 I 



Station. 
Italy . 
General 

RuMian. 



188»-68L 
351 
14 5 



Arm. 
Infantry . 
Cavalry . 
Artillery . 
Average . 

P. — Dkath-ratb in 

SUtlon. 

. 6-50 

. 6-53 

. 778 

. 9-63 

. 6-66 




1857-61. 
21-0 
14-0 
160 
19-0 



BritLib. 

187»-80. 
6*6 
6-2 
7-2 
67 



Ireland . 

Englaiui . 

Scotland. 

India 

General avera;;e 



British Army (1879-80). 

Arm* 

Cavalry . . 515 

Engineers . . 6*27 

Infantry . . .6*51 

Artillery. . . 719 

General average 6 66 



This does not include deaths in war. 



DEATHS. 



I3» 



The death-iate among our troops before Dr. Forres barrack- 
reforms was enormous, the averages for the years 1818-40 
being as follows : — 



Gmit Britain 



0^6 . 



15-9 
141 
15-5 
21-S 



Gibnltar 
Corfu . 
Manritiiu 
MmIzm. 



S2'l 


Oeylon • . 


. 67-0 


28-8 


Bengal • . 


. 63-0 


80-5 


Janutica . . 


. 148-0 


52-0 


Sierra Leone 


. 488-0 



In the United Kingdom the rate from 1830-40 was 15*3 
for cayalrjy 15*5 for in&ntry, and 11*0 for officers. 

Q. — English Abls-bodebd Maub (1879). 

DMth-nto DMth-rato 

pw 1000. per lOOOi 

GlTiUani. . . . 10*02 | Royal nary . . 8*58 

Soldiers .... 6*66 | Merehant navy . 19*10 

Of 100 deaths in merchant shipping, 55 are frotn drown- 
ing; 35 from sickness, and 10 from yarious causes. 

R — DXATH-BATB IN BRITISH COLONIBS (1876-80). 



8t Helena . . 13*2 


Ceylon . . 


. 21-6 


Hong-Kong 


25*6 


AwtemlU . . 14*1 


Jamaica 


. 21-9 


Mauritius 


. • 


28-8 


Canada . . . 18*5 


Barbadoes. 


. 28-8 


Trinidad 


. • 


34-1 


Singapore . . 20'1 


Bermuda . 


. 241 


Demerara 


• . 


34-5 


S. — Dkathratb op London sikcb 1725. 




1725-50 ... 89-9 


1800-80 . 


. 837 


1874-78 . 


. . 


22-8 


1751-99 . . . 88-8 


1840-45 . 


. 24-6 


1879-81 . 


• . 


217 


T. — Violent Deaths: All Countries 


. 






v..™k«» T^^^o per 
^^^^^' 1000 Death.. 


United Kingdom . 


23,822 


83 -1 




France . 




16,373 


197 




Germany 




24.592 


21-4 




Rouia . 




18.500 


7-4 




Austrian Proper 




10,150 


160 




Italy . 




6,656 


8 3 




Spain 




4,700 


96 




Switzerland . 




2,550 


38-2 




Belgium 




2,577 


22-0 




Denmark 




1,054 


28-1 




Sweden . 




2,740 


81-6 




Norway 




1,290 


377 




Europe . 


. 115,004 


16-2 




United States (1 


87 


0) . 


22,74 





41 1 





Total .... 137.744 171 

Tlie above total includes 13,400 murders, 21,200 suicides, 
and 103,000 accidental deaths. 



jyi 



DEATHS. 



TJ. — Sexbs of Yiolsnt Dxath8. 



Percent 



England 
Sootland 



Male. 
72-6 
787 



Female. 
27-4 
26-3 



PsrOent. 



Ireland . • 697 80*8 
United ^ngdom 72*6 87'6 



X. — Violent Dbaths in England (1878). 



CaoM. 


Malea 


FBUslea 


Total. 


PwrlOOO 

Deaths of 

P«i|mlatioB. 


Railways . . . 

xTiro • • • • • 
Drowned (aodd.) 
Poisoned „ 
Cabs, &a • . . 

FaU 

Sunstroke . . . 
Various . . . 

Accidental . . 
Suicide • • . . 
Murder . . . 
Executed . . 

Total . 


1,077 
1,076 

619 
2,824 

286 
1,000 
1,509 

184 
8,623 


76 

859 
842 
118 
199 
682 
42 
1,780 


1,152 
1,076 
1,478 
8,666 

858 
1,199 
2,141 

226 
5,408 


21 
2-0 
27 
6-8 
0-6 
2-2 
4*0 
0*4 
101 


12,147 

1,299 

206 

14 


4,547 

465 

168 

1 


16,694 

1,764 

874 

15 


80-9 
8-8 

07 

••• 


13,666 


5,181 18,847 


84-9 



Y. — Scotland, Violent Deaths. 



Caum. 
Drowned 
Suicide 
Drink 
Exposure 
Poison 
Various 

Total 



Number. 


P«rlOOO Deathi. 


721 


9-3 


144 


1-9 


197 


25 


58 


07 


55 


07 


1,815 


23-6 



2,990 



887 



Z. — Violent Deaths, United Kingdom. 
PiB 1000 Deaths. 



Period. 


England. 


Scotland. 


Ireland. 


Uotted 


1840^0 . 


. 34-2 


82-8 


• • • 


• • • 


1861-70 . 


. 34-5 


81-8 


241 


827 


1871-80 . 


34-8 


85-5 


21-1 


82-6 



DEA THS. 



133 



AA. — AociDSNTAL Deaths pbb Annum. 









Ko. per 

Million 
Inbab. 


Batio of Sezaa 


Parcentaffe of Acci- 
dental Deaths. 




Male. 

1 


Female. 


Drowned. Burnt. 




670 


74 


26 


22 


9 


Fiuoe. . 






280 


78 


22 


41 


• •• 


Plmiisift . 






407 


76 


24 




• e • 


Sftzony . 






298 


76 


24 




eae 


BftTArift . . 






236 


76 


25 




■ • • 


HanoTer • 






896 


79 


21 




e • 


AiBtrU . 






258 


78 


27 




• • • 








466 


• • • 


■ • a 


40 


4 


Italy . . . 






181 


75 


25 


• • • 


••• 


Spahi . . , 






202 


80 


20 


24 


8 


Belgium . . 






830 


82 


18 


27 


••• 


Denmark . 






232 


• • • 


• • ■ 


60 


2 


Sweden • 






479 


78 


27 


54 


6 


Norway • , 






681 


• •• 


« ■ 


75 


4 


Riittia. . . 






201 


• • • 


• • • 


53 


6 


United Statei 


1 . 




628 


67 


83 


16 


24 


New York . 






668 


« • • 


• ■ • 


• • « 


• •• 


London . 






665 


• ■ • 


• ■ • 


• • • 


• • e 


Paris . . 






682 




• • • 


* * * . 


• • • 





LB.— 


Deaths 


FROM Drink. 








Per 


Per 1000 




Per 


Per 1000 




Annum. 


Deaths. 




Annum. 


Deaths. 


England . 


1,082 


204 


Italy . . , 


. 709 


0-85 


Scotland . . 


230 


8-29 


Switzerland . 


244 


3-81 


Ireland. 


280 


2-78 


Sweden . 


. 502 


6-25 


France . 


. 872 


105 


Norway . 


. 72 


2-36 


Belgium 


456 


3-83 


New York . 


324 


12-08 



CC. — Infant Mortautt. 
Percentaoi who Die undeb 5 Years. 

Norway . 

Ireland . . . 

Denmark . . , 

Scotland . . . 

Sweden . . , 

Dr. Play fair states that in England 18 per cent of chil^- 
dren in the upper classes, 36 per cent of those of trades- 
people, and 55 per cent of workmen's children, die beford 
reaching their fifth birthday ; too high an estimate. 



17 


England • . 


. . 26 


Austria . , 


. 36 


17 


Belgium . 


. 27 


Spain . . 


. 36 


20 


France . , 


, . 31 


RuBsia . . 


38 


20 


Pmssia . . 


. . 32 


Italy . . . 


. 89 


22 


Holland . . 


. . 33 


Liverpool 


46 



134 



DEBTS OF NATIONS. 



DEBTS OF NATION& 



A. — Debts nf Miluons Sterling. 



1820. 


1848. 


1870. 


1882. 


United Kingdom 


841 


778 


801 


769 


France 






140 


182 


468 


911 


Grermany . 






53 


40 


148 


229 


Russia 






50 


90 


280 


553 


Austria . 






99 


125 


340 


419 


Italy 




25 


36 


374 


522 


Spain 






52 


118 


285 


890 


Portugal . 






8 


17 


59 


94 


Holland . 






110 


114 


76 


80 


Belgium . 






■ ■ ■ 


18 


28 


62 


Denmark . 






4 


12 


18 


10 


Sweden and Norway? 






• • • 


1 


6 


20 


Greece 






■ • • 


10 


18 


18 


Turkey . 
Europe 






• • • 


• • • 


92 


110 




1,382 


1,631 


2,988 


4,187 


United States . 




. ' 26 


48 


496 


838 


Spanish- Ameri ca 




4 


62 


144 


237 


Canada . 




• ■ • • 


• • • 


17 


40 


Australia . 




• • • • 


■ • • 


37 


97 


India 




29 


51 


108 


156 


South Africa . 




* ■ • • 


• • • 


2 


14 


Egypt 






• ■ • 


••• 


87 


106 


The World . 


1.441 


1 1,692 


3,829 


5.170 



The above includes funded and floating debt, and un- 
covered paper-money, but no municipal debts or railway 
guarantees. 

The extra expenditure of nations since 1830 accounts for 
3691 millions of debt, viz. : — 

MilliAiis^. 
Railways and telegraphs . .767 

Crimean War 805 

War of American Union .... 474 
Franco-German War .... 382 

RusBO-Turkish War 211 

Ironclad ships 115 

Emancipation of Russian serfs ... 85 

Roads and bridges 720 

Sundries 682 

Total 3,691 



ml 


ai =rf ' 


a* 1 — 1 




i"' 1 a 1 ■ . 1 1 


ta J 

UJ ^ 
Q & p 

il 


1 1 1 ^ s 



DEBTS OF NA TIONS. 



»35 



R — Ratio of Dkbt pkr Inhabitant, in £. 





1820. 


1848. 


1870. 


1882. 


United Kingdom 


41 


28 


26 


22 


France . 






4 


5 


13 


24 


Gennany . 






2 


2 


4 


5 


RnwU 






1 


li 


4 


7 


Austria . 






4 


4 


10 


12 


Italy . . . 






14 


2 


16 


18 


Spam 






4 


8 


10 


24 


Portugal • 






8 


5 


15 


22 


Holland . 






18 


38 


22 


20 


Belgium . 






• • • 


4 


6 


12 


Denmark. 






3 


8 


6 


5 


Sweden and Norway 






• • • 


• • • 


1 


3 


Greece 






• • • 


10 


11 


10 


Turkey . 






• « • 


• • • 


6 


25 


£urope 






7 


6 


10 


13 


United SUtes . 






3 


2 


13 


6 


Spanish America 








3 


6 


10 


Canada 








• B • 


5 


9 


Australia . 








• •« 


1ft 


84 


j South Africa . 








• • • 


2 


14 


Egypt 








• « • 


8 


21 


The World 


4 


4 


9 


9 



C. — Debt compared with Wealth (1882). 



MilUonM £. 



Wealth. 



United Kingdi>Di 

France 

Germany . 

Russia 

Austria . 

lUljr . . 

Spain 

Portugal . 

HoUand . 

Belgium . 

Denmark . 

Sweden and Norway 

Greece 



Europe. 
United States 
Canada . 
Australia . 



Total 



8,720 

8,060 

6,320 

4,340 

3,610 

2,350 

1,590 

370 

990 

810 

360 

980 

210 



38,710 

9,490 

650 

590 



Debt. 



763 

911 

229 

553 

419 

522 

390 

94 

80 

62 

10 

20 

18 



Ritio of 
Debt. 



8-75 

11 ^a 

3-63 

1270 

11-64 

22-22 

24-58 

25-40 

8-08 

7-67 

2-80 

204 

8-60 



49,440 4,541 



4,071 


10-52 


333 


3-49 


40 


615 


97 


16-50 



9-18 



For Wealth, see CapitaU 



136 



DEBTS OP NA TIONS. 



D. — Intbrbst oomparbd with Incomk. 



United Kingdom , • 

Fnnoe 

Germany 

Russia 

Austria 

Italy 

Spain 

Portugal 

Holland 

Belgium 

Denmark 

Sweden and Norway 

Greece 

Europe . • * . . 
United SUtes . . . . 

Canada 

Australia 

Total .... 



Millions £. 



Incomo. 



1,247 
965 
850 
848 
602 
845 
218 

61 
104 
120 

47 
104 

28 



5,584 

1,420 

118 

las 



InterMt 

28-7 

81*8 

9*2 

24-1 

18*9 

19-6 

12-4 

2-8 

2*2 

2-9 

0-4 

0-6 

0*8 



Burthen 

of 
Interest 



2-30 
8*29 
1-08 
2-85 
815 
5-78 
5-60 
4-60 
212 
2*42 
0*85 
057 
8*50 



154-4 

12-2 

1-8 

47 



7.205 



1731 



2-80 
0*86 
1-58 
3*52 



2-40 



R — British National Debt. 









MiLUOKS. 


Pkr iNHABrrAirr. 1 


Year. 












Debt 


Interest 


Debt,£. 


Interest, 
Shillings. ; 


1702 . 


13 


1-3 


2 


4 


1748 . 






78 


81 


13 


10 


1763 . 






147 


4-8 


21 


14 


1783 . 






257 


9-7 


32 


24 


1797 . 






413 


17 


41 ' 


34 


1817 . 






841 


82^ 


42 


82 


1887 . 






788 


291 


32 


23 


1860 . 






826 


28-7 


29 


20 


1870 . 






801 


270 


26 


18 


1882 . 






763 


287 


21 


16 


Gross debt in March 1882 


£762,882,000 #9* 


Deduct loans recoverable 


29,900,000 


„ Suez Canal Shares 


8,976,000 


Net amount of debt . 


£728,956,000 


Debt 


Interest 


Consols . . . £709,078,530 


£21,294.577 


Term. Annuities . . 87,547,700 


7,107,572 


Unfunded . . . 22,077,500 


294,702 


March 


1881 




. £7 


68,708,730 


£28,696,851 



DEBTS OP NATIONS. 



K7 



F. — WXAIilH ^ND DXBT (GrSAT BrITAIN). 



Vaas 


MiLUom£. 


BaUoofD^bt. 


TMtf. 




WMlih. 


D«bC 


1702 . 




490 


18 


2-66 


176S . 




» 




1,100 


147 


18-86 


1797 . 




1 




1,800 


418 


22-94 


1817 . 








2,400 


841 


85-04 


1897. 








8,900 


788 


20-21 


1880. 






6,560 


826 


14-88 


1870 . 








7,080 


801 


11-81 


1882 . 






8,720 


768 


8-75 



G. — Incoiob and Intbbxst (Great Britaik). 





MiLUOIIM £. 




Tew. 




Burthen of 
Intoreat 


Ineomo. 


Int on D«bt 


1702 .... 


55 


1-3 


2-85 


1768 . 








122 


4-8 


8-92 


1797 . 








280 


17-0 


7-89 


1817 . 








265 


82-0 


12-10 


1837 . 








420 


29-1 


694 


1860 . 








760 


28-7 


878 


1870 . 








955 


27-0 


283 


1882 . 








1.247 


28-7 


2-30 



See CapitaL 



H.— Debt op France. 



Tatf. 


Dot, MiLUom £. 


Waalth, 
MiUiom£. 


Batloof 
Dett. 


Vunded. 


floating. 


Total. 


1880 . 


142 


10 


152 


2,130 


7-13 


1848 . 


207 


22 


229 


8,024 


7-60 


1 1852. 


221 


27 


248 


8,810 


7-44 


j 1869. 


468 


86 


504 


5,240 


9-60 


1 1882. 


831 


81 


912 


8,060 


11-80 



138 



DEBTS OF NATIONS. 



I. — Debt op Russia. 



^^._ 




MtLuom £. 


1 


zeBc 








, 




Foreign. 


lutemnL 


Pap6r>Moii9y. 


ToUU 


1842. 


6 


23 


8 


87 


1852 . 


12 


61 


22 


95 


1862 . 


41 


99 


61 


202 


1872 . 


105 


133 


74 


312 


1882 . 


189 


273 


91 


658 



K. — Local Debt op Great Britain (1880). 



London 
9 large towns 
RiinJ, Slc, 
Scotland • 



ailllionsA. 
20-6 
43-3 
73-0 
16*3 



153-2 



Sanitary 
Docks 
Sundry 
Scotch 



MilliADs £» 
567 
28-2 
57-0 
16-3 



153-2 



L. — Debts op Cities. 



City. 


Debt 
(Mimons£). 


Per 

Inhabitant. 


Vuluation 
(Millions £). 


Debt to 
Valoatiaii. 


London . . . 


20-6 


£5 7 





689 


3-0 


Paris . . . 


86-3 


34 5 





320 


267 


Berlin . . . 


6-6 


5 3 





164 


3-5 


Liverpool . . 
Manchester 


21-6 
6-2 


89 12 
10 18 






66 
62 


82-5 
10-0 


Birmingham . 
Leeds . . . 


61 
35 


15 
11 7 






28 
22 


21-8 1 
15-8 1 


Rome . . . 


23 


7 16 





14 


16-0 


Buda-Pesth . 


1-3 


4 5 





44 


2-9 


Bradford . . 


3-4 


19 





18 


18-9 


Breslau . . . 


1-3 


5 6 





■ • • 


• ■ • 


Bristol . . . 


0-6 


2 18 





16 


3-8 


Munich . . . 


1-5 


6 





15 


10-0 


Newcastle . . 


0-7 


4 17 





14 


5-0 


New York . . 


231 


19 1 





222 


10-4 


Philadelphia . 
Brooklyn . . 
St Louis . . 


1 3-4 
7-9 

4-8 


4 1 
14 17 
13 11 







119 
45 
32 


2-9 
17-6 
15-0 



Besides the above, the followiDg cities in 1881 owed 
millions sterling as follows : — Boston 6, Baltimore 6, Wash- 
ington 6, Cincinnati 5, Chicago 3, l^ttsburg 3, Providence 2, 
San Francisco 1. 



DEBTS OF NATIONS. 
M. — ^LoGUi DcBH DT United States (1881). 





lUtto 


w«iu.. 










1 ««•. 


cu,. 


TbUL 


lohib. 


fwCm 


HklM. . . 


£1,720 


£],eio 


£3.330 


~£6~ 


36 




OM 


020 


1,310 


4 


1-7 






120 


120 




0-a 


Rlwdalduul 


S!M 


2,190 


2,710 


io 


a-6 




1,080 


2,080 


3,110 


5 


21 




6,780 


13,110 


19,890 
" £30,470 " 


-___ 


4-0 


NowEDglud 


£10,740 


£19.780 


31 


XawToik . 


. 1,870 


38,180 


40,030 


g 


2-S 


New Jentj . 


S»0 


7.920 


8,310 


8 


4-4 




; t,880 


8,310 


12,970 


3 


I'l 


IMkwue. . 


' ISO 


280 


430 


3 


21 


SUfjknd . 


a,s80 


5,780 


8,110 


9 


G-1 


Dfat. CoIumb>> 

UiddU. . 
Vlrgini* (2) . 


1 a,ioa 


4,780 
£66,180 


4,730 


_24 


10-6 


£74.680 


6 


2-S 


0,400 


2,080 


6,480 


4 


6-6 


Konh Carolina 


6,600 


140 


6,740 


4 


7-6 


South Cuolina 


1,350 


1,040 


S.3D0 


2 


6-9 


c;«.nEi« . . 


2,080 


1,770 


3,850 


2 


62 


f-tarid. . 




870 


eo 


330 




37 


AUbxDa. 




%m 


710 


3.110 


3 


6-6 


MiMtuippi 




eta 


so 


720 




1-7 






1 8,580 




3,880 


4 


6-5 


T«iaa. . 




l.OSO 


730 


1,780 




1-7 


Arkuuu. 




1 1,040 


70 


1,110 


1 


S-2 1 


Kentnckj 




' 100 


1,460 


1,560 


1 1-2 


South . 
Ohio . . 




E.SOO 
£29,910 

1,080 


410 


6,010 


4 1 5'1 
21 4-6 _ 


£8,550 


£38.460 


7,020 


8,100 


■i 


1-2 


niiooi* . 






3.760 


3,760 


1 


0-6 


MiMAuri . 




; 8,i'30 


6.620 


8,950 


4 


S-2 


Indiana . 




1.010 


I,D40 


2,050 


1 


07 


Iowa . . 




1 50 


420 


470 




0-2 


Michican. 




180 


810 


990 




03 


WiM^b. 




470 


780 


1,1£60 




06 


MbmooU 




630 


610 


1,140 




00 


Kaw» . 




210 


380 


620 




0-8 


yebnfkn 




90 


90 


180 




II-5 


Colorado. 

W«rt , 

Calir<.n.i. 




SO 


10 

£20,450 


40 




n-3 


£7,110 
880 


£27,560 


2 


0-9 
0-6 


1,010 


1,700 






no 


20 


130 




07 


Nevada ! 




110 


20 


130 


2 


1-e 


FaciGc. 




i:s80 


£1,080 


£1,960 1 2 


07 


Tbo Union 




£i»MO 


£114,990 


£173,030 1 3) : 1'8 1 



I40 



DIAMONDS'-DIET. 



DIAMONDS 



A. — WsioHT IN Carats of SixLabobst. 



Kobinoor • • 
Star of Brazil 
Regent of France 



103 
125 
136 



Austrian 
Russian Czar 
Rajah of Borneo . 



139 
19S 
867 



The value of the above is not regulated by size, nor easy 
to estimate, but none of them is worth less than £100,000. 



B. — SCALB OF YaLUB FOB SmALL StONXS. 



1 carat 
8 ., 



72 



5 carat 
10 



H 



£200 
800 



Gape diamonds are of inferior value ; one of the largest^ 
the Stewart, found in November 1872, sold for JBlltOOO, 
weighing 288 carats, uncut The Kimberley field, covering 
9 acres, has produced diamonds to the value of 15 millions 
sterling since 1871, the diggings being from 100 to 170 
feet deep. The annual export of diamonds from the Cape 
is about 1400 lbs., worth over 4 millions, and the fields 
employ 2000 white and 22,000 coloured diggers. 

DIAMOND-DBILL.— This method of boring is found to 
cost about 7 shillings a foot in England. The following 
table shows the average wages and time employed iu 
diamond-drill boring in the Barrow ironstone district : — 

Depth, Diameter, Wages 

Tarda. Inches. Paid. 

48 6 to 2 £26 

50 .. 25 

SO 
23 
86 
59 
50 



63 

76 

88 
124 
126 

See Tunnels. 



Diameter, 

Inches. 

6to2 

n 
n 
ft 



tf 



ft 



Days, 
Working. 
48 
45 
54 
42 
66 
108 
90 



Co^t per 
Foot, Penoa, 
44 
40 
88 
24 
32 
88 
82 



DIET. 



A. — Wbkklt Rations in Lbs. 





nations. 


Nitrogenous, 


Carboi^ 




Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


British soldiers . 


• 257 


2*46 


4-84 


Do. in India 


. 200 


2-88 


4-52 


French soldiers 


28-6 


2-26 


5-81 


Germsn „ 


28-8 


1-56 


6-25 


Dutch „ 


. 25-0 


1-67 


4-82 


Chelsea Hospitol 


. 22-6 


1-99 


5-81 


English convicts 


. 22-2 


1-88 


4-99 


Farm-labourer . 


. 221 


1-82 


511 


Workhouse, aged 


17-8 


1-50 


8-96 


Chelsea boys • 


. 167 


0-88 


8-98 



DIET. 



Ui 



B. — ^DncBZPnoN of Batiovbl 





ir«IthtlnUM.irMUy. 


BMmL ^iSS^ VagettUii. Bogv. 


SundrlM. 


Mdkr • . . 
flwiinin • • • 

OoBTIOfe • • • 

Pkopsr • • • 
FeoMle pMiper . 
Lonatlo . . . 
HMpitab. . . 


7-0 
8-8 
10-0 
7-0 
6-0 
6-4 
6-0 


8*6 
6*2 
2-6 
8-0 
2-0 
2-0 
8-0 


7-0 
8-5 
7-6 
6-0 
4-0 
6-4 
8-6 


07 
0-0 
0-2 
0-4 
0-8 
0-2 
0-5 


7 6 

1-8 
0-8 
0*6 
1-0 
2-0 



c- 


-Bblativb Valuk of Food 


(BsiF par). 


Ojitcn. ■ < 
Ifilk . . . 


. . 22 . Tiirbot. ... 84 | 


Beef ... . 


. . 24 


Mutton ... 87 


Dnok .... 


Liitntiiii • 1 


> . 60 


VeniKm ... 80 


g^itwfyn , , a 


Cnam . • . 


. . 66 


Veal .... 92 


Pork .... 


Cod-fiah . 


. . 68 


Fowl .... 94 


Butter. . . . 


Egn . . . 


. . 72 


Herring ... 100 


CbeeM . . . 



100 
104 
108 
116 
124 
166 



D. — Franklaxd's Table of Food bbquirsd to Lift a 
Malb Adult (10 Stonb) 10,000 Feet. 





LlM. 


Coot, 
Penoo. 




Lbo. 


Coot, 
Penoo. 


HUk . . 


. . 8-02 


16 


Bread. . . 


. 2-86 


6- 


#sr: : 


. . 7-82 


12 


Rice . . . 


. 1-84 


6 


. . 6-87 


26 


Floor . . . 


. 1-81 


4 


Potatoes . 


. . 6-07 


4 


Arrowroot . 


. 1*29 


16 


Beef . . 


. . 868 


86 


Oatmeal . . 


. 1*28 


8 


Ham . . 


. . 8-00 


88 


Cheeae . . 


. 1-16 


12 



£. — Foot-tons of Energy per Ounce of Food. 





Foot-] 




Foot- 




Foot. 




tons. 


tono. 




tons. 


Cabbage . 


. . 16 Beef . . . 


55 


Rice . . . 


. 145 


Carrotn. . 


. . 20 


Egg • • • 


. 57 


Flour . . 


. 148 


Milk . . 


. . 24 


Ham . . . 


65 


Arrowroot . 


. 151 


Ale . . . 


. . 80 


Bread . . 


. 83 


Oatmeal 


. 152 


Potatoes . 


. . 88 


Egg (yolk) . 


. 127 


Cheese . . 


. 168 


Porter . . 


. . 42 


Sugar. . . 


. 130 


Batter . . 


281 



Lobrter 
Oyvter . 
Tnrbot. 



F. — CoHPOSKins OF Akiiul Food. 

KltmcaiL W&Ur. Vartatii. 



^. : 

Trip* . 
B««f. . 
UonoD. 

ChwM . 
Fork . 
Bnooa . 
BdHst . 



G, — CoxposKNTs OP YsaviABVt Food. 

SUnh. KItTDgcii. W(tT. TarioiiL ToUI. 



Cabb»g» . 


*-o 


Turnip. . 


61 


CuTOt. . 


CG 


Be«r . . 


9-2 


Puvnip . 


9-6 


Beet-root . 


11-S 


Aaj»nfpu 


Il'S 


Artichoke. 


147 


Yun . . 


16 


Trufflet . 


16-6 


Sug«-.c«.e 


18-0 


BanMik 


197 


FoUto. . 


20-2 


Brekd . . 


49-0 


Be«« . . 


63-8 


P«« . . 


63-6 


Te». . . 


66-2 


I.eiitil>. . 


6fl-0 


Uillet . . 


69-0 


Coffee . . 


69-4 


Whut-flour 


697 


(Utmtal . 


638 


Cocoa . . 


71 -0 


>Uiie . . 


71-3 


Rye . . 


73-2 


Bwloj. . 


71-3 


Rice . . 


79-5 


BickirbMt 


79-9 



DIET. 



143 



IL — Dm OF EuBOPEAN Armies. 





Ounce* Dolly. 


Kuofgy, 
Foot*tous. 

1 


Kitrofon. 


fkl 


OftTtoO. 


Salt 


ToUl. 


British. . . 
Frendi. . . 
Gennan . . 
Amtaiah . . 
StuicUtfd . . 


41 
4-8 
4H> 
8-7 
4-6 


1-6 
1*8 
11 
1-6 
8-0 


17-4 
18-0 
19-6 
17-0 
148 


0-8 
1-0 
1-5 
lO 
11 


2^-4 
24-6 
26-2 
28-4 
28-0 


8,552 
8,719 
8,884 
8,590 
8,888 



L — FiKLD Kation& 









Ouncvs Dally. 


« 




Beet 


Bresd. 


Bice. 


Coffee. 


Sugar. 


TbUL 


British (Crimea) . . 


16 


24 


S 


i 


2 


44* 


Do (India) . . 


16 


16 


4 


2 


891 
87i 




7 


26 


8 


, 


1 


Gennan 


8 


28 


8 


^ 


1 


m 


RnsBian 


16 


16 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


82 


Austrian .... 


5 


26 


1 


• • ■ 


• • • 


82 


American .... 


20 


18 


2 


2 


2 


44 



K — British Navy Rations. 



BiMCuit . . • 
Meat . . . 
Peas, flour, kc 
Sugar . . . 
Cocoa . . . 

Total . . 



Ounoee 


Componenta. 


1 
EneiVT. 


Daily. 


Nitro^eB. 


Pat. 


Carbon. 


Foot- torn*. 


20 


2-0 


0-2 


8-4 


1,720 


14 


1-8 


3 


6-4 


1,310 


7 


10 


30 


560 


2 


• • • • • • 


0-8 


240 


1 


0-2 


0-7 


125 


. 44 


50 3-2 


18-3 


3,955 



Cabbage 
Beer . . 
Carrots . 
MUk. . 
Parsnipd 
Finh . . 
Potatoes 



L. — Percentage op Carbon in Food. 
3 

4 

5 
7 
8 
9 
12 



Egg* • • 


. . 16 


Biscuit . . 


. . 42 


Beef . . 


. . 27 


Oatmeal . 


. . 42 


Bread . . 


. . 27 


Sugar . . 


. . 42 


Cheese. . 


. . 36 


Flour . . 


. . i6 


Peas . . 


. . 36 


Bacon . . 


. . 54 


Rice . . 


. . 33 


Cocoa . . 


. . 69 


MaUe. . 


. . 38 


Butter . . 


. . 79 



See Fooct 



a. — Bhitish Prison Katioks. 









o«Dd.i>.i]r. 


■Htr. rooi-fu. 1 




H«d 


u^t 














Uboar. 




BiMd. . . 




24 


31 


i,m 


1,743 


Uort . . 






4-6 


s-s 




370 


JOlk . . 






3 


3 


48 


48 


IfcdMM. 






1 


1 


100 


100 


OttaBMi . 






3 


2 


804 


S(H 


ObMM . 






o-s 


0< 


9S 


98 


JlMt . . 






1-3 


07 


193 


104 


Smlt . . 






0-6 


0-5 


60 


80 


Ooeoft. . 






O-S 


O* 


82 


S3 


T^itafak. 






Itl 


Ifl 


10 


10 










14 


UO 


SSO 


TqUI . 






61 -4 


46-8 


8.780 


M» 



N. — AvBRAQS Food i 





Mm, .(.d KMO, OuDo. Itallr. 1 


BiwL 


k-U 


^^sr' 


Soor. '"■'-'-^ 


nnited KiDgdoin . 
VnoM .... 
GflrmMiT. . . . 

BouU 

Aiutrik .... 

IS.::;:: 

Low Cotmtrie* . . 
Denmwk. . . . 
Swedtm&Norwftj. 
United Stato . . 
Avenga . . . . 


21 
33 

SS 
32 
2S 
23 
20 
80 
81 
22 
2S 
30 


I 

8* 


2 

i" 

i' 
11 


6 . 3,373 
H 8,353 
It 8,870 
1 8.0IG 
1 8,034 

l 2.496 
U 8.225 
2i 3,558 
1 2.456 
H 3,402 
li 3,320 



The above does not include fish, eggs, potatoea, fniit, 
vegetables, cheitnuta, rice, and other articles of much im- 
portance. The aggregate food for a man doing [Ayaical or 
mental work ehould be equal to at least 3300 foot-tont 
dailjr, for a woman 2200, and for a child 1100 foot-tona. 



DIGESTION-DISEA SE. 



M5 



DIGESTION. 

A. — Ratio of Nitrogen Digested. 





Pi 


vr 




Per 


■ 




Par 




Coi 


at. 




Cent. 






Cent. 


LeDtilB .... 


6 


Rice 


. 


. . 75 


Meat . 


s • 


. 97 


Potatoes . . . 


6 


8 Bread . . 


. . 81 


Eggs . 


• • 1 


98 


PeM 


7 


2 Cheese. . 


. . 96 








R- 


-Time Required for Digestion 


• 








Hours. 


Min. 




Uours. 


Min. 


Rice 









Mutton boiled 


3 





£ggi mr 






30 


Beef roast . 


3 





Applet . 






80 


Bread fresh . 


3 


15 


Troat boiled . 






80 


Carrots boiled 


3 


15 


VeniMm broiled 






85 


Turnips „ . 


3 


80 


Sago boiled . 
MUk „ . 






45 


Potatoes 1, » 


3 


30 









Butter . 


3 


80 


Bread stale . 




2 





Cheese . 


3 


80 


Milk raw 




2 


15 


Oysters stewed 


3 


80 


Turkey boiled 




2 


25 


Eggs hard 


3 


30 


Gooee roast . 




2 


80 


Pork boiled . 


3 


80 


Lamb broiled 




2 


SO 


Fowl roast , 


4 





Potatoes baked 




2 


80 


Beef fried 


4 





Beans boiled . 




. 2 


80 


Cabbage 


4 


30 


Parsnips „ . 




2 


30 


Wild fowl . 


4 


80 


Oysters raw . 




2 


55 


Pork roast 


. 5 


15 


I^gs boiled . 




3 





Veal roast , 


5 


30 



DISEASE. 

A. — Causes of Death, Exgijind (1879). 



Cause, 
Z>motic 
Constitutional 
Local 
Various . 
Violent . 



Total 



Male. 
40,767 
43,887 
135,202 
88,774 
12,866 

271,496 



Female. 

40.507 

44,949 

124.454 

40,080 

4,769 

254,759 



Total. 
81,274 
88,836 
259,656 
78.854 
17,636 

526,255 



1>. — Deaths over 15 Years of Age. 



CMmie. 
Zymotic 
Constitutional 
Local 
Various . 

Total 



Mttle. 


Female. 


Total. 


8,116 


8,731 


16,847 


31,304 


83,989 


65,293 


84,296 


83,863 


108,159 


24,916 


23,708 


48,624 


148,632 


150,291 


298,923 
K 




C. — Dbcrk&bk or Zthotio Hortautt. 

Pariod, AnnvMl Atmw*. " 

lSSS-10 01,807 

]84e-l>0 88,924 

1868-40 7B,930 

ia7-K 6r,ii« 

1879 81,271 



D.— Alphabrical List 


OF 


DisKABBS, Ekoland (1679). 


1 


HDnnorDuiu 










TMd. 




lUi. 


FnMitt 




Apoplexy .... 


fl,«l4 


7.801 


14,306 


A^m> . 








1,»98 


960 


3,348 


Br»m . 








1.788 


I,4S4 


8,193 


Bifght'i diieue 








WIS 


2,217 


6.063 


BruDchltii . 








3e,69S 


36,824 


71.410 


C«.«r 








4.121 


8,608 


12,629 


ChUdbirth . 










1,878 


1,878 










18,639 


10,214 


2S.8S8 


DdbiStj . 








lieaa 


1.842 


8,674 








12,986 


11.788 


24,762 


D»rrh^ . 








6,713 


A296 


10,948 


Diphtheri* . 








1.840 


1.630 


3,870 


Drink . . 








814 


814 


»3S 


Dropiy 








S42 


1.416 


1867 


Dyi^teiy . 








291 


324 


616 


i^.. ; 








1,555 


1,421 


1976 








990 


884 


1,834 


OoQt . . 








6IG 


187 


683 


Heut . 








1MS4 


18,967 


32,091 










1,742 


Wl« 


8,168 










29 


6 


86 


JuDdlM . 








822 


740 


1.666 


Livsr . 








2,028 


2,079 


4,105 


Meulei 








4,878 


4,607 


0.185 


Old us 








13,072 


18,453 


39,635 


Ptnlviti . 








8,339 


6,264 


12,598 


PhthMi 








26,051 


24,162 


49.21 S 










16,721 


11.453 


37,174 










1,032 


1.027 


2,059 


SorlatiB* . 








9,148 


8,46S 


17,613 


Scrolul* 








1,643 


1,392 


2,935 










283 


253 


696 








1.058 


976 


2,029 








2.392 
2.920 


1.864 
2,9*0 


4,256 
6.860 


lyphu. 








304 


229 


588 


WhoojAig-couKh . . . j 6,804 


6,94S ' 12,763 | 





DISEASE. 


£. — DiSBASBS 


AND Ratio in Dbaths. 


DMfebfl, 
TboaauMS. 


Ratio. 


Deatha. 
Thousanda, 


Braochitii . . 71*4 


18-6 


ConviiltioiiB . . 23*9 


rhthini . . . 61-3 


9-8 


Scarlatina . . 17'6 


HeMt .... 861 


6-9 


Apoplexy . . . 14*2 


Old ag« ... 29-5 


5-6 


Cancer . . . 12*8 


PbeomonU . . 27*2 


5-2 


Paralysis . . . 127 


DdbOity ... 247 


47 


Various . . . 2051 . 


Bee PMhisis. 




• 



»47 



Ratio. 

4-5 
83 
27 
2-4 
2 4 
88*9 



F. — SiOKKESS IN Ireland (Census). 







Bick 


, per 10^000 Inhabitanta. 




Diaaaees. 


185L 




18«L 




1871. 


Medium. 


Zymotic . • 


58 




17 




9 


26 


Brain 


87 




50 




58 


48 


Respiratory 


16 




16 




17 


16 


Varioua . 


58 




48 


* 


48 


50 



Total 



159 



131 



132 



140 



(i.— Causes op Death, per Million Inhabitants. 




England, Yearly Ratio. 


Scotland. 


IreUnd. ' 


1850-69. 


18(X>-«9. 


1870-79. 


1870. 
566 


1877. 


1880. 
189 


Apoplexy . . 


451 


488 


540 


507 


Asthma . . . 


248 


186 


132 


114 


96 


63 


Brain disease 


202 


253 


267 


288 


315 


208 


Brooohitis 


. 1,185 


1,749 


2,295 


2,847 


2,525 


2,164 


Cancer . . 


315 


387 


470 


511 


451 


841 


ChUdbirth . , 


. 1 114 


112 


98 


75 


108 


105 


Consumption 


. 2,730 


2,547 


2,205 


2,044 


2,294 


2,135 


Diarrhoea . , 


858 


871 


895 


435 


421 


456 


Dropsy . . 


501 


848 


187 


130 


116 


184 


Heart disease . 


703 


975 


1,242 


1,439 


1,299 


781 


Hydrocephalus 


410 


858 


321 


325 


546 


223 


Liver disease 


213 


252 


280 


275 


224 


182 


Measles . • 


409 


465 


369 


366 


281 


197 


Paralysis . . 


452 


499 


515 


508 


560 


267 ' 


Pneumonia . 


. ' 1.265 


1,135 


1,025 


1,083 


865 


434 


Scarlatina 


996 


890 


805 


701 


879 


470 


Scrofula . . 


149 


148 


1*25 


133 


203 


187 


Smallpox . . 


240 


169 


258 


21 


11 


75 


Typhus . . 


945 


890 


410 


257 


466 


888 


Violent deaths 


744 


784 


750 


703 


799 


379 


Whooping-cougi 


h 512 


529 


517 


507 


432 


455 



14S 



DISEA SE^DISPENSARIES. 



H. 


—Causes of Dratb 


[ IN London. 






For Milltoa InhabiUnts. 


lUtefor 












England 




1859. 


18e9. 


1879. 


Medium. 


(1870-79). 


Bronchitis . . . 


2,810 


2,995 


8,622 


2,977 


9,295 


Childbirth . . 




93 


79 


48 


73 


98 


Consumption 




2,850 


2,756 


2,476 


2,692 


2,206 


Diarrhoea 




1,210 


1,061 


495 


928 


^95 


Fever . . . , 




657 


558 


249 


488 


410 


Measles . . 




488 


455 


670 


537 


869 


Scarlatina . . 




1,280 


1,825 


719 


1,278 


805 


Smallpox . . . 




425 


86 


122 


211 


258 


Violent deaths . 




752 


747 


774 


760 


750 


Whooping-cough . 


639 


1,178 


792 


870 


517 



I. — Diseases 


IN 


United States (1880). 


Cuuao of Death. 


Number. 


Per Million 
Inhabitants. 


Ratia 


Whooping-cough . 


11.202 


224 


1-5 


Scarlet fever . 






16,416 


B2S 


2 1 


Typhoid „ . 






22,905 


458 


3 1 


Digestive diseases . 






84,094 


682 


4-5 


Diphtheria . 






38,398 


768 


51 


Diarrhoea 




65,565 


1,311 


8-7 


Nervous diseases . 




88,670 


1.674 


11 1 


Consumption 




91,551 


1,831 


12-2 


Respiratory affections . 




107,904 


2,158 


14-4 


Various .... 


285,188 


5,704 


37-3 


Total . 


« 


1 


756,893 


15,138 


100*0 



It is supposed that 15 per cent of all deatlia escaped the 
notice of enumerators, and that the real death-rate in 1880 
was 17 '8 per 1000, instead of 15*1 as given above. Con- 
sumption carried off, as compared with England, thus : — 

United BUten. England. 





lf.iWH. 


Fonude*. 


Malo<^ 


Feimtlas. 


Per 100 deaths 


104 


14 


9 


^i 


Per 10,000 inhabitants 


. 18 


23 


19 


19 



DISPENSARIES. — Medical relief was given gratis to 
972,000 persons in England and Wales in 1879. The sum 
spent on dispensaries in Ireland is £150,000 per annum. In 
France 230,000 persons annually receive medicine gratis at 
a cost of £58,000. 





DISTANCES. 


149 


DISTASOEaL 








A. 


— OOIAM ROCTEB. 




HAmou. Milk, 


fl - 7 English. 
London — Madnu . . 




Aden— ifimriHiu 


2,822 


7,380 


JUeiMldtia —Son thiun pt. i 


2,980 


Siupip..™ . 


8,S46 


Amoor Kiver-3. FrMifi-t 


.. 8,9*6 


Madeira— PI jTOoxith . 


1,200 


AMEtuiua^C&pe Hum 


3,800 


M*in.. .-I^.n,tn„ . . 


7.330 


AncklaDd— Puuimit . 


B,*90 


Mr.,.ntiu-i-A.l.-n . . 


2,822 


Aiorea— Portsmouth . 


1,390 


BomUy . . 


2,503 




4,886 


Meibonms . 


4,670 


BsUtia— Sydney . . 


8,870 




6,280 


-Bchring'aSta.-S. PrkiicJ^ 


ra2,7ii0 


Lirerpool . 


11,666 




S.»7S 




4.670 


Bolnl»r-C.peofG.Hop. 


4,627 




8,888 


B™Uy-Ma«riti.» . 


S,50S 


New York— OklwM . . 


2,781 




G,S30 


Qlugow . . 


8,400 




6,380 


H>^nn«. . 


1,190 




8,386 


Li»«rpool . 


2,980 


7,950 


„ Portnnooth . 


8,076 




6,230 


PMn»n.bnoo-Teneri#e . 


8,080 


Stm . . . 


4,580 


2,460 


C^»of O, Hopa-CalcHtt 


slaai 


Pljmonth-FemnidoPo. 


4,180 


„ *^ Bomb. 


4,627 


M»lei» . . 


1,200 


J»* 


6,026 




1,390 


LiTcipo 


ol G,9BS 




4.029 




3.800 




4.050 


Liverpool 


7,825 


New York . 


8,076 




6,470 


St. Helena . 


4,330 


Itanenira— U-ndon . 


4,080 


Tahiti . . 


11,530 


f emudo Po-Plymuutb 


4,130 


(JiHjboc— Golway , . . 


2,392 


GklwftT— Botton . . . 


2.385 


Liverpool, . . 


2,634 




1,160 


Rio Jineiro— Southampton 


6,060 


Gi.»-ow-NewYork . 


8,400 


St. Helena— PorWmoutli , 


4,330 




2,185 


St. TbooioA— Southampton 


3,570 


H.V«.IUi-NWTcTk. 


1,190 


St Vincent -Ptman.buco 


1,608 


Tortjunouth 


4,029 


Teneriffe . 


850 


Bong KiDg— IIoddIuUi 


4,838 


Su Kranciaco— Amoor . 


3.948 


Honnlulu— CaIIui . . 


5,145 


Behring'BSti. 2,720 


8ui Fmnd-Ko 


2,081 


Honoluln . 


2.081 


T.hitl . . 


2,378 


Pknama 


8.1S0 


V.lp»nuw 


5,902 


Shanghai-Sydney . . . 
Singapore — London . . 


4.6J0 




4,050 


8.345 


Jft^-CpeofGoodHnii 


6.026 


Sqm— Calcutta .... 


4,'.80 


Livwpool-G.peotG.Hop 


e 6.998 


Sydney— BativU . . . 


3.870 


Cepe Horn 


7,325 


„ Cape Horn . . 


6,470 


Melbourne 


11.555 


Shanghai . . . 


4.640 


New York 


2.980 


Valparw«. . . 


8,198 




2,770 


Tahiti- Honolulu . . . 


2,378 


,: Qaebec. . 


2,634 


Fortemouth . . 


11.630 


IJ.b™-M^i« . . 


535 




2,450 


London— Bonibky . . 


6.3M 


Valparaiio — Htmolalu . . 


6,902 


(Mcutta . . 


7,050 


Tahiti. . . 


i.2:i3 


n Uemcnra 


4,030 


„ Sydney . . 


6,198 



150 



DIVORCES. 



B. — From London, Bibd's Fught, English Miles. 

Algien. . . 1,050 

Amsterdam 210 

Astrakan . . 2,180 

Axores . . . 1,680 

Barcelona . . 680 

Belgrade . . 1,040 

Berlin ... 580 

Bordeaux . . 460 

Boston . . . 3,190 

Bremen. . . 890 

Brussels . . 190 

Bucharest . . 1,270 

Buda-Pesth . 900 

Buenos Ayres. 7,260 

Cadiz . . . 1,080 

Cairo . . . 2,160 

CalcutU . . 4,870 

Canton . . . 5,960 

Cape-town . 5,950 

Chicago . . 4,050 

Colombo . . 5,370 

Constantinople 1,540 

Copenhagen . 600 

Cyprus . . . 1,980 

Dresden . . 600 

Dublin ... 280 

Edinburgh . 800 



Falklands . 


8,150 


Montreal . • 


8,840 


Florence . . 


780 


Moscow . • 


1,680 


Frankfort . 


400 


Naples . • . 


1,000 


Geneva . . 


460 


Natal . . . 


5,850 


Genoa. . . 


650 


New Orleans . 


4,820 


Gibraltar. . 


1,100 


NewToric. . 


8,620 


Halifax . . 


2,940 


Palermo . • 


1,1<M) 




450 


Paris . . . 


200 


Havanna . . 


4,700 


PeUn . . • 


6,400 


Hong-Kong . 


6,040 


Philadelphia . 


8,700 


Honolulu. . 


8,480 


Quebec. • . 


8,200 


Iceland • . 


1,060 


Quito . . . 


6,500 


Jamaica . . 


4,800 


Rio Janeiro • 


6,000 


Jersey . . 


170 


Rome • • . 


900 


Jerusalem . 


2.100 


San Frandaco 


6,000 


Lima . . . 


6,900 


St Petersburg 


1,880 


Lisbon . . 


980 


Sierra Leone . 


8,800 


Madeira . . 


1,600 


Singapore . . 
Stodcholm . . 


7,050 


Madras . . 


5,170 


910 


Madrid . . 


780 


Sydney. . . 


10,120 


MalU . . . 


1,260 


Tener^e . . 


2,080 


Manilla . . 


6,700 


Utah . . . 


5,500 


Marseilles . 


620 


Valparaiso 


7,850 


Mauritius . 


6,010 


Vienna. . . 


760 


Melbourne . 


9,990 


Warsaw . . 


910 


Mexico . . 


5,800 


Washington . 


8,800 


Montevideo . 


7.150 


Yeddo . . . 


6,600 



DIVORCES. 

A. — Divorces and Separations. 









Per Million Inhabitants. 


Per 1000 MarrUee*. 




1870. 


1880. 


1870. 


1880. i 


England . . I 8 


15 


1 


2 


Scotland 




8 


21 


1 


8 


France . 




' 38 


71 


4 


9 


Germany 




... 


130 


• • • 


17 


Russia . 




11 


13 


u 


2 


Austria . 




. ! 70 


91 


8 


10 


Italy 




! 21 


22 


3 


8 


Belgium 




22 


52 


8 


7 


HoUand . 




42 


55 


5 


8 


Switzerland . 






• • • 


370 


• • • 


51 


Denmark 




, 


170 


202 


25 


80 


Sweden . 






85 


47 


5 


7 


Norway . 


1 




3 


5 


i 


i 


Roumania 






55 


82 


7 


10 


U. States (Mass.) 




210 


860 


21 


45 



DIVORCES. 



151 



In Fniica 38 per cent of divoiced conples had no children. 
62 per oent were mairied over 10 yean. 

In SwiUeiknd for every 1000 marriages there were 13 
divorcee in Catholic cantons, 59 in Protestant, and 51 in 
mixed ; general average, 50 per 1000. 

In Anstiia the mixed provinces had 12 times more divorces 
to population, the Protestant 28 times more, than in Catholic 
piovinoeSb 

In England 116 divorced persons were married in 1880; 
in Switaerland 775 the same year. The rate of suicide has 
xiaen in all coontries in which divorces increased. 

B. — ^DivoBcn iH BsLoiuiL 

1000 Mabbiaob (1878). 
• e*0 I Bniaeb. 
. e-5 I li^ . 

In Bdgiam the ratio of divorces per 1000 marriages is 
5 times h^her than in 1840, and 4 times than in 1850. 



ABtWBip . 

OImdI 



14-7 
15-0 



C — Mabriaox of Divoboxd Persons. 

Feb 1000 Mabbiaou. 



England 
HoUand 
Hungaiy 



Denmark 
SwiUerUnd 



Men. 


Women. 


Total. 


07 


0-5 


0-6 


1-0 


0-8 


0-9 


1-2 


1-0 


11 


2-2 


2-4 


2-3 


8-2 


8-2 


8-2 


6-0 


4-2 


61 



The nnmher of divorced persons marrying in England has 
increased twelve-fold since 1861, and threo-fold since 1870. 



D. — Relative Inobbasb of Divorces (Kummer). 



France. 

Belgium 

HoUand 

Saxony 

Sweden 



1851-56w 
100 
100 
100 
100 
100 



1856-M. 

128 

140 

100 

83 

98 



IMl-W. 
160 
160 
112 
76 
109 



1860-70. 

190 

190 

116 

72 

lis 



isn-Tfi. 

163 
280 
139 
80 
132 



1876-SO. 
226 
420 
161 
106 
161 



Chrirtiania 
Prague . 
Antwerp 
Ghent . 
XiOndon . 
Cologne. 
Berlin . 



R — Batio in Cities. 

XUMBKB or DlVOBOES, FEB 1000 MABRIAGn. 



2 
2 
8 
8 
4 
6 
10 



Hague. . . . 
Li^ . . . 
Bnuaels . . , 


. 11 
. 12 
. 14 


Munich . . . 


. 16 


Frankfort . . 


17 


Rotterdam . . 


. 20 


Vienna . . 


. 23 



Paris . . 

Stockholm 

Copenhagen 

Breslau . 

Bucharest 

Boston 

San Frandsoo 



25 
28 
29 
31 
44 
78 
223 



152 



DOCKS—DOGS. 



F. ^Increase in France and Bslqiux. 



Period. 
1826-30 
1831-40 
1841-50 
1861-60 
1861-70 
1871-78 



DiVORCEB, PKB 

Fri»nc«, 
11 
1-8 
3-8 
4-3 
6-6 
6-3 



1000 MARRiAOfea. 

Pftria. 
4-0 
7-0 



9-9 
16-6 
22-9 
24-9 



Belgium. 
1-0 
1-2 
1-4 
2-4 
2-9 
6-1 



Brii««eU. 

41 

5-3 

6*6 

9-9 
11-2 
12-4 



G. — DivoRCB AND Suicide Compared. 





DiTofoes, 


Ireland . . 


perlOOu 
Marriages. 

I 


England . , 
Scotland . 


2 
3 


Russia * . . 


2 


Italy . . . 
Sweden . , 


3 

7 


Belgium . 
HoUand . , 


7 
8 


France 


9 


Austria . , 


10 



Suicides, 

per 100.000 

InhsD. 

17 
6*7 
4-0 
2-5 
87 
81 
71 
9-6 
16-6 
9-6 



Qennany 
Denmark 
Switzerland 
London . 
Berlin . 
Brussels 
Vienna . 
Paris . 
Stockholm 
Copenhagen 



Divoroes, 

per 1000 

Mttrriiiges. 



17 
30 
61 
'4 
10 
14 
23 
25 
28 
29 



8oicide«, 

per 100,000 

Inh*U 

14-3 

28-2 

20-2 
8*6 

17-0 

27 1 

287 

42-2 

85-4 

30-2 



DOCKS. — Those of London comprise 690, those of Livei^ 
pool 543, those of Cardiff 113 acres. 

Cost in Millions £. 

Iiondon . . 
Liverpool . . 
Glasgow . . . 

The new docks at Hamburg will cost 5 J millions sterling. 

Dock-dues as a rule average 2 shillings a ton in European 

ports, the charges on a vessel of 1000 tons being aa foUows : — 



201 


Antwerp . . 


. 6-5 


Hull . . 


. . 1-2 


182 


Cherbourg . 


. 3-5 


Bristol . . 


. . 09 


7-6 


Holyhead . 


. 2-0 


Dundee 


. . 08 



Liverpool. 
London . 



£183 
125 



Hamburg 
Antwerp 



£110 
93 



Amsterdam . . £81 
Greneral average 100 



The largest lock in the world is that of Cardiff, 600 feet 
long by 80 in width, ordinary depth of water 36 feet 



DOGS. 



A. — Dogs of all Kinds. 



Number 
IJcensod. 

Great BriUin .... 1,128,000 

IreUnd 368,000 

France 1,864,000 

Uermany 1,432,000 



Per 1000 
InhabiUiits. 

38 

78 

49 

31 



DRA INA GE—DRINK. 



'53 



Sheep-dogs are not taxed in the United Kingdom, and the 
total number of dogs in the kingdom is at least 2,000,000, 
Bay 55 per 1000 inhabitants, worth £800,000. It is found 
that 100 male dogs go mad, as compared with 14 female. 
A dog accidentally locked up at Metz passed 39 days without 
food, and recovered. 

BL — ^HUNTING-DOOB IN UNITED KiNQDOM. 



SUg-bonndi . 
Foz-houndB . 
Haniera 
Beaglea . 



EngUnd. 

604 

12,866 

3,258 

448 



IreUnd. Scotland. U. Kingdom. 

246 ... 850 

1,522 660 15,048 

1,516 ... 4,774 

74 522 



Total . . 17,176 8,284 734 21,194 

C. — Brain of Dogs, in Drams. 



Sheep-dog 
Fox-iiound 
Setter 
Mutiff . 



29*6 
29-2 
261 
261 



KetrieTer . . 25*7 

GolUe . . . 25*4 

BuU-dog . . 24*0 

Newfoundland 24*0 



Greyhound . 


. 28*4 


Terrier . . 


. 20*0 


Spaniel . . 


. 18*1 


I*p-dog . . 


. 18*0 



As compared with the above, the wolf has 42, the jackal 
15, the fox 13 drams. 

DRAINAGE. — Subsoil drainage in England costs on an 
average £b per acre, and produces 5 bushels more wheat, 
say 20 per cent, extra. Eeclaiming land in Scotland costs 
about £17 per acre. 

For drainage of towns, see Seweis, 

DBINK. 

A. — Consumption in United Kingdom. 

Millions or Oallonr. 



Tear. 


Boer. 


Bpirita. 


^^ ^1 


Wine. 


EquiTalent in 
AlcohoL 


1840 


640 


26*7 




6*5 


44*3 


1860 


770 


27*2 




7*5 


49-9 


1871 


980 


83*6 




161 


63-9 


1S81 


1.007 


870 




15-6 


67*2 




R— Consumption per 


In 


HABITANT. 






Oi 


ILI^ 


N-8. 




Tear. 


Beer. 


Spiriti. 


Wino, 


Equivalent in 
Alcohol. 


1840 


24*2 


0-97 




0-25 


1*64 


1860 


26-5 


0-93 




0*26 


1-72 


1871 


80*6 


106 




0*61 


202 


1881 


28-6 


1-05 




0*44 


1*92 



154 



DRINK, 



C. — Consumption in Thbes Kinodoxs (1881). 

Oalloms 





Beer. 


Bplilti. 


■qoivalMiiia 
▲looboL 


England 


. 84*8 


0-86 


206 


Scotland 


10-6 


2-28 


1-80 


Ireland 


. 121 


1-29 


1-82 


United Kingdom 


286 


1-05 


1-92 


D. — ExPBNDmjRB IN Drink. 






Uniled Klngdoa. Pn- Tnlialiitant 


Beer • 


. £62,800,000 




£1 16 


British spirits 
Imported „ 


21,500,000 




12 4 


6,800,000 




8 6 


Wine . 


6,900,000 




8 10 


Cider, &a . 


1,200,000 
. £98,700,000 




9 


Total . 


£2 16 5 







E. 


— Drink 


OF ALL 


Nations. 






] 


HiLLioss or Gallovs. 
















AlcoboL 




Wine. 


Beer. 


Spirits. 


BqolTRlent 
inAlcohoL 


OttUoos 
per luhalk. 


United Kingdom . 


15 


1,007 


87 


67-2 


1-92 


Franoe . . . . 


760 


190 


84 


101-0 


2-65 


Germany . . 






120 


880 


60 


72-4 


1-60 


Russia . . . 






30 


63 


145 


80-6 


1-05 


Austria . . 






800 


245 


80 


58-0 


1-45 


Italy . . . 






480 


20 


10 


50-2 


176 1 


Spain . . . 






220 


2 


8 


24-0 


1*48 


Portugal . , 






60 


1 


1 


7-0 


1-55 


Holland . 






3 


85 


12 


8-2 


2-05 


Belgium . 






4 


170 


10 


11-4 


2-07 


Denmark . 






1 


25 


8 


51 


2-60 


Sweden and Norwa 

Europe . . 
United SUtes . 


7 2 


85 


27 


15-4 


2-27 1 


. 1.995 


2,678 


377 


495*5 


1*65 


80 


440 


76 


66-5 


1-81 


Colonies, &c. 


108 


81 


20 


252 


1-80 


The Wor] 


Id 


• 


. 2,188 


8,194 


473 


587-2 


1-70 



Italy 
Trance 



F. — Insanity from Drink. 

Ratio or Dipsomaniacs to all Insane 

. 12 per cent | United SUtes 29^ cent 
. 21 „ ! Scotland . 28 „ 



DRO WNED'-DR UN KEN NESS. 



155 



DROWHED, AOOIDENTALLY. 

A. 



England • 

8o(2lMid 

Ireland 

United Kingdom 

Tnnoe 

United SUtet . 

The above is in internal waters only. 



Number 


Per 1000 


Dro(wn«d. 


Deetlu. 


8,690 


6*6 


560 


7-6 


825 


81 


4,566 


6-6 


5,170 


6-2 


4,820 


6-8 



B. — Ratio op Sex Drowned. 



United Kingdom 
France 



Males. 
76 
82 



Femalee. 
24 
18 



C. — Accidentally Drowned in England (1879). 



Boating 
Bathing 



156 
190 



Skating . 
Various . 



147 

8,197 



Total 3,690 

There were 1112 under 12 years of age. The number of 
drowning persons timely rescued by the Koyal Humane 
Society was 136. 



D. — Drowned in Kotal Navy and British Merchant 

Service. 



period. ^ 



Men Drowned, per Annum. Ratio per 1000 Afloat. 



1866-70 
1876-79 



Koyal Navy. 
172 
133 



Merchant. 
2,740 
2,225 



Royal Navy. 
3-6 
2-9 



Merchant. 

14-0 

11-3 



DRUNKENNESS. 



A- — Relative Mortality of Drink. 
Ykabs of Intemfebancs to Produce Death. 



Gaas. 




Liquor. 




Wtimen 


. 14 


Beer . 


. 22 


Gentlemen . 


. 15 


Spirits 


17 


Working clam . 


. 18 


Mixed 


. 16 



This shows that the working class can stand drink longest, 
and that beer is the least deadly form of intemperance. 



156 



DRUNKENNESS. 



B. — Deaths from Drixk. 





Number. 


Per 1000 Deathe 
of Populatiua. 


England 


. 1,082 


2-04 


Scotland i 


280 


8-29 


Ireland 


280 


278 


United Kingdom 


. 1,592 


2-27 


France 


872 


1-05 


Belgium 


456 


8-83 


Sweden 


502 


6*25 


Norway 


72 


2-86 


Switzerland 


244 


8*81 


Italy .... 


709 


0-85 


New York . 


824 


1208 



Total 



4,771 



1-81 



C. — ^Yalub of Life, Drunk and Sober. 

ExpEOTANCT or TRAHa. 



Age. 
20 
30 
40 



Drunk. 
15 
14 
11 



Soben 
44 
36 
29 



D. — Intemperance in United Kingdom. 



Deaths 
Insane 
Crimes 



Atinual 

Result. 

1,592 

3,350 

6,140 



Sick 

Loss of work 

Extra taxes 



Annua] 

Reculu 

84,000 

£7,400,000 

£1,700,000 



E. — Fined for Drunkenness, Enolanr 

Tcfir. Number. Per 1000 Inhah. 

I860 88,410 4-4 

1870 187,200 6-0 

1879 178,429 7*0 

1881 174,481 67 

In Franco 61,000 persons were fined for drunkenness in 
1881, showing a decline. 

F. — Drunkenness in Large Towns. 



London . 


per 


per Annum 
1000 Inbab. 
5 


Limerick 


C*»es TM»r Annum 
per iOOO luhak 
. 85 


Leeds 

Nottingham . 
Belfast . 




. 7 

9 

. 21 


Glasgow 
Liverpool 
Dublin . 


. 88 
. 42 
. 48 


Manchester 




. 31 


Cork 


. 56 



The ratio for London is not reliable, although numerically 



D HA RFS~D WELLINGS. 1 57 

cnnect, u the aathoritiM no longer tntit dnmkenneea in the 
metropolu u k mtademeonoar unless attended with diaorder. 

DWABra 



BoTowIiwki . 
Ton Thumb 
ilia. T. Thmiib 
Cbe-Mah 
LncikZuBta 
GenetalUite 

Const BoTowlnski 



Btrth. 

1739 
183S 
1843 



Cbiiu. 
New York. 



a friend of George III., and one 
of the most accomplished men in London society. Tom 
Tbnmb'i real name was Charles Stratton. 
DWELUHCW F0& WOSKIVa 0LASSE8L 



Otj. 


DuUlbjr 


So. o[ 
Toiie- 

2.700 


Sum Bpmt 


I»rW«k 


London . . . 


fmbodj. 


£780,000 


4t« 




Metrop. Ami. 


900 


241 


DOO 










m 






P.rii .... 






m 






Dublin . . . 


Corporation. 


■J 70 




Ml) 


41 


Liverpool . . 






Si 






<;iu^« . . . 




41-0 


U( 


;iuii 




BimuDghuD . 




7U0 








Stlford . . . 




aao 


t.' 


m 










!H 


m 








100 


. 





(lovernment loans for Uie above purim^es amount to two 
niillionx, of which 90 pet cent are for £ngli:>li town?. 
In 1805 Mr. George Peabody gave ^500,000 to erect in 
London suitable buildings for working men's families, at 
moderate rents. In January 1882 the buildings comprised 
61C0 rooms, in 2789 holdings, and were occupied by 11,460 
persons, who paid an average rent of 2 shillings per rooni, or 
4s. 6d. per family, weekly. The death-rato in 1861 was 
only IT per 1000, or 4 per 1000 less thnn the London rate 
for same year. The average earnings of each family were 
24 shillings, so that the rent came to be 18 per cent of same. 
New tenements were o|>ened in 1681 fur 430 f.imilics. but 
the applicants exceeded 3000. The original fund of 
£.'>00,000 now reaches £780,000, owing to prolita : cost of 
management only £800 a year. 



158 



DYNA MITE^EDUCA TION. 



Buildings for working-classes in London cost 6 to 8 pence 
per cubic foot, and sites 2 to 6 shillings per square foot : 
accommodating occupants at an average expenditure of X36 
per head. Average rent 2s. a week per room. 

DTH AMITE.— Messrs. Nobel of Glasgow make 1200 
tons yearly. See Explaaives, 



E 

EABTHQUAKES. — Since the bi«ginning of the 18th cen* 
tury the most destructive have been the following : — 



Tear. Place. 

1703 Teddo • 

1716 Alffien • 

1726 PJermo 

1731 Pekin . 

1754 Cairo . 

1755 Lisbon . 



Liree Loet, 
190,000 
18,000 
6,000 
95,000 
40,000 
35,000 



Tear. Place. LiTea Loe^ 

1778 CkiatemaU . . 83,000 

1797 Qoito .... 41,000 

1822 Aleppo .... 22,000 

1861 Mendoza,S. Amer. 12,000 



186S 
1880 



Arica 
Manilla . 



t» 



6,000 
3,000 



EARTHWORKS. 

Coet, Cubic Td. 
England . • 21 pence 
Suez Canal . • 12 



>t 



Panama Canal 
Cyprus. 



Coat. Cubic Td. 
15 pence 
6 



if 



The earthwork of the Thames Embankment inyolyed the 
filling in of one million cubic yards. 

RDUOATION. 

A. — Progrkss since 1830. 





Bcitio of AdulU able to 


Ratio of School Cfaildmi 






Write. 




to 


E*opuUtiuii. 1 


1830. 


1850. 


1881. 


1880. 


I860. 


1881. J 


England • 


55 


64 


84 


7 


8 


15 


Scotland . 




77 


83 


88 


9 


10 


15 


Ireland 




46 


55 


67 


6 


6 


18 


France 




42 


57 


78 


6 


9 


13 


Germany 




81 


86 


94 


16 


16 


17 


Russia 




1 


2 


11 


• • • 


1 


2 


Austria , 




28 


34 


49 


5 


6 


9 


lUlv 




16 


28 


41 


2 


4 


8 


Spain and Portugal . 


9 


18 


84 


3 


4 


5 


Switserland 


78 


80 


88 


13 


14 


16 


Belgium and Holland 


41 


62 


86 


10 


11 


15 


Scandinavia . 


80 


82 


87 


13 


14 


15 


United SUtet . 


80 


84 


90 


15 


17 


18 



rzs 



EDUCATION. 



159 



The niio of school children attending school is usually 
two-thirds of those enrolled (in Irehoid less than half), so 
that the nnmber of children at school compared to popula* 
tion is only 11 per cent in England, 9 per cent in France, 
and 12 per cent in United States. 

B. — ScHooLB, Tbachebs, and Pupils. 

Tbousammi. 







Boboola. TeMsban, 


Papllii. 


United Kingdom 


• • 


28 


67 


5,251 


Franoe 






74 


119 


4,950 


Gennenj . 






78 


101 


6,982 


BiMda . 






82 


40 


1,240 


Awtiia • 






81 


52 


8,690 


Itehr . . . 
Spain 






47 


52 


2,515 






28 


80 


1,428 


SwhierUnd 






6 


10 


411 


Belffiiini • 
HoOand • 






6 

4 


12 
7 


690 
490 


SoudinftTia 






17 


18 


1,100 


Ranmaniii 






a 

347 


4 
502 


110 


Europe 


28,857 


United States . 






177 


273 


9,705 


Canada • 






18 


16 


860 


AnatraliA . 






6 


18 


611 


Argentine Repnblic . 






2- 


6 


164 


BimtU . . . 






6 


8 


188 


iSlA 






6 
83 


6 

87 


170 
2,196 


Jl^MUl 






26 
660 


60 
963 


2,161 


Total 


• 


44,724 


C. — Educati 


ON OF 


United Kingdom. %^ 




BchoolH. 


Teachers. 


Cbildren. 


England 


17,614 




41,406 


2,751,800 


Scotland . • 


8,056 




5,880 


404,600 


Ireland . • 


7,5J 


10 




10.674 


468,550 



United Kingdom 28,260 57,410 8,624,450 

The above shows the average number of children attend- 
ing bchool : Table £, the number on the loUs. 

Passed In Three Highest Gssses. 
ATsrsge Percentsge ^^^ " %>^ 

Attendance. Examined. No. Ratio. 

England . 75 per cent 83 870,000 13| per cent. 

Scotland. 72 „ 87 82,000 21 

Ireland . 45 „ 47 82,500 18 






i6o 



EDUCATION. 



The last column shows the percentage of children on the 
rolls who passed the three highest classes. According to 
the Irish Census of 1881, the proportions of persons who 
could read and write were 64 per cent among Catholics, 
75 per cent, among Protestants, and 59 per cent of the 
whole population, as against 49 per cent in 1871. 



D. — ^Annual School Funds and Outlay. 





Thonsands. 


Cost per F 


upil. 


Per Inhabitants 


United Kingdom 


. £6,685 


£1 17 





£0 


4 3 


France 


8,200 


12 








1 6 


Grermany . 


6,900 


1 4 








3 


Russia 


1,000 


17 








3 


Austria 


2,900 


19 








1 8 


Italy. 


1,100 


12 








10 


Spain 


1,200 


15 








1 6 


Holland . 


500 


1 1 








2 6 


Belgium . 


900 


19 








3 4 


Scandinavia 


§00 


9 








1 3 


Switzerland 


200 


10 








1 6 


Europe 


. £24,685 


1 


1 





1 8 


United SUtes . 


16,830 


1 15 








6 6 


Canada 


1,050 


1 9 








5 


India 


1,280 


1 


3 





2 


Australia . 


1,660 


5 8 








12 


Argentine Republic 


850 


2 2 








3 2 



Total 



£44,575 



£10 



£0 8 



R — School Expenditure, United Kingdoh. 





Thousands £. 


r 

Coctper 
PupiL 


SuMdy. 

2,130 
847 
658 


YveB, 


Rates. 


ToUI. 


England . . 
Scotland . . 
Ireland . . . 

U. Kingdom . 


1,432 
252 
141 


1,486 
239 

• • • 


5,048 
838 
799 


£1 16 8 
2 1 6 
1 14 


3,135 


1,825 


1,725 


6,685 £117 2 



The above does not include extraordinary sums for build- 
ing, which arc provided out of loans, the balance of such 
loans outstanding in January 1881 being £13,130,000. 



EDUCATION. 



i6i 



F. — Rbuqious Dknominationb, United Kingdom. 



CShnreh of England 
Pkcabyt6riMi 
RomMi CAthoIio . 
y«rioiu .... 



Behool- 
chlldnn. 

1,589,700 
527,400 
526,600 

1,080,800 



PereenUgo. 

42-8 
14-6 
14-6 
280 



CoAtper 


HMd. 


£1 15 2 


2 10 


1 12 8 


1 18 10 



Total 8,624,000 1000 £1 17 

6. — ScHoous IN England and Walks. 

NuiQh«r or Schoola. 



Voluntary 
Board ichooli 

Total . 



Volnntary 
Board •cbooU 

ToUl . 



isn. 

9,772 

82 



1881. 

14,870 
3,692 



9,854 18,062 

ATengo AtUndance. 



•^ 1871. ISal. ^ 

1,827,000 2,008,000 

9,200 856,000 

1,836,200 2,864,000 



The avenge expenditure is 42 shiUings per pupil in 
Board schools, and 35 shillings in voluntary. 

IL — Instruction in United States (1880). 

Colleges . 
Academies 



Mediciiie . . 
Deaf and dumb 
Blind . . . 
Refonnatories 
Orphanages . 
Public sdiools 

Acerarft. 



School R. 


Teachers. 


PupUs. 


364 


4,240 


69,010 


1,699 


5,960 


167,100 


49 




3.019 


111 




13,3-20 


53 




6.390 


30 




2,213 


67 




14,220 


411 




751.000 


177,100 


272,700 


9,705,100 



Attendance at School (1880). 



Stat< 



L 



Xew England 
Middle . . . 
South 

West . . . 
Pacific . . . 



The Union . 



Thousands. 


Ratio Attending to 


Scbohurs 
EaroUed. 


ATerago 
Attendance. 


School Pop., Total Popt., 
per Cent. ]H>r Cent. 


760 
2,390 
2,297 
4,052 

206 


541 
1,417 
1.509 
2,449 

133 


61 
40 
33 
42 
46 


13i 

Hi 

10 

14 

11 


9,705 

• 


6,049 


40 


12 ; 



l62 



EDUCATION. 



Expenditure on PuUic Schools (1880). 

For Pupil, 
SUtes. Amount. T.^if^*^* Aven^pe 

Attending. 

£8 12 

8 5 



New England 
Middle 
South . 
West . 
Pacifio 



£1,908,000 

4,668,000 

1,479,000 

7,952,000 

688,000 



Ratio per 
luhftbitant. 

£0 9 6 









6 9 
2 
9 6 



10 9 



6 

19 6 
8 5 
5 8 



8 




The Union . £16,685,000 £0 6 6 £2 16 

This expenditure is merely on primary schools, in salaries, 
books, and other ordinary outlay. 



I. — ^Instruction in France. 

Lay. Clerical 

Schools . , 68,800 19,964 

Teachers 70,410 49,150 

PupUs , . 8,145,000 1,806,000 



Male. 
43,494 
65,130 
2,619,000 



Schools 

Teachers 

PupiLi 

Of the total number of pupils 58 per cent are free, and 
42 per cent pay for their education. 



Femald. 
80,270 
64,430 
2,431,000 



Total. 
78,764 
119,560 
4^960,000 

ToUI. 
73,764 
119,660 
4,950,000 



K. — Instruction in Germany (1871). 













Pupilatn 






Schoolfl. 


Teachers. 


Pupils, 


PopiuUtion, 
porCeoC 


Prussia . 


• 


34,988 


57,936 


4,008,000 


16 


Bavaria . 


• 


7,184 


11,921 


841,000 


17 


Saxony . 


• 


2,134 


7,219 


451,000 


16 


Baden 


• 


1,957 


8,603 


245,000 


16 


Other SUt 


es 

• 


6,510 


11,820 
91,999 


784,000 
6,329,000 


15i 


Totel . 


62,803 


16 




L 


u — Instruction in Italy. 




Pupils. 




Public 


Private. 


Total. 


Boys . 


. 


. 1,049,000 


68,000 1,112,000 


Girls . 


• 


858,000 


92,000 ! 


»45,000 



ToUl . . 1,902,000 155,000 2,0.'i7,000 

Besides the above there are 456,000 persons attending;; 
night-schools, and 11,140 at universities. The ratio of chil- 
dren attending school to population is 1 1 i per cent in the 
North, 6 J in Central Itdy, 5 J in Naples, and 4 J per cent 
in Sicily." 



BDUCATION^EGGS. 



163 



M. — Instruction in India. 

Schoots. PopHB. 

Goraniiiieiit . . . 16,649 769,000 

AMirted .... 50,207 1,112,000 

Voluntary .... 15,705 815,000 

Total .... 82,561 2,196,000 

The State expenditoie on schools is £1,280,000 per annum, 
or 16 pence per pupiL 

N. — iNSTBUonoN IN Canada (1879). 



Ontario . • 
Quebec 
NoFaSootia 
New Brunswick 
British Columbia 

Total. 



Schools. 
5,123 
4,282 
1,985 
1,896 
61 



Tescbers. 
6,596 
6,132 
2,011 
1,600 
68 



12,786 16,297 



PupiK 

487,000 

239,000 

84,000 

54,000 

2,000 

866,000 



O.— Instruction in Australia (1880). 





Schools. 


Taschers. 


PupUa. 


Expenditure. 


Enrolled. 


Average 
Attendauce. 


N. South Wales 
Victoria . . . 
New Zealand . 
South Australia 
Queensland 
Tasmania . . 
West Australia 


1,910 
2,430 
836 
870 
888 
171 
102 


8,393 
4,960 
2,681 
837 
924 
823 
108 


169,000 
269,000 
84,000 
86,000 
43,000 
12,000 
6,000 


72,000 

120,000 

63,000 

20,000 

24,000 

8,000 

8,000 


£475,000 

653,000 

884,000 

87,000 

124,000 

24,000 

10,000 


ToUl . . . 


6,157 


13,216 


618,000 


311,000 |£1,667,000 



£oas. 



A. 





llilliona per Annum. 


Annual Con- 

sumption per 

InhabiUnt. 


Production. 


Consunaption. 

2,920 
3,920 
8,600 
1,330 


United Kingdom 

France 

Germany . 

Italy .... 


2,150 
4,330 
3,600 
1,840 


86 

105 

80 

48 



lien- eggs range from 72 to 80 per cent of the total in the 
above countries : they average a little under 2 ounces in 
weight, say 20,000 per ton. The United Kingdom imports 
22 eggs per inhabitant yearly, as against 14 in 1870. 



1^4 



ELECTORS. 



K — EXPORTINO COUNTRIEB. 



Year. 


Milliona Eggt Y9ur]j, 


Value (Tbooeaiidi Omitted). 


France. 


Italy. 

• 

42 




France. 


Italf. 






1861 . . 


264 


12 


£710 


£67 


£19 


1865 . . 


602 


40 


9 


1,500 


63 


20 


1870 . . 


499 


129 


81 


1,250 


206 


65 


1875 . . 


688 


182 


47 


1,860 


344 


106 


1880 . . 


428 


502 


109 


1,202 


1,450 


230 



C. — Imports into United Kingdom. 



Tear. 


MUliona. 


Per Inhab. 


)Tear. 


MUUona. 


Perlnhabw 


1853 . 


. . 123 


H 


1870 . 


. . 481 


14 


1860 . 


. . 163 


6 


1875 . . 


. . 741 


23 


1865 . 


. . 864 


12 


1881 . . 


. . 757 


22 



ELE0T0B8. 



A. — Number per 1000 iNHABiTANTa 



Enrolled. Voted. 
United Kingdom . 130 100 
France .... 263 158 
Germany. ... 202 120 
Austria . . • • 59 40 



Switzerland 
lUly . . . 
Portugal 
Belgium . . 



Enrolled. Voted. 
. 242 

22 14 
. 54 86 

18 18 



B. — Electors in United Kingdom. 



r 


Thouaanda. 


Per 1000 Inliabitanta. 


1835. 


1871. 


1881. 


1835. 


1871. 


188L 


England . . 
Scotland . . 
Ireland . . 


668 
73 

98 


2,066 
260 
227 


2,538 
310 
229 


45 
29 
12 


90 
79 
41 


93 
83 
44 


U. Kingdom 


839 


2,553 


3,077 


33 


81 


88 



' 


Tboutauds. 


County. 


Borough. > UniTeraity. , TotaL 


England • # 
Scotland . 
Ireland . . 

U. Kingdom . 


933 

97 
168 


1,592 

201 

57 


13 

12 

4 


2,588 
810 
229 


1,198 


l,8r»0 1 29 8,077 



The new franchise of 1884 has raised the number ol 
electors to 6 millions. See Appendix. 



ELECTORS—ELECTRIC LIGHT. 



l6: 



C. — ^BoROUOH Franchise^ United Kinqdok. 





Electon 


Fereentoge 


Electors 


Percentnge 


(ThouMadsX 


of Pup. 


(ThouNindi). of Pi>p. 


Belfast . . 22 


12 


Hull . . 


27 


18 


Binningham 64 


16 


Leeds . . 


60 


16 


BtAUm . . 16 


14 


Liverpool . 


62 


11 


Bradford. . 


27 


16 


London 


329 


9 


Brighton . . 


16 


16 


Manchester 


76 


14 


Bristol . . 


26 


IS 


Newcastle. 


26 


17 


DoUin . . 


14 


4 


Nottingham 


19 


10 


Dundee . , 


16 


13 


Oldham . 


22 


20 


Edinburgh 


29 


13 


Sheffield . 


43 


16 


Glaigow . 


60 


12 


Sunderland 


17 


16 


D. — Kepiiesentation 


OP United Einqdoh. 




Rftiwesent 


ation. RoTonue. 


PupuUUon. 


England 


761 


a 771 




74-6 


Scotland 


9- 


2 12-4 




10-7 


Ireland 


161 


B 10-6 




147 


United Kingdom 


. 100( 


) 1000 


1000 


H — Voters in FRi 


iNCE, August 


1881. 




CUaft. 




Thousands. 


Per Cent. 


Republicans 


• • 


. 4,670 




45-7 


Orleanists 


■ • 


. 1,103 




11-1 


Bonapartists 


• • 


f>38 




6-4 


Not V 


oted 


• • 


. 3,740 




37-8 



Tutal . . . 9,951 

ELEOTBIO LIGHT. 

A. — Greatest Lights. 

Electric moon, San Jos6, California • • 
Chandelier, Crystal Palace . . . . 
Chandelier, Pidais d'Industrie, Paris . 

Marseilles Lighthouse 

Sjdnej Lighthouse 



100 



Candle Power. 

24,000 

3,000 

160,000 

40,000 

180,000 



B. — Lane-Fox System. 



BoTM Power. 



6 

8 
20 



LighU 

36 
SO 
40 
GO 



Candle Power. 

10 
20 
25 
40 



Affgrcnte 
die r'ow( 



Can 



ower. 

360 

600 
1,000 
2,400 



i66 



ELECTRIC LIGHT. 





C- 


—Brush Ststeil 






Ekqinb 40 HoRSB Power. 




Number of 
Ligbta. 




Candle Power. 


Agsfrosate 
Candle Power. 


1 




150,000 


150,000 


12 




8,000 


96,000 


40 




2,000 


80,000 


400 




150 


60,000 



One engine of the above power feeds 400 lamps on a line 
of 30 miles, consuming 150 lbs. coal per hour, as compared 
with 1 ton per hour for gaslight over the same length. 

D. — Cost op Jablochkoff Light. 
Cost peb Houb, 100 Candle Poweb. 



Tear. 

1877 . 
1878 
1879 


Pence. 
6 
4 
3 


Tear. 
1880 
1881 
1882 


• • 


Pence. 
2 

1 




E. — Cost of Lightin 


o. 




Name. 
Siemens 


Where. Candle Power. 
British Museum 5,000 


Penoe 
per b<>ur. 

24 


Brush 

• • • 

Jablochkoff 


Kensington Museum 

Marseilles 

Thames Embankment 


2.000 

40,000 

200 


10 

27 
2 


Arc light 
Swan 


Liverpool Doc 
Nottingham 


ks 


6,000 
20 


15 



The San Jos6 electric moon stands on a tower 200 feet 
high, is worked by a Q-horse engine, and shows light for 
2 miles around. The Sydney light is visible 50 miles, and 
has an intensity equal to 12 millions of candles, being the 
largest light yet made. The Marseilles light gives 6 times 
more light than the old system, at a saving of 9d. per hour. 
The Kensington Museum saves X235 a year by the change. 
The smallest lights are Swan and Edison's arc lights of 8 
candle power for domestic use. 

The contract with the Nottingham Municipality in May 
1883 was for works and plant for supplying 60,000 Swan 
lamps of 20 candle power. The cost of instalment was 
£220,000, and after allowing for all expenses and interest on 
capital, the electric light would cost 40 per cent, less than 
gas, and give 40 per cent more light 



ELECTRIC MOTOR— EMERALD. 



167 



ELEOTBIO MOTOR. 

1873. At the Vienna Exhibition a pnmp was worked at a 
distance of 1400 yards by means of an electric wire. 

1879. At Sennaize, La Mame, a field of 6 acres was 
ploughed in 6 hours with a wire attached to a 12-horse 
engine a mile distant 

1881. At Oisiel a farmer named Meiner ploughed a large 
field by connecting an electric wire with a watez^all. 

1882. Project to tap the force of Niagara, by constructing 
turbines, the power of water being eslimated at 10 million 
cubic feet per second, or 8 million horse-power, and to 
transmit this force through the United States. Estimated 
value, £300,000 a day, or 108 millions sterling per annum. 
A copper wire, half-inch diameter and 300 miles long, would 
suffice to convey 30,000 horse-power from Niagara to New 
York. 

1883. Four electric locomotives constructed by the Now 
York Railway Company to do the work of 160 ordinary 
locomotives. 

Tramcar at Kew, near London, running by electricity at 

6 miles an hour, one accumulator of 80 lbs. sufficing for 

7 hours' work : cost 6 shillings per day, against 26 shillings 
worked by horses. 



ELEVATION OF CONTINENTS. 

AVERAGR ABOVS SsA-LeVEL. 



Kumpe 
Asia. 



Foot. 
670 
1,140 



North America . 
South America . 



Feet. 

1,1 r.o 
1,100 



EMBANKMENT, THAMES.— Completed, after 8 years 
of work, in July 1869, at a cost of £1,710,000, the work 
consisting of — 

Cubic 

Yards. 

650,000 



Brickwork 
Concrete 



Cubic 
Yiirds. 
80,000 
140,000 



Granite . 
Earthwork 



970,000 



EMERALD. 

GnlDB. 
6 
10 



VahM. 
£5 
20 



Oraina. 
15 
24 



Vftlnc. 
£50 
100 



i68 



EMIGRATION. 



EMIORATION. 

A. — Emiorakts from Europe (1820-1882). 



Natioxulity. 


Thoonndato 


United 
States. 


BritUh 
Colonies. 


Soath 
America. 


Totri. 


British .... 

Italians. 

Spanish and Portngaese 

French • • • . 

Scandinavians 

Swiss . . 

Yarions 

Total 


5,877 
4,884 
114 
82 
274 
682 
110 
815 


8,116 

162 

18 

8 

81 

15 

14 

498 


77 

68 

581 

406 

79 

16 

48 

268 


8,570 
4,614 
708 
441 
884 
663 
172 
1,581 


11,788 


8,852 


1,543 


17,188 

■ 



B.— Emigration of Ten Years (1872-81). 



From 

United Kingdom 

France 

Grermany 

Russia 

Italy. 

Denmark 

Sweden 

Norway 

Switzerland 



Emigrants 
(ThousandiJL 
1,729 
71 
2,411 
281 
1,140 
88 
128 
81 
121 



Percentsffeof 
PopiiUttoii. 

5-2 

0-2 

5-5 

0-3 

4-0 

2-0 

2-7 

4-2 

4*4 



Total 5,995 



Period. 

1849-60 
1861-70 
1871-82 



C. — ^Emigration from Ireland. 

Persons Evicted. Emigrants. 



1,865,000 
286,000 
311,000 



1,551,000 
867,000 
712,000 



8-0 



Ratio of 

Einiffrants to 

ETktioiUw 

81 

860 

230 



83 years 



2,412,000 8,130,000 

Ratios of Emiokantb. 



130 



Sex. 
Males 
Females . 



53 
47 

100 



Age. 
Under 15 
15 to 35 . 
OTer85 . 



15 
75 
10 

100 



Destination. 
United States . 
Colonies . 
England, ko. . 



74 
14 
12 

100 



EMIGRA TION. 
I). — British Emigration, Thirty Tears. 



169 





Kmignats (Thousands). 


Ratio to Population. 


1861-00. 


1861-70. 


1871-80. 


1851-60. 


1861-70. 


1871-80. 


England . • . 
Scc^Und . . . 
Ireland • . . 

U. Kingdom 


640 

183 

1,231 


650 
158 
867 


971 
166 
543 


3-4 

61 

201 


30 

4-9 

15-5 


4 

4-7 

10-2 


2.054 


1,675 


1,679 


7-3 


5-5 


4-8 



To 


Emigrants (ThousandsX 


1851-60. 


1861-70. 


1871-8a 


SO Tears. 


United States . 

Canada . • • • 

Cape, &e. • • . 


1,257 

222 

494 

81 


1,185 

136 

272 

82 


1,088 
178 
303 
110 


3,530 
536 

1,069 
273 


Total 


2,054 


1,675 


1,679 5,408 



The above does not include foreigners who sailed from 
British ports. The net emigration for the decade ending 
1880 was only 881,000, the number of returned emigrants 
(that is, of immigrants into the United Kingdom) amounting 
to 798,000 in the decade. The remittances by Irish settlers 
in the United States to their friends in Ireland between 
1851 and 1881 amounted to 24 J millions sterling, including 
XI, 510,000 in 1881. British emigrants in the 5 years ending 
1880 averaged 24 per cent, cabin and 76 per cent, steerage 
passengers. 

E. — Emigration from Italy (12 Years). 



Tear. 




Number. 


To 




RaUo. 


1870 . 


• 


111,000 


France, &c . 


. 44 


per cent. 


1871-80 


• 


. 1,102,000 


South America 


. 41 


jt 


1881 . 


• 

rearn 


136.000 
. 1,349,000 


Barbary, &c. 


. 15 
100 


»» 


12: 


per cent. 




F.- 


-AlUaVALS IN 


United States. 








ThotiundB. 






TliotisandB. 


1821-30 


■ 


. 143 


1861-70 . 


• 


. 2,493 


1831-40 


• 


. 609 


1871-80 . 


• 


. 2,731 


1841-50 


• 


. 1,706 


1881 . 


• 


669 


1851-60 


• 


. 2,598 


1882 . 


• 


. 789 


Total for 62 


jiiSkn . 


. 11,738,000 


imoiigrants. 



British and Germans averaged 60 males to 40 females, 
Spaniards and Italians 70 to 30 respectively. 



I70 EMIGRATION^ENCLOSURE OF LANDS. 



G. — Settlers in United States (60 Years). 



From 


From 1820 to 1880 (Tbouiauds 
Omitted). 


Ratio of 
SurriTors. 


Ratio of 
Total. 


Arrired. 


Died or 
Departed. 


Lirinfl: in 
1880. 


Ireland .... 
England. . . . 
Scotland . . . 

United Kingdom . 
Grermans . . . 
Canadians . . . 
Scandinavians . . 
French .... 
Chinese .... 
Various .... 

Total . . . 


3,538 

1,105 

195 


1,683 

859 

24 


1,855 
746 
171 


Per Cent. 
52 • 
66 
86 


Percent. 
29 
12 

8 

1 


4,838 
8,212 
826 
427 
845 
281 
402 


2,066 
1,245 
109 
51 
288 
126 
120 


2,772 
1,967 
717 
876 
107 
105 
282 


57 
60 
88 
88 
81 
44 
70 


44 
31 
11 
6 
2 
2 
4 


10,281 


8,955 


6,826 


61 


100 

J 



Date. 


From 1790 to 1880 (Tliouaands Omitted). 


Immigration. 


Died or Left. 


SurviTing. 


Ratio of 
SiinriTors. 


1800 

1820 

1840 

1850 

1860 

1870 

1880 


50 

234 

986 

2,692 

5,290 

7,783 

10,515 


6 

57 

127 

451 

1,154 

2,217 

4,180 


44 

177 
859 
2,241 
4,136 
5,566 
6,3:J5 


Percent 
88 
75 
86 
83 
78 
72 
60 



The Census of 1880 gives 6,680,000 foreigners surviving, 
but this must be 345,000 too much, unless the German or 
Irish survivors be more than stated in the Census, as above. 

ENCLOSURE OF LANDS.— In 120 years more than 
10 million acres of waste land in the United Kingdom have 
been enclosed, viz. : — 

Thousands of Acret. 

Period. 
1760-1800 . 
1801-1829 . 
1830-1869 . 
1870-1879 . 

Total 

It is doubtful whether the reclaimed lands are now worth 
what they have cost 



Quantity. 


Per Annum. 


3,221 


81 


8,380 


116 


2,217 


55 


1.687 


169 


10.505 


88 



ENCUMBERED ESTATES—ENTRIES, 



171 



ENOUMBERED ESTATES, IBELAND.— The first sale 
vfas on February 19, 1850. The sales have been : — 



Ymn. 

1850-60 
1861-70 
1871-80 



Acres 
(Thouaanda). 

2,820 

1,300 

805 



Millions £. 

25-2 
15-6 
12-0 



Total 



4,925 



52-8 



Price 
per Acre. 

£8 18 

12 *0 

15 

£10 8 



The lands were sold in 12,400 lots, averaging almost 400 
acres each : the purchase-money represented 85 per cent, by 
Irish, and 15 per cent Scotch or English buyers. 

ENTBIES. — The following table does not include coast- 
traffic, but only the tonnage of sea-going vessels that entered 
the ports of the several countries, as follows : — 

A, — ToNNAOB OP Port-Entries. 





Tons (ThouMndfi). 


1850. 


18«0. 


1870. 


1880. 


United KiDgdom . 

France 

Germany .... 

Rumia 

Austria .... 

Italy 

Spain 

1 Holland .... 
I Belgium .... 

Sweden and Norway 

Denmark .... 

Greece 

Snmpe .... 
United States . . 
British Colonies 

The World . . 


7,250 

2,305 

1,200 

1,100 

],800 

1,300 

1,000 

870 

800 

1,232 

400 

800 


12,345 
4,2-J8 
2,300 
2,107 
2,600 
2,400 
1,298 
1,324 
1,000 
1,710 
700 
1,000 


18,120 
6,803 
3,490 
3,518 
3,494 
3,835 
1,772 
1,830 
1,535 
3,790 
710 
1,270 


29,074 
12,665 
6,185 
6,303 
4,514 
4,460 
2,784 
3,446 
3,545 
4,830 
2,050 
1,790 


20,057 
3,240 
7,300 


33,012 

5,004 

10,880 


50,167 

6,270 

15,200 


81,646 
15,2.53 
28,260 

125,159 


30,597 


48,896 


71,637 



The entries of the world summed up in three items show 
these ratios : — 

1850. 
Great Britain and Colonics . 47*7 
United States . . 10*6 

Other countries . . 41*7 



1860. 


1870. 


1880. 


473 


46-6 


45-8 


10-2 


88 


12-2 


42-5 


44-6 


420 



Total 



. 1000 1000 100-0 100-0 



172 



ES TRIES. 



B. — Entries Coicpared with CoMHsi^ps. 





CkmiiiMrce, per Toti of Entrie*. 


185a 


I860. ; 1870. 

1 


1880. 


United Kingdom 




£23 


£26 


£25 


£20 


France 






60 


44 


85 


26 


Germany . 








95 


70 


61 


51 


Russia 








86 


27 


30 


20 


Austria . 








17 


20 


24 


29 


Italy 








24 


19 


19 


22 


Spain 
Holland . 








15 


18 


17 


15 








50 


42 


39 


35 


Belgium . 








44 


48 


42 


33 


•Scandinavia 








12 


13 


9 


8 


Europe 








32 


30 


28 


24 


United States 






20 


28 


27 


20 


British Colonies 






13 


13 


13 


13 


The World 






27 


26 


25 ! 21 



The commerce for each country in the above table means 
the aggregate of imports and exports, without goods in 
transit. 



C. — Tonnage Entries to Population. 









Tons per 100 In- 
b&biunts. 


Ratio of Staam ! 
Tonnsge. ' 




1860. 1880. 


1805. 


issa 


United Kingdom 
France 






42 

11 


83 
33 


32 

41 


66 
65 


(Germany • 
Russia 






7 
8 


14 
8 


40 

• • • 


56 
70 


Austria . 






8 


12 


47 


84 


Italy 

Spain 

Holland 






11 

9 

40 


15 
17 
85 


44 

• « • 

45 


69 

• • • 

72 


Belgium . 

Sweden and Norway 

Denmark . 






20 
S3 
44 


63 

75 

110 


42 
12 

• • • 


80 
87 
60 


Greece 






75 


93 


50 


69 


Europe 
United SUtea . 






18 
17 


27 
30 


36 

26 


62 
50 


British Colonies 






7 


12 


• • 


• • • 


The Worid 






10 


23 


30 


52 


' 




_ _ 





ENTRIES. 



173 



D. — ToNNAOB Entries of United Einodoil 



^>A_ 






Tons (Thouaandi). 


Tonajwr 

100 In- 

habitanfca. 


Ttsr. 


Baft^golng. 


Coasting. 


Total. 


1801 . . 
1810 . . 
1880 . . 
1880 . . 
1840 . . 
1850 . . 
1860 . . 
1870 . . 
1880 . . 






1,720 

2,070 

2,110 

2,940 

4,720 

7,252 

12,845 

18,820 

29,074 


6,000 

7,000 

8,000 

8,240 

12,600 

21,510 

24,400 

28,850 

86,186 


7,720 
9,070 
10,110 
11,180 
17,820 
28,762 
86,745 
47,170 
65,210 


48 

51 

50 

46 

66 
105 
125 

151 1 
187 

r 1 



The Nayigation Laws were repealed in 1849, since which 
date onr shipping traffic has increased six times faster than 
population. 

£.— Sea-ooino Entries of United Eingdoil 



Yoar. 



1810 
1850 
1860 
1870 
1880 



Tons (ThouaandaX 



Britiah. 



Foreign. 



8,245 

4,722 

6,967 

12,536 

20,674 



1,475 
2,530 
5.387 
5,780 
8,090 



Total. 



4,720 

7,252 

12,345 

18,320 

29,364 



Ratio of 

British. 

p«r Cent 



69 
65 
56 
69 
70 



The American flag stood for 12 per cent, in 1860, and for 
less than 2 per cent, in 1880. 

F. — Entries in United States Ports. 





Tons (TlioviKaniis). 


Percontage. 


Flag. 
















18«a 


1870. 
2,452 


1881. 


1800. 


1870. 


1881. 


American . . 


8,802 


2,919 


66 


40 


18 


British . . . 


1,263 


2,792 


8,458 


25 


45 


54 


German . . . 


231 


679 


1,173 


5 


11 


8 


Scandinavian 


32 


108 


1,035 


i 


H 


7 


Italian . . . 


32 


48 


659 


1 


k 


4 


French . . . 


24 


81 


305 


^ 


1 


2 


Spanish . . . 
Varioos . . . 

Total . 


63 
56 


31 
79 


277 
805 


n 

1 


• • • 

1 


2 
5 


1 5,003 


1 6,270 


15,631 


100 


100 i 100 



^74 



ENTRIES. 



G. — ^Entbies in Frbnoh Ports. 



Period. 

1887-46 
1847-66 
1857-66 
1867-76 
1877-80 



Tons Btoam, Fronch Foreign 


TooiBntrtet 


(Thousende Batio, per Fleg, per Fbure, per 


per 100 In- 
UUtentiL 


Omitted). Cent. Cent. Cent. 


2,036 17 85 65 


6 


2,822 23 39 61 


8 


4,760 85 40 60 


13 


7,450 54 83 67 


20 


10,830 64 30 70 


30 



n. — ^Entries in British Colonies. 





Tons (Thooaands). 


Tons per 100 Inbalk. 


I860. 

1 


187a 


1880. 


1860. 


1870. 


188a 


IndU .... 


1,470 


2,005 


2,849 


1 


1 


u 


Singapore . . 
Ceylon . . . 


680 


825 


2,404 


240 


280 


782 


395 


712 


1,453 


20 


33 


69 


Maoritias . . 


802 


230 


271 


97 


70 


75 


Hong-Kong . . 


778 


1,820 


3,039 


650 


960 


1,870 


Australia . . 


1,483 


2,121 


4,276 


105 


107 


150 


S.Africa . . 


287 


210 


1,005 


75 


40 


75 


Canada . . . 


2,648 


3,147 


3,693 


89 


85 


88 


West Indies 


641 


767 


1,785 


50 


62 


180 


Gibraltar . . 


982 


1,478 


3,222 


6,000 


7,000 


16,000 


Malta .... 


929 


1,492 


3,074 


700 


1,050 


2,000 


Various . . . 


416 


922 


1,190 


• • • • • • 


• • • 


Total . 


10,910 


15,229 


28,261 


7 


8 


12 



The above does not include coasting trade. 



I. — Australian Entries* 





Tons (ThouMUK 


i«). 


Tons] 


per 100 Inhabi. 


1860. 


1870. 


1880. 


1860. 


187a 


188a 


New S. Wales . 


430 


731 


1,216 


117 


140 


160 


Victoria . . . 


590 


672 


1,090 


110 


91 


1-25 


New Zealand . 


140 


270 


410 


140 


160 


85 


S. Australia 


105 


144 


601 


84 


75 


230 


Queensland . . 


42 


130 


628 


120 


108 


95 


Tasmania . . 


117 


106 


206 


130 


104 


91 


W. Australia . 
Total . 


69 


68 


125 


350 


250 


420 


1,483 


2.121 


4,276 


118 


110 


154 



ESTATES SOLD-^EVICTIONS. 
K. — Entries into BRinsn Ports in 1880. 



»75 





Thooittide Omitted. 






FiroiD 


Tone 
Siitrlee. 


Yaliiff, 

Imports, 

(Millions £>. 


Value per 
Ton. 


Cleared 

Tons 

(Thousands.) 


United States . . 


5,300 


107 


£20 


3,700 


tTKOOB 




2,050 


42 


21 


8,500 


Qeniuuiy . . . 




1,700 


24 


14 


2,600 


SoAndinaTU. . 




2,500 


16 


6 


1,900 


RomIa . . . 




1,700 


16 


9 


1,400 


Spftin .... 
Ouiad* . . . 




1,900 
1,600 


11 
13 


6 
8 


800 
900 


HoUand • . . 




1,300 


26 


20 


1,400 


India .... 




1,100 


80 


27 


1,800 


Belgium . . . 




900 


11 


12 


1,000 


Sooth America 




600 


15 


25 


1,200 


Aoatralia. . . 




500 


26 


52 


600 


Variona . . 




2,900 


74 


26 


4,900 


Total 


I . 


24,050 


411 


£17 


25,700 



The above includes only vessels with cargo. See BaHaat, 
Commerce, &c 

ESTATES SOLD. — The sales of real property in London 
range from 7 to 10 millions sterling per annum. The sales 
of farm-lands in England, reported in the London news- 
papers, were as follows : — 

Period. AcTTB, Price per Acre. 

1860-61 . . . 71,360 £45 10 6 

1870-71 . . . 43,276 41 11 

1880-81 . . . 37,783 38 12 

The above does not include "NValea, nor any estates of 
ornamental or cxcci)tional value. 





ThnuMinds of Families. 


Yeani. 


Evicted. 


Re-admitted. 


Not^ 
Eviitions. 


1849-51 . 


263 


73 


190 


1852-60 . 


110 


28 


82 


1861-70 . 


47 


8 


39 


1871-RO . 


41 


6 


85 


1381-82 . 


21 


4 


17 


Total, 33 years 


482 


119 


363 



Tlie number of persons actually evicted was over 2 millions 
(say 70,000 jK-r annum), about 35 per cent, of the iH)pulatioiL 



176 



EXCHANGE— EXCISE. 



EZCHANOR 

A. — Principal Markets since 1840. 



Period. 


Ixyndon qq 


Oalcattaon 
LoDdon. 


PricooT 

saver par 

Os., Pence. 


Paris. 


Hamburg. 


Amsterdam. 


1841-60 
1851-60 
1861-70 
1871-80 
1881-82 


25-76 
25-44 
25 46 
25-65 
25 63 


1312 
13-08 
13-09 
20-62 
20-67 


121 
11-4 
11-6 
12-8 
12-6 


231 
25-1 
24-8 
21-6 
19-9 


59-8 
61-6 
60-6 
56-1 
61-7 



B. — London on Paris since 1800. 



Period. 


Higheat 


Loweal 




1800-10 . , 


. 25-2 


19-6 


22-4 


1811-20 . . 


. 261 


17-6 


22H) 


1821-30 . 


. 25-9 


25-2 


25-6 


1831-40 . 


. 25-9 


25-2 


25-6 


1841-60 . 


. 26-7 


24-9 


25-8 


1851-60 . 


. 25-5 


24-9 


25-4 


1861-70 . 


. 25-5 


250 


25-4 


1871-80 . . 


. 26-9 


25-2 


25-6 



Date of 


Deftaof 


H'gtieat 


Loweat, 


1805 


1809 


1816 


1811 


1829 


1824 


1832 


1831 


1848 


1860 


1856 


1851 


1869 


1869 


1872 


1874 



EXOISR 



A. — British ExasE since 1800. 





]filliona£. 


Per Inbab. 




If illioDB £. 


Per Inbabk. 


1801-11 . 


. 12-4 


£0 14 6 


J 852-61 . 


. 181 


£0 12 10 


181-2-31 . 


. 15-6 


15 6 


1862-71 . 


. 20-4 


13 7 


1832-41 . 


. 18-5 


15 2 


1872-81 . 


. 26-8 


16 S 


1842-51 . 


. 151 


11 4 









B. — Incidence of Excise. 



1 

CUait. 


Amount (Tbouaauda £). Per Inbabitouu { 


Spirits. 


Beer. 


Sundries. 


Total. Uqtuir. 1 TotaL 


Affluent . 
Middle . 
Working . 

Total . 


520 
4,490 
9,264 


2S0 
2,240 
6,010 


820 

2,580 

970 


1,6-20 £0 14 £1 8 2 

9,310 1 14 1 1 19 6 

16,244 12 8 1 13 5 


14,274 


8,530 


4,370 


27,174 £0 13 £0 15 6 

i 



For other countries, see Lifpior Dufip^ 



EXECUTIONS^EXPLOSIONS. 



177 



EXECUTIONS. — ^The largest number was in the reign of 
Henry VIIL, in which period 71,400 persons were hanged 
or beheaded: in one year 300 beggars were executed for 
soliciting alms. In the first half of the present century 
2734 persons were executed in England and Wales : — 

Formorder 616 

borglAry 1,235 

incendiarism .... 147 

forgexy, &&.... 736 



n 
If 



Total 



2,734 



Tear*. 
1801-20 
1821-30 
1831-50 



Executed. 


Per Annum 


1,697 


85 


672 


67 


365 


18 



Total 



2,734 



In one year (1820) no fewer than 46 persons were hanged 
for forging Bank of England notes, some of which wero 
afterwards asserted to be good. In 20 years ending 1880 
there were 279 criminals executed for murder in the United 
Kingdom, say 14 yearly. 

Capital punishment was abolished in Italy in 1875 ; 
murders increased 42 per cent. The Swiss Convention of 
1881 reformed the constitution so as to permit the cantons 
to restore the use of capital punishment. 

Between January 1879 and December 1882 tliere were 
in France 90 assassins condemned to death, but only 10 were 
executed. 

In India the average number of executions is 710 yearly. 

EXHIBITIONS. 



Date. 


riacc. 


Area Vii«itor« 
(Acru«> (Millions). 


Days 
Open. 


Receipts 
(Thouitands). 


Visitor 
(Pence). 


1851 . 


London . 


. 21 6-2 


141 


£424 


16 


1855 . 


Paris . . 


.24 4-5 


200 


US 


7 


1862 . 


London . 


. 23 62 


171 


408 


16 


1867 . 


Paris . . 


.37 9-3 


217 


420 


11 


1873 . 


Vienna . 


.48 7 3 


186 


206 


7 


1876 . 


Philadelphia 55 10*2 


■ • • 


■ • • 


• • • 


1878 . 


Paris . . 


. 60 161 


194 


974 


15 


EXPLOSIONa 










Date. 


Place. 


Killed. 


Date. 




Place. 


Killed 


1654 . . 


Gravelines 


8,000 


1S37 . 


. Bona, Algeria 


320 


1769 . . 


Brescia 


2,800 


1854 . 


. Newcastle 


100 


1794 . . 


(irenelle 


2,700 


. 1864 . 


. Retire, B. Ayrcs 440 



78 


EXPORTS. 


EZPOETS. 






A.— All Natioks. 





MOUourf. 


8btIUB««p>[Dbabltaiit] 


IH». 


18T4. 


™ 


IHO. 


1870. 


1S7 


United Eingaom . 


130 


200 


241 


91 


127 




91 


112 


144 


CO 


60 


76 


GemuuT .... 


7G 


110 


149 


48 


6S 


66 




ai 


43 


48 


6 


11 






ae 


40 






£3 




13.- : : : : : 


19 


80 


47 


Ifi 


24 


33 


11 


16 


22 


14 


20 


27 


PortDgri .... 


4 


6 


A 


SO 


23 


27 


mSand 










112 


190 


20 


S2 


C9 


110 


168 


aot 


Deonutrk .... 


7 


9 


8 


95 


100 


82 


Swedan ud Norway 


S 


IS 


16 


80 


43 


47 


Enrop- .... 




1 






1. 


34 


4in 


639 


m 


33 


44 




United SUUa. . . 


6S 


68 


163 


43 


SS 


59 


Cuuid> 


11 




21 


67 


ss 


96 


Aartrelift .... 


22 


28 


CO 


325 


280 


350 


a"^'"' : : : 


29 


I 
fi4 


B 
75 


B6 

4 


M 


176 




18 




23 








V^Indu' (British) 


8 




14 


40 


80 




4 


6 


S 


82 


06 


96 




7 


IS 


24 


la 


39 


52 


A^=«.eR,p«b.i.. 


6 


6 


13 
9 


62 
38 


83 
45 


104 
63 


Totol 


614 


883 


1.263 1 ... 







B. — BniTiBH Exports, Akkcal Valhk. 

















13S6 . 


294 


£(l 


26 


I800-B 


37,992 


£2 7 


1573 . 


1,880 





83 


1830-60 


61,220 


2 1 


1614 . 


2,091 


1' 


8 3 


1851-60 


. 107,160 


3 16 


1687 . 


4.087 


II 


IS 1 


1861-70 


. 166,840 


6 10 6 


1700-5 








1871-80 


. 221.190 


6 13 


1750-80 


13,420 


1 


19 


18S2 . 


. 241,060 


6 17 



EXPORTS. 



179 



C — COMPOMBNTO OF ExPORT TrADB. 





Mimoiu£. 


Aliquot Parts. 


1800. 


1870. 1880. 


I860! 


1870. 


1880. 


Cotton goodi . . . 
Woollen ffoodi . . 
linen Mid into . . 
Rllk 

Textilet . . . 

Iran 

Machinery .... 

Cntlenr 

MeUli 

Hardware . • 

Coal 

Snndriee .... 

Total .... 


62-0 

16-0 

6-6 

2-4 


71-4 

26-6 

10-4 

2-6 


76-6 

20-6 

9-8 

27 


88-2 

11-8 

4-9 

1-8 


85-8 

18-3 

6-2 

1-8 


88-9 
9-2 

4-1 
1-2 


77-0 


111-0 


108-2 


667 


56-6 


48-4 


12-4 
8-8 
6-8 
6-6 


26-5 
5-8 
6-4 

47 


297 
9-2 
5-5 

4-8 


9-1 
2-8 
8-9 

4-1 


18-8 
27 
8-2 
2-8 


18-8 
4-1 
2-5 
2-2 


27-1 


42-9 


49-2 


19-9 


21-5 


22-1 


8-8 
28-5 


5-6 

40-1 


8-4 
67-8 


2-4 
21-0 


2-8 
201 


8-8 
257 1 

1 


135-9 


199-6 2231 


100-0 


100-0 


1000 : 



D. — CUSTOMEBS FOR BRITISH EXPORTS. 



Colonies 

United States . . . 
Germany .... 
South America . . 

France 

Turkey and Egypt . 

Holland 

Roana 

Belgium 

Italy 

Spain and Portugal. 
YanouM 

Total .... 



MUlioiis £. 



1840. 



44 

22 

13 

12 

5 

7 

6 

3 

2 

4 

4 

14 



I 136 



1870. 



52 

28 

20 

17 

12 

16 

11 

7 

4 

5 

5 

23 



1883. 



85 
31 

19 
22 

18 
10 
9 
6 
8 
7 
6 
20 



200 241 



Aliquot Parts. 



1860. 

321 
161 
9-6 
8-8 
3-6 
51 
4-4 
2-2 
1-4 
2-8 
2-8 
IM 



100-0 



1870. 



2.'>-9 

14-0 

100 

8-5 

6-0 

80 

6-5 

3-5 

20 

25 

2-5 

11-6 



I 



1882. 

35-1 
12-9 
8-0 
9-1 
7-4 
4-0 
8-8 
2-5 
3-8 
8-0 
2-6 
8-4 



1000 100-0 



i8o 



EXPORTS. 



E. — Exports of Francs. 





QiiSDtity (Millions). 


Yaloo (TbouMUuU £). | 


1861. 


1869. 


1880. 


1861. 


1869. 


1880. 


Woollen goods . 
Silkdo. . . . 
Cotton da . . 
Wine, gallons . 
Spirits „ . . 
Sugar, lbs. . . 
Grain, bushels . 
Fruit, lbs. . . 
Cheese, &c . . 
Eggs . • . . 
Sundries • . . 

Total . . . 


• « 

• • 

• • • 

41 

S| 

118 

4 

75 

26 

260 

• • • 


• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

67 
6 

273 
13 
62 
64 

580 

• • • 


• • • 

• « • 

• • • 

55 

839 
15 
68 
77 

428 

• • « 


7,550 

18,800 

2,300 

7,800 

2,000 

1,700 

1,400 

600 

1,400 

700 

58,800 


10,600 

17,900 
2,800 

10,500 
2.300 
3,800 
2,800 
1,100 
3,100 
1,500 

66,600 


14,800 
9,400 
8,200 
9,800 
8,200 
4,300 
2,500 
1,000 
8,600 
1,200 

85,700 


• • • 





• • • 


97,050 


123,000 


188,700 



F. — Exports of Germany (1880). 





Thousands 




Tbocuands 




Omittod. 




Omitted. 


Silk goods . 


. £10,300 


Leather, &c 


. £6,600 


Woollen do. 


8,600 


Sugar 


5,500 


Cotton do. . 


2,700 


Machinery 


2,200 


CaUle . 


5,500 


Yams 


4,800 


Grain . 


9,700 


Sundries . 


, 96,400 



G. — Exports of Russia. 





Quantity (Milllont).- 


V«lu< 
1801. 

8,500 
3,000 
1.500 
1,500 
5,600 


t (ThmiMDds £\ 




1801. ! 1870. 


1380. 


1870. ! ISdO. ; 


Grain, bushels . 
Flax, hemp, lbs. 
Linseed, lbs. 
Tallow „ . . 
Sundries . . . 


55 
259 
440 

90 

■ • ■ 


120 

533 

810 

48 

• • • 


138 

540 

806 

16 

• • • 


20,300 

8,900 

3,300 

800 

9.500 


22,800 
7,800 
8,700 i 
230 

18,070 


Total . . . 


• • • 


• • ■ 1 • • a 


20,100 


42,800 


47,600 1 





Qo«itlb-{Mllli..n.). 


V^„ 


(ThouBio 


.«, 1 


16«. 


,1870. 


18S0. 


im. 


m. ( .^ 1 


Onin, biuheU . 


16 


26 


36 








Cattle. . . . 








750 






Sacmr. llw. . . 




H3 


Bit) 




1,700 


5.800 


WooUcD goods . 


6 


9 


10 




1,700 




Unengoodi . 


8 


la 


12 


980 


1,600 


1,100 


Timber, eublo ft. 


3S 


67 


S3 


1,850 


2,300 


*,*80 


Sundriei . . . 
ToUl . . . 








11.390 


26,120 


33,BOD 




... 




IB. 000 


39,500 


68,800 



I. — ^ExroB-ra or Italy. 





<li«nMlj(IIilltoi»i 


Vulu 


(Ttiouun 


HZ). 


18BI 


ISTO. 


im 


im. 


mo. 


1980, 


sale n». . . . 


E 


4>, 


s 


8,yoo 


8,400 


8,800 


Win., galloni . 


5 




43 


430 


4&0 


2,800 


Fruit, Ibn. . . 


108 


178 


216 


1,200 


1,000 


1.400 


OU .. . . 


102 


128 


127 


2,600 


3.500 


3.500 


Bgg> . . . . 


42 


9S 


501 


70 


180 


1.400 


Sulphor. owU. . 


3 


■i.i 


8 


1.200 


1,050 


1.300 


ToW . . . 








0,400 




24,100 








23,100 


30,200 


44,100 



K. — Exports of Spain. 





t)u>Btltr(Millbu>). 




IBM. 


1870. 


18S0. 


16«1 


1970. 


^m. 


Viae, nUniu . 
Fruit, Iba. . . 


26 


33 


134 


3,480 


6.050 


9,800 


83 


140 




650 


1,400 


1,700 


Oil .... 




13 


29 


960 


2,';o 


470 


(kipper. Iba , . 




2 


46 


ISO 


60 


820 




1 


1 


2 


eoo 


700 


1,800 


Mvrcurj.lb.. . 


1 


3 


21, 


150 


100 


250 


SiindriM . . . 
ToUl . . . 








5,310 


7,840 


7,200 








11,800 


15,700 


21.900 



L. — Exports of Bblqiuv. 





Quu.Ut]r(Mimou). 


Vtla 










two. 


IBTO. 


im 


IBW. 


WO. 


1680. 


C<ttl,taiu . . 




4 






2,400 




Yun,IbB. . . 


11 


24 










Ta(t.f»brica,lbs. 


82 


SO 


43 


3,100 


%SO0 


8,100 


Flu, lb*.. . . 


3S 


Bl 


82 


1,020 


2,020 


S,700 


angw 


1 


83 


134 






1,800 




1 




n 


440 


1,600 




SuDdiiei . . , 
Total . . . 




... 




10,820 


16,670 


81,600 







18,800 


27,600 1 48,700 1 



M. — EXPOBTS 





<luu>tl(,(lllUlo<>.). 


VJu 






isei. 1 isro. 


im 


l«l. 


ISTO. 


IBSO. 


Coffee, lU . . 


138 1 176 


148 




2,800 


2,400 


Butter „ 




39 1 48 


79 


1.100 


1,400 








62 64 


61 


800 




790 


Crttle. . 








700 


800 








139 206 




2,100 


3,000 








33 62 




900 


1,300 


900 


Rice „ 




SI 40 




300 


450 


800 


IroD . . 










1,000 


G.400 


Sundries . 








12,340 


20,230 


86,360 


Total . 




... 1 ... 




21,040 


31,800 


52,100 1 



N.~EiPORTa 


OF USITBD 


States. 






Anmul Aianga Viilu* Id £ (Thoiuudi Omittad^ 


IBil-M. 


lSSl-*0 18.1-M 


lfi.l.«0 


.B«i-7o i.ri-.,> 


l^v 


Cotton. . . 


B,flnn 


il.O.'iO 11,550 


2.^60(1 


18,800 37.800 


B!,600 


tlnia . . . 


1,200 


1,0(10 1 3,120 




6.400 27,100 


66,100 


Tobacco . . 


1,1 so 


1,560 


1.670 




3.900 B.100 




Meat . . . 


300 


420 


1.040 




3,300 12,600 


21,800 


Bntter.cheese 


40 


40 


210 


300 




4,800 


Fetroleiim . 










2,460 7.800 


8,400 




410 


590 


770 




2,050 S,600 


8.800 




220 


4S0 


1,1)30 


2,-JOO 


1,800 4.300 


6.800 


SuDdrie* . . 
Total . . 


2,G<in 


3,0,i0l 3,710 


7,500 
4S,200 


6,200 10.100 


28.400 


11,-110 


IS, 200 


23,100 


47,450 111,200 


184.000 



EXPORTS. 



183 



0. — Exports of Australia. 





Qa«ntit7(MUUoiia). 


Value (Tbouflands £> 


180a 


187a 


188a 


1800. 


isra 


188a 


Wooltlbii . . 
Gold.o&. . . 
oOBdnn • • • 

ToUl . . . 


69 

• • • 


186 
2 

• • • 


874 

1 


4,800 

11,100 

6,000 


9,100 

8,000 

11,300 


20,100 

4,100 

24,700 


• •• 


• •• 


• ■ • 


21,900 


28,400 


48,900 





Value (Thouaanda £,). 


Par Inhabitant, £ 


1800. 


187a 


1882. 


1800. 


1870. 


1882. 


X. SoQth Wales 
Victoria • . . 
Nsw Zealand . 
Sooth Australia 
Queensland . . 
Tasmania . . 

West Australia 

j 


5,100 

12,900 

600 

1,800 
500 
900 
100 


5,800 

12,500 

4,800 

2,400 

2,000 

700 

200 


16,700 
16,200 
6,700 
5,400 
3,300 
1,500 
500 


15 
24 

6 
14 
15 
10 

6 


12 
17 
19 
13 
17 
7 
8 


22 
18 
13 
20 
15 
14 
17 


[ Total . . . 


21,900 


28,400 


50,300 


17 


15 


18 



Gold is included as meicliandise in the exports of Aus- 
tralia, but not in other countries. 



P. — Exports op Canada. 





Value in £ (ThouaandB Omitted). 


RelatiTe 
Increaae, 
per Cent. 




1872. 


1881. 


Grain .... 
Meat .... 
Fish ... . 
Butter and cheese . 
Lumber 
Sundries 


2,400 
650 
800 
1,130 
4,400 
7,820 


5,600 
1,550 
1,300 
2,020 
4,700 
5,430 


125 

145 

62 

80 

7 

*• • 


Total 


17,200 


20,500 20 j 



T8;i 



EXPORTS. 





Q. — Exports 


OP China. 






QuanUty (MiUionsX 


Value (Tiiousands £> 


isn. 


1880. 


18n. 


1880. 

10,800 
6,800 
5,800 


Tea, lbs. . 
Silk „ . 
Sundries . 

ToUl . 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 


223 

74 

• • • 


279 
lOi 

■ ■ • 


12,200 
7,600 
1,300 


• • • 


• • • 


21,100 


23,400 



R — Exports op Egypt (1880). 

Vaino 



(ThouaandB £). 
Cotton . . . 7,770 
Cotton-seed . 1,610 

. Total . 



Grain 
Sundries . 

£13,520 



Value 
(Thousands £) 
. 2,100 
. 2,040 





S.— 


Exports op 

• 


India. 








QuHtitity (MiUioiiB> 


Value (Thousands £). 


1861. 


1871. 


1881. 


1861. 


1871. 


1881. 


Cotton, lbs. . . 


370 


678 


509 


7,300 


19,600 


13,200 


Opium ,, . . 


8} 


12 


m 


10,200 


10,800 


13,600 


Rice, cwts. . . 


15 


16 


27 


3,000 


4,200 


9,100 


Seeds ,, . . 


4 


7 


10 


1,800 


3,500 


6,400 


Jute „ . . 


1 


4 


6 


400 


2,600 


3,900 


Silk, lbs.. . . 


2 


2 


14 


1,050 


1,400 


600 


Tea ,, . . . 


1 


13 


, 47 


90 


1,100 


3,100 


Coffee ,, . . . 


19 


34 


41 


300 


800 


1,600 


Wheat, bushels 


• • • 


Oi 


15 


... 


100 


3,300 


Sundries . . . 
Total . . . 


• • • 


• • • 

• • • 


• • • 


8,860 


11,300 


19,700 


• ■ • 


• • ■ 


i 33,000 


55,300 


74.500 



T. — Exports of Lrazil. 





QuHHtity (Millions). VAhio (ThousAnds £). ■ 


1860. 1870. 


1881. 


1S60. 


1870. 


1881. 


Coffee, lbs. . . 
Sugar „ . . 
Cotton ,, . . 
Tobacco ,, . . 
Sundries . . . 

ToUl . . . 


225 3J3 

172 339 

22 91 

10 , 31 

• • • 1 • • • 


724 
345 

40 
30 

• • • 


3,500 

1,400 

600 

250 

700 

6,450 


9,100 
2,400 
3,200 
740 
2,600 


16,100 

2,200 

1,010 

720 

8,370 


1 
• • • • • • 


■ • • 


18,040 


23,400 



EXPORTS— FACTORIES. 



18; 



U. — Exports ok Argentine Keplblic. 





Quantity (Milliozu). 


Value (ThousandH £). 


1860. 


1870. 


1880. 


I860. 


1870. 


1880. 


Wool, lbs. . . 
Hides .... 
Sbeep akina, lbs. 
Beef, Ibe. . . 
Tallow „ . . 
Grain, boahela . 
Snndriea . . . 


42 

2 

10 

42 

28 

• • • 

• • • 


160 

2i 
61 
65 
46 

• • • 

• • • 


215 

3 

66 

58 

25 

3 

• • « 


1,400 

1,700 

200 

400 

500 

• • • 

300 


2,300 

1,900 

1,000 

600 

700 

1,460 


5,400 

2,100 

1,100 

600 

400 

600 

1,500 


ToUl. . . 


• •• 1 •• • 


• • • 


4,500 


7,900 

1 ' 


11,700 



For other countries, see Commerce. 



V. — Exports op Buluon. 



• 


MiLLXONB £. 


1861-70. 


1871-80. 


AunoalATerage. 


Gold. 
112 


Silver. 


TotaL 


Gold. 
172 


SilTer. 


Total. 


1861-70. 


1871-80 


Great Britain . 


91 


203 


119 


291 


20 


29 


IlDited States. 


113 


22 


135 


74 


73 


147 


14 


15 


Fraooe . • • 


119 


78 


197 


90 


48 


138 


20 


14 


Australia . . 


108 


• • • 


108 


76 


• ■ • 


76 


11 


8 


SpaD.-Axnerica 
various . . . 

TotAl . . . 


5 


74 


79 


4 


68 


72 


8 


7 


55 
512 


179 


234 


88 


94 


182 


23 


18 


444 


956 


504 


402 


906 


96 


91 

1 



FACTOBIES (TEXTILE). 

A. — Summary por the United Kingdom. 



Factories .... 

Spindles, millinns 

Looms, thoQsands 

OperatiTes „ 

Steam (horse-power, thousands) 



1850. 


I860. 


1870. 


1880. 


4,601 


6,378 


6.258 


7,105 


81 


86 


42 


47 


802 


4f9 


606 


725 


596 


776 


907 


976 


108 


375 


473 


570 



i86 



FACTORIES. 



B.— Cotton and Woollen Factoris& 







Cotton. 


Woollen. > 


18S0. 


1870. 


1880. 


1850. 


1870. 


1^80. 


Factories . . . 
Spindles, millions 
Looms, thousands 
Operatifes „ 


1,933 

21 

250 

331 


2,483 

38 

440 

449 


2,674 

40 

513 

487 


1,998 

2i 
42 
154 


2,579 

6 

113 

239 


2,410 

148 

265 

1 



C. — Factories in 1880. 





Number. 


Million 
Spindles. 


Looms 
CThousande). 


OpenUTM 
(TtioussndtX 


Cotton 

Woollen .... 
Linen, jute . . . 
Silk, &C. . . . . 

Total .... 


2,674 

2,410 

516 

1,505 


89-6 
5-4 
1-5 

•8 


613 

143 

52 

17 


487 

265 

141 

83 


7,105 


47-3 


725 976 


England .... 
Scotland .... 
Ireland .... 

United Kingdom 


6,189 
675 
241 


44-4 637 

2-0 ! 67 

•9 ! 23 


778 
136 

62 

1 


7,lo5 47-3 1 725 976 j 



D. — Stkam-Power. 

Hortc*Power (TlioiuandBX 





1850. 


I860. 


1870. 


18M. 


Cotton . 


71 


242 


801 


356 


Woollen 


23 


78 


101 


122 


Linen, jute . 


11 


44 


52 


73 


Silk, &c. 


3 


11 


19 


19 



Total . . 108 375 473 570 

E. — Power Used in American Factories (1880). 



SUtca. 



Thousand Horse. 



New England 
Middle. . . 
Southern . . 
Western . . 
Pacific . . . 



Water. 

78 
58 

5 
18 

1 



StcaiD. 



137 
298 

45 
229 

13 



Total 



215 
356 

50 
247 

14 



Hor»e-Po' 
PerlOOO 
. InbalHtanU. 

51 

31 

3 

14 

13 



Total 



160 



722 



882 



17 




PAILURBS— FAMILIES. 



187 



F. — ^Factobt Stkam-Powsb of 


Nations (1880). 




Jlono>Jrow6r 


Hone-Power 


Ratio of 




(Thomands 


per 100 


World's 




Omitt«d). 




TouL 


Gmt Britftm . 


2,200 


6-2 


29-8 


Pnnoe . 


906 


2-4 


12-8 


Qtrnunj 


1,821 


8-0 


16-6 


Bdgimii • 


382 


7 


5-6 


BnaOm . 


287 


0-8 


8*2 


Anitri* . 


157 


0-4 


21 


OtlMT ooontriM 


258 


0-4 
1-6 


8-4 


Eiirop6 • 


5,456 


78-0 


United States. 


1,987 


88 


27 



Total . . . 7,443 21 1000 

The above includes not only factories, but also minea 

Bankrujptcy, 



. — In that of Leipzig the annual average of sales is 
I millions sterling, comprising 20,000 tons of merchandise, 
>f vhich 8000 tons are books. 
The fair of Nijni-Novgorod is the greatest in the world, 



lie returns showing : — 

Tear. 

1841 . 

1857 . 

1876 . 



Goods Offered. 

£8,000,000 

18,000,000 

80,000,000 



Goods Sold. 
£7,000,000 
12,000.000 
28,000,000 



This fair is attended by 150,000 dealers from all parts of 
•he world, and the goods sold in 1876 were : — 

Cottons, linens, fto. . . . . £8,000,000 



Fun, leather, &c. 
Ural metals 
Floor, fish, brandy 
Tea and luxuries 



Total 



FAMILIES. 



7,000,000 
7,000,000 
3,000,000 
3,000,000 

£28,000,000 



A. — Large Famiues. 

PUc«. 

Florence . 

Indiana 

Abbots Langley, Herts 

Scotland 

Madame Frescobaldi had never less than 3 children at a 
birth. 



PiirenL 

Mme. Frescobaldi 
David Wilson . 
Mr. Oreenhill 
BeT. Dr. Erskine 



Number of 
Cbildren. 

52 

47 

89 

83 



Date. 

1570 
1850 

1760 



i88 



FAMINES-^FEVBR. 



RnnU • . 


4-83 


Spain . . 


. . 4-65 


Austria . . 


4-04 


Belgiuin 
Holland 


. . 4-04 


Hungary . 


870 


. . 4-22 


Switierland 


3-94 


Denmark . 


. . 3-61 


Italy . . . 


4-54 


Sweden . . 


. . 4*12 



Fedor Vassileff, of Moscow, 1782, had 83 children liTing 
when pensioned hy the Czar : he had 69 children by his first 
wife, at 27 births ; and, after her death, had 18 more by hi* 
second, in 8 birth& 

Lucas Saez returned to Spain in June 1883 from the 
United States with 37 children, 79 grandchildren, and 81 
great-grandchildren — ^in all, 107 males and 90 females; his 
eldest son being aged 70. 

R — AVBRAGE OF CHILDREN TO A MaRRIAOB. 

England . . 4-08 

Scotland . . 4*46 

Ireland . . . 5*20 

France . . . 3*03 

Germany . . 4*10 

See Births, 

FAMINES. — Walford mentions 160 since the 11th cen- 
tury, viz. : — 

England ... 57 I Scotland . . 12 Germany • . • H 
Ireland ... 34 | France ... 10 Italy, fta . , 36 

The worst in modern times have been : — 

Country. Dato. NaorYicHma 

France . . . .1770 48,000 

Ireland .... 1847 1,029,000 

India .... 1866 1,450,000 

FASTING. 

1684. Four men taken alive out of a mine, in England, 
after 24 days without food. 

1880. Dr. Tanner, Now York, lived on water 40 days, 
losing 36 lbs. weight. 

FEVEK. — Tlie predisposition to fever varies with age in 
the following degrees : — 



Affe. 


Detrree. 


Ape. 


I>C]iT«e> 


Under 5 


. 10 


25-30 . 


. 102 


5-10 . 


. 94 


30-40 . 


. 44 


10-15 . 


. 182 


40-50 . 


. 16 


15-20 . 


. 2G9 


50-55 . 


6 


20-25 . 


. 197 


Over 55 . 


2 



Napoleon lost 51,000 soldiers by fever in his CAm|vtign of 
1812, and the French army 17,000 men in the Crimea, 1855. 
Typhoid fever attacks 27,000 iM?rsons yearly in England, of 
whom 4000 (that is, 15 per cent) die. See DUetuti. 



FIBRE, 



189 



FIBRE. 





.V. 


Production in 


IOth Century. 


^ 


Tctf. 


MilUon« of Lbs. 


Cotton. 


WooL 


Flax. 


Hemi). 


Jute. 


Total. 


1810 


214 


442 . 


560 


470 


• •• 


1,686 


1820 


S02 


476 


610 


490 


• • • 


1.878 


1880 


636 


545 


730 


540 


10 


2,461 


1840 


1,192 


640 


1,080 


580 


20 


3,512 


1850 


1,260 


856 


1,320 


650 


55 


4,141 


1860 


2,391 


1,041 


1,190 


770 


102 


5,494 


1870 


2.474 


1,453 


1,280 


884 


456 


6,547 


1880 


4,039 


1,650 

1 


1,140 


955 


628 


8,412 



B. — Consumption in United Kingdom. 



Tetf. 




MilHona of Lb«. 




Batioto 












World's Crop. 




Cotton. 


Wool. 


Flux. 
60 


Hemp nnd 
Jute. 


Total 


I>er Cent. 


1810 


114 


S3 


107 


364 


23 


1820 


123 


85 


87 


95 


380 


20 


1880 


246 


110 


138 


59 


553 


21 


1840 


448 


129 


210 


67 


854 


24 


1860 


566 


158 


249 


164 


1,136 


27 


1860 


1,140 


224 


228 


164 


1,756 


33 


1870 


1,101 


809 


291 


484 


2,185 


83 


1880 


1,404 


838 


227 


569 


2,538 


80 



C. — Consumption in all Countries (1880). 





Millions of Lbs. 


Riitio. 


Lbs. 

per 

InLab. 


Cotton. 


Wool 


Flax, Ac. 

796 
286 
217 
230 
372 
230 


Total. 


U. Kingdom . 
France. . . 
Germany . . 
Ruaria . . . 
Austria . . 
1 Belgium, kc . 

Europe . . 
United SUtcs 

Total . . 


1,404 
840 
390 
140 
150 
330 


338 
336 
190 
170 
80 
216 


2,638 
962 
797 
540 
602 
776 


33-8 
12-8 
10-7 
7-2 
8 
10-4 


71 
26 
18 
6 
16 
15 


2,754 
910 


1,330 
320 


2,131 
100 


6,215 
1,330 


82-9 
171 


20 
25 


3,664 1 1,650 j 2,231 


7,545 


1000 


21 



The above is irrespective of yam (q.v.) 
The average production of fibre per 100 acres is — cottc»n 
15, flax 30, hemp 35, and jute 40 ton^ 



ipo 



FINANCES. 



FINANOEa 

A. — National Govbrnmsnt Ezpenditurk 







] 


IfillionB 


Steriing. 






1880. 


1840. 


1850. 


i8eo. 


1870. 


1881. 


United Ejngdom 


55 


62 


55 


78 


70 


83 


France 


41 


67 


60 


83 


90 


121 


Germany . 


16 


22 


28 


32 


51 


90 


Russia 


23 


SO 


42 


66 


69 


80 


Austria . . . 


18 


28 


89 


45 


69 


75 


Italy 


12 


19 


81 


87 


41 


66 


Spain 


9 


11 


14 


21 


83 


88 


Portugal . . • 


2 


8 


4 


4 


6 


8 


Holland . 


8 


6 


7 


7 


8 


10 


Belgium . 


8 


5 


6 


6 


7 


11 


Denmark . 


2 


2 


2 


2 


8 


2 


Sweden and Norway 


2 


2 


2 


8 


6 


7 


ijrreeoe • • • 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


4 


Roumania 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


6 


Turkey . 
Europe 


4 


6 


8 


13 


21 


13 


191 


243 


299 


383 


464 


598 


United States . 


3 


5 


7 


12 


58 


54 


Mexico . 


3 


3 


4 


6 


5 


4 


S. American Republics 


2 


2 


3 


4 


8 


11 


Brazil 


2 


8 


5 


6 


8 


11 


Canada . 


1 


1 


2 


3 


4 


6 


Australia 


1 


1 


1 


8 


12 


20 


Cape Colony . 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


5 


Egypt . 


2 


2 


8 


5 


14 


8 


India 


22 


25 


28 


52 


55 


76 


Java 


2 


4 


5 


6 


8 


11 


Japan 

The World . 


• • • 


• • • 


> • • 


• • • 


• • • 


11 


230 


290 


858 


486 


1 638 

1 


816 



In the above table the expenditure for Germany iiicladea 
the budgets of Prussia, Bavaria, Saxony, and the minor 
States, as in Table £L It does not include State exp^iditure 
in the United States, nor local taxes in any country. 

The expenditure of Europe has exactly doubled since 1 850, 
whereas that of the United Kingdom has risen only 50 per 
cent. The British expenditure in 1850 was nearly 16 per 
cent of the total for all nations : at present it is only 10 per 
cent. French expenditure has risen about 50 per cent since 
1860, while that of Germany is increased 200 per cent, and 
the United States 350 per cent. 



FINANCES. 



191 



B. — National Expenditure to Population. 





ShilUogs per Inhabitant. 


1830. 


1840. 
40 


1850. 


1800. 


1870. 
45 


1861 


United Kingdom 


46 


40 


50 


47 


^^nnoB • ■ • 


25 


34 


35 


46 


50 


68 




13 


15 


17 


18 


25 


40 


Riuna 


9 


10 


13 


15 


19 


20 


AmtriA . 


15 


20 


26 


28 


84 


40 


lUlj 


15 


20 


81 


88 


84 


40 


^Jn 


16 


18 


20 


27 


40 


40 


Portngal . 


11 


17 


20 


20 


24 


86 


Hollmnd . 


24 


84 


46 


44 


46 


50 




18 


25 


27 


25 


28 


42 




86 


85 


88 


81 


34 


24 


Sweden and Norway 


10 


10 


10 


12 


17 


22 


CvTeece • . « 


20 


20 


20 


16 


84 


45 


RonmaniA 


• • • 


.« • 


• • • 


• ■ • 


• • • 


19 


Turkey . , 


7 


10 


IS 


18 


27 


60 


Kurope 


16 


20 


22 


28 


81 


89 


United SUtee . 


4 


6 


7 


8 


80 


21 


Brazil 


7 


9 


12 


15 


18 


28 


Canada 


10 


14 


16 


18 


20 


27 


AoBtralia 


40 


83 


30 


125 


120 


141 


Cape Colony . 
India 


• • • 


80 


28 


49 


27 


90 


5 


5 


5 


7 


7 


8 


Jara 


7 


10 


10 


10 


10 


12 


Egypt . . . 


12 


12 


27 


40 


56 


80 


Argentine Republic . 


10 


10 


10 


16 


34 


40 


Chili 


7 


7 


15 


IS 


21 


85 


The World 


11 


18 


14 


18 


22 


25 



If we take the year 1840 for point of departure, we find 
the relative expenditure per inhabitant in the principal 
countries haa risen as follows : — 





iS4a 


ISftO. 


ISflO. 


1870. 


1861. 


United Kingdoir 


1 100 


100 


125 


113 


118 


France . . . 


. 100 


103 


135 


147 


200 


Cvermany . . , 


100 


113 


120 


167 


267 


Russia . . . . 


100 


130 


150 


190 


200 


Austria . . , 


. 100 


130 


140 


170 


200 


Italy . . . 


. 100 


155 


190 


170 


200 


Spain . . . . 


100 


121 


150 


242 


242 


United SUtes . 


100 


117 


133 


500 


851 


Australia . . . 


. 100 


90 


375 


360 


424 




. 100 


114 


128 


142 


192 



192 



FINANCES. 



C. — Expenditure and 


Revenue Compared. 








MilUons £ ] 


per Atmtim. 


Expenditure. 


Revenue. 


183(M9. 


1850 00. 


1870-82. 


1830-49. 


1850 09. 


1870-82. 


U. Kingdom . 


54 


71 


77 


• 55 


69 


80 


France . . . 


55 


92 


141 


53 


78 


105 


Germany . . 


22 


42 


80 


22 


37 


73 


Russia . . . 


32 


50 


82 


29 


39 


60 


Austria . . . 


29 


49 


68 


28 


38 


61 


Italy .... 


21 


48 


66 


20 


81 


54 


Spain. . . . 


14 


81 


89 


11 


23 


30 


Portugal . . . 


4 


6 


9 


3 


4 


6 


Holland . . . 


5 


7 


9 


5 


9 


9 


Belgium . . . 


6 


7 


12 


5 


6 


9 


Scandinavia 


4 


6 


10 


4 


6 


9 


Turkey . . . 
Europe . . 


6 


15 


18 
611 


6 


10 


16 


252 


424 


241 


350 


512 


United States . 


6 


51 


51 


5 


28 


64 


Canada . . . 


1 


4 


6 


1 


3 


5 


Australia . . 


1 


7 


20 


1 


5 


15 


Spanish America 


12 


20 


23 


9 


16 


15 


Egypt . . . 
India .... 

The World . 


3 


8 


14 


3 


6 


8 


26 


48 


59 


25 
285 


45 


55 


301 


562 


784 


453 674 



Result for 53 Years, in Millions £, 



United Kingdom 

France 

Germany 

Russia 

Austria 

Italy . 

Spain and Portugal 

Holland and Belgium 

Scandinavia 

Turkey 

United SUtes 

Canada 

India . 

Australia . 

Egypt 

Spanish America 

The World . 



penditure 


Revenue. 


3,501 


3,520 


4.773 


3,985 


2,320 


2,129 


2,706 


2,140 


2,444 


2,113 


2,238 


1,722 


1,724 


1,288 


773 


734 


330 


317 


654 


528 


1,803 


1,492 


178 


145 


2,247 


2,115 


420 


315 


402 


284 


939 


695 



27,452 23,522 



Surplus 
Expenditure. 

• • • 

788 
191 
566 
331 
516 
436 

39 

13 
126 
311 

33 
132 
105 
118 
244 

3,930 



Surplus 
R49Vrnue. 

19 



FINANCES. 



193 



D. — ^BSVSNUBS 8IKCB 1871. 









4 




Millions A 








Decsde A^tr^go, from 1871 to 1880. 


Tear 1881, 

Total 
Bevanue. 


Customs. 


Plnoporty- 


Various. 
50-6 


TotaL 


United Kingdom . 


20-1 


66 


77-3 


84-0 


Fnnee .... 


10-8 


87 


85*5 


104-5 


114-2 


Gennany. . 






8-6 


10-6 


53-5 


72-6 


90*2 


B»i» . 






8-5 


10-8 


41*5 


60-3 


737 


Anstrin . . 






2-6 


9-4 


48-6 


60-6 


68*4 


lUlT . . 

Spam . . . 






60 


13-0 


35-4 


53-4 


54-2 






4-4 


9-6 


15-8 


29-8 


81*6 


Fortogil . 






1-8 


0-8 


8-2 


5-8 


7 


HdUand . 






0-4 


1-8 


6-6 


87 


8-4 


Belgium . 






0-8 


1-5 


70 


9-3 


11-4 


Bemnwrk 






10 


0-5 


1-2 


27 


27 


8 wedea and Norway 
Europe ... 


2-4 


0-5 


4-0 


6-9 


7-0 


65-9 


73 2 


352-7 


491-8 


552-8 ! 


United States . 




260 


• • • 


36-2 


62-2 


75-6 i 


Canada . . . 




2-7 


• • • 


2-2 


4-9 


5-4 1 


Australia. 


■ i 




41 


• • • 


101 


14-2 


20-6 


Bra&l. . 


• i 




6-7 


0-4 


2-2 


9-3 


111 


EOTt. . 


» < 




0-8 


6-0 


2-3 


81 


8-4 


■ i 




2-2 


211 


31-8 


551 


68-5 


The Work 


\ . 


> • 


\ 108-4 


99-7 


437-5 


615-6 


742-4 



R — Revenues op tIib Three Kingdoms (1881). 





Thouaands A 


Shillings per InhaUtent 




England. 


Scotland. 


Ireland. 


Euglnnd. Scotland. 


Ireltxnd. 


Customs • . 
Exdiie . . . 
Stamps . . 
Taxes . . . 
Post Office . 
Sundries . . 


15,319 

16,626 

9,373 

10,360 

6,630 

6,538 


1.945 
4,524 
1,224 
1,013 
840 
830 


1,920 
4,068 
710. 
471 
830 
820 


12 
13 
7 
8 
5 
5 


11 
25 
7 
6 
5 
5 


7 
16 
3 
2 
3 
3 


Total . . 


64.846 


10,376 


8,819 


50 


59 


34 



N 



»94 



FINANCES. 



F. — Increase of German Bkvenue& 






MilllonB£. 


BhlUInn r*' f ntt^ii 1 




r -- 


1887. 


1882. 


1867. 


1882. 


PmnU .... 


26-8 


890 


21 


29 


BavsrU .... 


6-9 


11-1 


25 


42 


Sttzony .... 


2-2 


8-2 


18 


21 


Wurtembuig . 


1-8 


25 


15 


25 


Baden .... 


17 


21 


24 


28 


AlSMB .... 


• •• 


2-4 


• •• 


80 


Hamburg. 


07 


1-4 


47 


61 


Dachiea, fto. . . . 
Total 


8-4 


4-8 


25 


24 


40-5 


66-5 


19 


29 


Imperial .... 
Total 


*• ■ 


24-8 


• • • 


11 


405 


91-8 19 


40 



G. — Expenditure in 1881-82. 











Mimoiit£. 




QoTcmmant. 


Interest on 
Debt 


Armj sod 
NsTy. 


TutnL 


United Kingdom . . 


25-6 


29-6 


27-9 


88-1 


France .... 




42-1 


49-4 


29-6 


121-1 


Germany 








67-2 


107 


22-5 


90-4 


Romia . . 








26-8 


24-2 


29-5 


80-0 


Austria . . 








88-8 


237 


12-6 


75-1 


Itoly . . . 








221 


24-5 


10-4 


57-0 


Spain . . 








14-2 


12-4 


6-8 


82-9 


Portugal 








87 


2-9 


1-2 


7-8 


Holland . , 








6-1 


2-3 


2-6 


10-0 


Belgium 








6-2 


86 


1-8 


11-6 


Denmark 








1-0 


0-5 


0-9 


2-4 


Sweden and Norway . 
Surope .... 


4-2 


1-0 


1-8 


7-0 


246-5 


184-8 


147-1 


578-4 


United SUtes 






26-3 


18-4 


9-4 


64 1 


Canada . . 






8-4 


1-8 


0-2 


5-4 


Australia 








13-9 


47 


0-2 


18-8 


Brazil . 








4-6 


87 


2-9 


111 


Egypt . 








4-4 


8-5 


0-6 


8-4 


India 








49-2 


67 


217 


76 6 


Japan 








4-6 


4 3 


2-2 


11-1 


Aigentine Republic . 


2-2 


2-0 


1-4 


5-6 


The Worl 


d 


. 


. 


355-0 


228-9 


185-6 


; 769-5 

1 



Interest on debt includos Sinking Fund 



FINANCES. 



195 



H.~BiLTIOB OF EZPENDITUIUB (1881-^2). 





ShiUlnga per InhablUnt 


Aliquot Farti of BadgeUI 


monl 


Debt 


Army. 


Total. 


OoTem- 
ment. 


Debt 


Army 

and 

Navy. 


United Kingdom 


14 


17 


16 


47 


807 


857 


88*6 


France . . . 


28 


28 


17 


68 


84*8 


40*8 


24*4 


Gennany. . . 


25 


6 


10 


40 


68-4 


11*8 


24*8 


Bnaiia. . . . 


• 7 


6 


.8 


21 


32*8 


80*2 


870 


Anatria . . . 


20 


18 


7 


40 


51-6 


817 


167 


ItalT .... 
SpaLi .... 


16 


17 


7 


40 


88*8 


48*4 


17*8 


17 


15 


8 


40 


43-8 


87-2 


19-0 


Portiigal . . . 


17 


14 


6 


87 


48-8 


86*2 


15-0 


Holland . . . 


26 


12 


18 


50 


51-0 


280 


26-0 


Belgium . . . 


22 


18 


7 


42 


581 


81*8 


15-6 


Denmark . . . 


11 


5 


9 


25 


44-0 


20*0 


86*0 


Sweden and Nor. 


13 


8 


6 


22 


60*0 


14*8 


257 


Siirope 


16 


18 


10 


89 


481 


81*6 


25-8 


United SUtea . 


11 


7 


4 


22 


49-1 


837 


17-2 


Canad* . . . 


17 


9 


1 


27 


681 


83*2 


87 


Anatralia. . . 


105 


85 


1 


141 


73-9 


251 


1*0 


Braril .... 


9 


8 


6 


28 


400 


83*6 


26*4 


Egypt .... 


16 


12 


2 


80 


52-8 


41*2 


60 


India .... 


6 


1 


2 


8 


64*0 


7*5 


28*5 


Japan .... 


8 


8 


1 


7 


40*9 


39*1 


200 


Aigentine Repub. 


17 


15 


12 


44 


89*8 


84*2 


260 


The World . . 


11 


8 


6 


25 


46*8 


29*6 


241 



The countries in wliich debt absorbs too much of revenue 



are the following : — 

Italy. Egvpt 

Debt .... 43*4 41*2 

Government . 88*8 52*8 

Army and navy 17'8 6*0 



Total 



France. 
40-8 
84-8 
24*4 



Japan. 
891 
409 
200 



Speiin. Portugal. 

87*2 86-2 

43*8 48*8 

190 15*0 



. 100*0 100*0 100*0 1000 100*0 100*0 



The countries wherein military expenditure (army and 
navy) constitutes a high ratio are the following : — 



Rn«RU 
Army and navy 87 "0 
Government . 82*8 
I>ebt .... 80*2 



Denmark. U. Kingdom. India. 

360 33-6 28*5 

440 30*7 640 

20 857 7*5 



Brazil. IIolLind. 

26*4 260 

40*0 51*0 

83*6 230 



Total 



100*0 1000 



1000 1000 100*0 100*0 



FINANCES. 
L— BmnsH BsvEHuBa tti 40 Yeabs. 





UOUdiua. 1 


lM3-n. 


IBUn. 


WW-TL 


im-n. |«>r«n.l 


Cmtomi . . . 
BxdK. . . . 
St>mpi . . . 

PortOffio . . 
Sondrie*. . . 

ToUl . . . 


K6 
161 
71 
G6 
IS 
«6 


887 
181 
78 
102 
80 
GO 


221 
204 

94 

78 

4S 

69 . 

711 


ig» 

268 
110 
71 
74 
77 


868 
804 
8S3 

soa 

WT 
S48 


tier 


67B 


7» |V65 1 





BhimDg.F.r 




paAnau 


>>■ 


184^^1. 


185i.«. 


iHi-n. 


ins-SL 


Mtw.. 


Cuatomii . . . 


187 


16-9 


14-7 


12-2 


1*7 


Eici». . . . 


11-2 




IS'G 


16-2 


13-4 


Stamp. , . . 


6-2 


6-B 


6-2 


67 


B-9 








6-2 






Port Office . . 


1-3 


2-2 


8-0 


4-G 


27 


Sondrie. . . . 
ToUl . . . 


3-6 


8-5 


46 


47 


4-0 


420 


48-2 


47a 


4S-S 


45-8 





iUquotPwta 1 


1M2-51. 


166S.M. I«»--l. 


)8T!-S1. 


<0 7^ 


Ciutoiiui . . . 


39-8 


34-8 


81-1 


26-0 




EicUe. , . . 


26-5 


287 


28-7 


33-6 




Stampi , . . 


12-6 


11-5 


13-2 


137 


12 8 




9-8 


IS'l 


10-9 


S-D 






3-2 


4-4 


6-3 


6-2 




Snndriwi , . . 


8-1 


7-5 9-8 


9-7 


87 


Total . . . 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 i 



The fiDancial legislation of the last 30 jeais has bad for 
object to lighten tJie Customs dues, which press nnduljr on 
the working classes ; the percentage of pauperism in England 
declines steadily as the Customs dues are rcdncod. Tho 
iocreose of Post Office revenue is another favourable sign, 
this item now representing more than 10 per ccnL of Uia 
total revenue. 



FINANCES. 
K. — British Expenditure in 40 Years. 



107 





MilUoDii £. 

II 1 ' 


Goremment. 


Debt. 


Army and 
Navy. 


Total. 


1842-51 . . . 
1852-61 . . . 
1862-71 . . . 
1872-81 . . . 

40 yean. . . 


102 
186 
164 
283 


287 
285 
265 

281 


160 
288 
268 
280 


549 
709 
692 
794 


635 


1,118 


991 


2,744 





ShiUinga per Inhabitant per Annum. 


Government. 


Debt. 


Army and 
Navy. 


TotaL 


1842-51 . . , 
1852-61 . . . 
1862-71 . . . 
1872-81 . . . 
40 yean . . . 


7-5 

97 

10-9 

14*2 

10-5 


21*3 
20-3 
177 
17-0 
18-5 


11-9 
20-5 
17-5 
16*9 
167 


407 
50-5 
46*1 
48-1 
467 





Aliquot Parta. 


1842-51. 


1852-61. 


1862-71. 


1872-81. 


40yeAr8. 


Cvovemment 
Debt .... 
Army and navy 

Total . . . 


18*6 
52-3 
291 


19*2 
40-2 
40*6 


23-5 
38-4 
381 


29-3 
35*4 
35-3 


231 
407 
86-2 


1000 


100-0 


1000 100-0 


100-0 



Comparing the expenditure with population, we find the 
cost of administration or government has risen from 7s. 6d. 
per head in the first decade to 14s. 3d. in the fourth, that of 
the army and navy from 12 to 17 shillings, while the burden 
of debt has declined from 21s. 4d. to 17 sliillings. 

Comparing expenditure with national earnings, we find:— 





Annual Average, Millions £. 






Nat. Earnings. 


Expenditure. 


Ratio. 


1842-51 . 


610 


55 


90 


1852-61 . 


. . 715 


71 


100 


1862-71 . 


890 


69 


7-8 


1872-81 . 


. 1,110 


79 


7-2 


40 yean average . 


830 


69 


8*3 



FINANCES. 
L— FiNASCBS OP Cures (1880-81). 









TlimaBid.*. 


CpalnbetlteDt. | 




Annod 
B>I«dUui. 


Debt 


E.p«dl. 


DebL 


Antwerp . 


S7S 




21 




Barlin . 






2,200 


6,610 


20 


61 


Biimiiuliuii 






1,610 


6,110 


4'0 


lG-0 


BortorT . 








6,200 




16-5 


Bradford. 






1,'i'oo 


8,400 


e'o 


19-0 


Brodati . 






361 


1,270 


1-6 


6-S 


Brighton . 






210 


700 


1-6 


6-5 


Brutol . 






m 


600 


2-0 


2-9 


Brooklyn. 








7.S0O 




14-9 


BuehueM 






m 


670 


1-6 


1-8 


BndvPnith 






672 


1,280 


2-2 


4-3 








2S0 


845 


8-3 


4-5 








32B 


850 




4-1 


Florence . 






SGO 


6,540 


6-7 


33-5 


Frankfort 






422 


1,460 


3-5 


121 


Genoft . 






466 


1,600 


2-6 


9-0 


Leeda . 






1,SOO 


3.500 


4-2 


11-3 


Leip«g . 






312 


740 


2-3 


5-5 


LifeiT . 






309 


1,6U0 


2-7 


13-5 1 


LiToipool 






8,200 


21,600 


5-9 


39S 


London . 






11,300 


20,600 


2-9 


53 


MMKheMer 






1,800 


6,200 


33 


10-9 


Milan 








3,050 




B-3 


Mnnich . 






395 


1,500 


1-8 


7-0 


NaplM . 








4,860 




0-9 








Voo 


700 


27 


4-8 


New York 








28,100 




191 


Pklenno . 






'820 


640 


i'^ 


2-2 


P»ri. 






10,4*0 


85,300 


47 


34-2 


PbiUdelphU 








8,400 




4-1 


Rome . 






8*20 


2,340 


27 


7-8 


SuFruicUco 






S-0 


750 


4-1 


3-2 


St.LouU. 








*,eoo 




14-0 


Sheffield . 






iio 


600 


1-4 


1-a 


Stockholm 






860 


480 


2-3 


3-0 








120 


400 


11 


87 


Trieate . 






373 


600 


3-7 


4-9 


Turin 






G20 


610 


27 


2-7 


VeDlo« . 






1S2 


430 


1-4 


3-3 


Vienn. . 






2,700 


8,470 


2-5 


7-8 



The debts of cltiea in the United States in 1 
an aggregate of 116 millions eterling for 9,1{ 
bitants, or £12, lOs. per head. See Debts. 



iSl reacheil 
»,000 inha- 



FIRE. 



199 



FIEE. 



A. — ^Valub op Property Destroyed Yearly. 







TboasancU£. 


ShllUngs 

perlnba- 

bitaiit. 


Ratio of 

Insurecl 

Property, 

per Cent. 


United Kingdom 




9,100 


6 1 


46 . 


France 




8,100 


1-7 


75 


Germany . 






6,200 


2-7 


74 


Boana 






14,000 


8 4 


9 


Austria 






8,600 


20 


• • • 


Italy? 






1,000 


0-7 


• ■ • 


Spain? 






500 


0-6 


*• • 


Belgium 
^land . 






520 
400 


1-9 
2 


43 

• • • 


ScaadinaTia 




1,800 


3-2 


• • • 


£arope 




39,620 


3 1 


• • • 


United States . 




16,800 


7 


55 


Canada 


• • 


2,100 


9 2 
4-2 


44 


The Worid . 


58,520 


• • • 


R— Fires 


1 IN Cities 


1, Annual Average. 






Number of ^"iSJSnP^' Lc 

^"^ InhSiJSu. (ThouBandB^). 


Per 

lubabitaut, 
Pfuce. 


London 


1,991 


49 


1,100 


66 


Paris . 


• • • 


• • • 


270 


34 


New York . 


1,783 


144 


780 


150 


Manchester . 


328 


59 


120 


55 


San Francisco 


• • • 


• • • 


112 


122 


Philadelphia 


655 


76 


460 


130 


Chicago 


490 


98 


360 


180 


Boston 


389 


117 


130 


95 


Baltimore 


172 


52 


70 


55 


Cincinnati . 


213 


85 


144 


144 


8t Louis 


197 


49 


160 


98 


C— I 


NCREASE OF LONDON FlREa 








Annual ATerag^ 




Yeari. 


Number Houses to luhabitants 


of Fires. s Fire. 


to ft Fire. 


1840-49 . 


. 768 


362 


2,731 


1850-59 


. 977 


331 


2,570 


1860-69 . 


. 1,430 


288 


2,390 


1870-^ 


JO . 


. 1,795 


264 


2,150 



Fires on Saturday are 5 per cent more numerous than on 
Lny other day in London ; but in Paris Friday has 20 per 
:ent. over the average. 



200 



FIRE. 



D. — Fires in France. 



Annual ATenge. 



Tears. 

1845-50 
1851-60 
1861-70 



Number 

OfFlTM. 

8,260 
10,556 
18,865 



Hon tea to 
aFire. 

878 

716 
562 



s 
Inhabitants 
toaFire. 

4,120 

8,485 

2,720 



E. — Deaths by Fire. 
Peb Million Inhabitants fib Annum. 



Munich . 
Glasgow . 
Berlin 
Paris 



4 
17 
20 
24 



Naples 
Hanover 
Cologne 
London 



41 
57 
71 
83 



The loss of life in England and Wales from fire averages 
1490 persons yearly, of whom 42 per cent are males and 
58 per cent females. The London firemen save 110 lives 
yearly. 

F. — Historical Fire& 



Year. 




Place. 




LOM. 




1570. 




Moscow . 


• • 


200,000 victims. 


1666. 




London . 


• • 


13,200 housea 




1812. 




Moscow . 


• • 


15,500 „ 




1824. 




Cairo 


• • 


4,000 victims. 




1831 . 




Constantinople 


18,000 houses. 




1835. 




New York 


• ■ 


£6,000,000. 




1842. 




Hamburg 


• • 


£7,200,000. 




1851 . 




San Francisco 


2,500 blocks. 




1871 . 




Chicago . 


• • 


£88,000,000. 




1872. 




Boston . 


• • 


£15,000,000. 






G. — Fire Brigades. 


(9* 






Flrc- 
EnginM 


Firemen. 

• 


CoHof 
Brigade. 


Fireroen 
per 100,000 , 
Inhabitaiita. * 


Gnat of 

Briitade, 

Pence per 

Inhab. 


London . . . 


38 


536 


£80,000 


13 


5 


Paris. . . . 


203 


1,500 


98,000 


68 


11 


St. Petersbiirg 


37 


1,150 


• • • 


127 


• • • 


Hamburg . . 


53 


790 


• • • 


805 


• • • 


New York. . 


38 


690 


250,000 


55 


48 


Philadelphia . 


27 


404 


103,000 


49 


29 


Chicago . . . 


27 


200 


94,000 


40 


48 


Boston . . . 


26 


472 


110,000 


138 


79 


Cincinnati . . 


18 


155 


62,000 


62 


64 


St. Louis . . 


17 


100 


40,000 


26 


24 


Baltimore . . 


18 


140 


40,000 


43 


80 


San Francisco 


14 


200 


• • • 


82 


• • • 


Berlin . . . 


50 


1,090 


• • • 


96 


• • • 


Lyons . . . 


48 


475 


• • • 


98 


• • • 



FIRE'DA MP^PIRE WOOD. 



20 1 



The London fire-brigade uses 17 million gallons water 
yearly, that is, 4^ gallons per inhabitant, or 8500 gallons for 
each fire. The New York brigade consumes 32 million 
gallons, that is, 25 gallons per inhabitant^ or 18,000 gallons 
per fire. 



H. — Cost of Bbigadb to Ntjmbeb of Fires. 



London. . . £40 
ayoDtiy ... 88 
New York. . 188 



FhOftdalphU. £163 
Chiosgo . . 188 
St LoQiB . . 201 



Baltimore . 
Boston . . 
Cincinnati . 



£230 
280 
296 



Great Britain 
Belginm 



Pttrlod. 
1871-80 
1848-78 



Ezplodom. 
424 
194 



Beathfl. 
2,685 
967 



Per Annum. 
268 
82 



In Great Britain during 10 years ending 1880, the deaths 
from fire-damp explosions were nearly one-fourth of the total 
in mining accidents, viz. : — 

Number. Per Annum. 
Fire-dMnp .... 2,686 268 

BooffaUingin 4,508 451 

Various .... 4,156 416 



Accidental deaths 
See Mining. 



11,349 



1,135 



FIBEWOOD. — ^The average yield, per acre of forest, is as 
follows : — 



Age of 



Te«rs. 

10 . 

15 . 

20 . 

25 , 

30 . 

40 . 



Firewood, 


Age of 


Cubio 


Treen, 


Feet. 


Yerin. 


. . 700 


50 . . 


. . 1,100 


60 . . 


. . 1,800 


70 . . 


. . 2.600 


80 . . 


. . 8,300 


90 . . 


. . 4,900 


100 . . 



Firewood, 
Cubio 
Feet 

6,200 

7,500 

8,300 

9,200 

9,700 

10,200 



Age of 


Firewood, 


IVeee, 


Cubic 


Yeara. 


Feet 


120. 


. . 11,400 


140. 


. . 12,400 


150. . 


. . 12,800 


200. 


. . 13,400 


250. . 


. 12,000 


300. . 


. 11,000 



Firewood is usually measured and sold by the "cord," 
which contains 125 cubic feet, or 2} tons. Europe consumes 
126 million tons of firewood yearly, and the United States 
28 j^ million tons : the ordinary value is 5 shillings per ton. 
The lowest consumption is in England and Belgium, about 
2 cubic feet per annum per inhabitant; the highest in 
Norway, Russia, and Canada, almost 40 feet per inhabitant 
See Timber ^ ForesL 



202 



FISHERIES. 



FISHERIES. 



A. — FlSHKRY OP THE WoRLD 







Men 


Thousand Vsloe 


Per Cwts of 




Vessels. 


(Thou- 


Titns 


(Thou- 


Fisher- 


Fish 






sands). 


Fish. 




mmn. per Man. 


United Kingdon 


i 84,900 


118 


880 


£3,550 


£32 


68 


France . . . 


. 21,900 


85 


130 


8,480 


40 


31 


Germany . . 


8,100 


17 


40 


400 


24 


48 


Russia . . . . 


18,500 


68 


220 


2,200 


33 


62 


Austria . . . 


2,800 


7 


15 


150 


22 


41 


Italy . . . . 


. 18,200 


61 


100 


1,000 


16 


34 


Spain . . . 


. 10,200 


88 


50 


500 


13 


27 


Norway . . . 


. 16,600 


118 


115 


1,660 


15 


21 


Holland . . . 


2,000 
. 128,200 


8 
510 


20 


200 


25 
£26 


50 


Europe . . 


1,070 


£13,140 


42 


United SUtes . 


6,600 


52 


140 


950 


19 


55 


Canada . . . 


11,200 
. 146,000 


53 

615 


260 
1,470 


2,450 


48 
£27 


98 


The World 


£16,540 


48 




B.— 


British Fisherikh. fS" 








Vessels. 




If en. 


Barrels 
BerrinffK. 




English 


* • 


14,420 


44,200 


845,000 




Scotch . 


• • 


14,650 


47,100 


1,580,000 




Irish . 


• • 


5,830 


21,300 


210,000 





Total 



. 34,900 



112,600 



2,635,000 



The above vessels take other fish besides herrings, but the 
latter form 70 per cent, of the total value of our sea-fishing. 
Including fresh-water fish, the annual value is nearly 
£5,000,000, viz. :— 



Kind. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Salmon . . . . 


8,600 


£380,000 


Ck)d . . . . 


. 13,000 


140,000 


Whale . . . . 


1 • • • • 


700,000 


Herrings 


. 300,000 


2,400,000 


Pilchards 


3,000 


30,000 


Lobsters, &c. . 


s • • • • 


900,000 


Total . 


1 • • • • 


£4,600,000 



The take of salmon is 60 per cent. Scotch, 30 per cent 
Irish, and 10 per cent Englisk A barrel of herrings con- 
tains 1000, of pilchards, 3000 fish : about half of the her- 
rings and two-thirds of the pilchards are exported. Salmon 
caught in the Tay sometimes weigh as much as 70 lbs. 



FJSHERIES^PLA X. 



203 



C. — ^French Fisherib& 
The product in 1880 was as follows : — 

Kind. 
Cod • • • • . 
Herring and mtokerel 
Sardinat 



Tons. 


Value. 


84,000 


£810,000 


48,000 


680,000 


88,000 


1,660,000 


10,000 


840,000 



Total . . . 180,000 £8,480,000 

The difierence between deep-sea and coast fishing was aa 
follows : — 

Dcepie a . Oosit ToUL 

Men . . 18,000 72,000 85,000 

Tontfiah . 84,000 96,000 180,000 

Value. . £860,000 £8,180,000 £8,480,000 

Being an average of X26 per deep-sea, and £44 per coast 
fisherman. 

D. — Norway Fisheries. 



Fithermen 
Fish, millions 
Value . . . 



Cod. 
58,000 
66 
£920,000 



Herring. 
58,000 
410 
£640,000 



Ttitiil. 
111,000 
475 
£1,660,000 



Besides the above the Norwegians take 350 whales, 80,000 
seals, and in fresh waters a quantity of salmon. 

K — Canadian Fisheries. 

Fish. Value. 

God, tons .... 46,000 £620,000 

Herring, tons . 48,000 680,000 

Seals, Number 460,000 280,000 

Whale, &<x . . . . ... 1,070,000 



Total £2,450,000 



FLAX. 



A. — Production. 



United Kingdom 

Fnuioe 

Oemumy . 

RuariA 

Anstrift . 

Italy 

Belgium and Holland 

Scandinavia 

United States . 



Tboutand 
Tone. 

26 

87 

48 

270 

63 

23 

88 

4 

12 



ThotuMad 
Acres. 

164 

165 

292 

1,960 

262 

203 

187 

41 

160 



Lbs. per 
Acre. 
860 
610 
870 
280 
460 
265 
450 
218 
175 



Total 



610 



3,414 



835 



204 



FLOODS—FLOUR. 
B. — Consumption in Unitbd Einodoic. 



\tutr 






MiUion Um. 


Value per 
Ton. 




British. 


Importod. 


Total. 


1820 
1830 
1840 
1850 
1860 
1870 
1880 






80 
85 
40 
46 
65 
72 
58 


57 
103 
170 
202 
163 
219 
169 


87 
138 
210 
248 
228 
291 
227 


£80 
80 
70 
36 
50 
53 
45 



Kew Zealand phormium gives 17 per cent, of flax. 
C. — Consumption in All Countries. 





Tons per 




Too* par 




Annum. 




Annum. 


United Kingdom 


. 104,000 


Austria 


. 60,000 


France 


66,000 


Italy and Switzerland . 11,000 


Germany 


85,000 


Belgium 


and HoUand . 30,000 


Russia . 


41,000 


United SUtea . . 20,000 


FLOODS. 








Date. 


Place. 




IXMB. 


1642 . 


China . 




800,000 lives. 


1646 . 


Holland 




110,000 „ 


1875 . 


Toulouse 




£15,000,00a 


1876 . 


Bengal . 




200,000 liTea. 


1879 . 


Zegedin 




£8,500,000. 


1883 . 


. Rhine Valle 


y 


£6,000,000. 



In the last-mentioned the area of country under water 
was 260 square miles, equal to the extent of the Lake of 
Constance. 

FLOUR. — The nutritive value is as follows ; — 



Ordinary English . 


. 100 


Essex (England) . 


. 121 


German . . • 


. 115 


Scotch . 


. 134 


Canada . 


. 117 


United SUtes 


. 145 



There are 12,000 flour-mills in the United Kingdom, 
valued at 25 millions sterling. 

A sack of flour containing 280 lbs. will make 368 lbs. 
bread in England, and 420 lbs. in the United States, 7 lbs. 
of American flour being equal to 8 lbs. of the best English. 
One ounce of flour contains 148 foot- tons of energy, soflicient 
to lift a male adult 500 feet See Diet, 



FOOD. 



205 



FOOD. 

A. — ^Yearly Consumption of Nscbssaribs. 



United Kingdom . . 

France 

Gennany 

Boana 

Autria 

Italj 

Spain 

Belgium and Holland 
Demnark .... 
Sweden and Norwaj . 
United States . . . 



P«rInhAbltuit»Ll». 


Yaluo. 










Ormln. 


Meat 


Butter. 


Sogmr. 




880 


105 


13 


68 


£7 2 


406 


74 


4 


21 


5 4 


416 


69 


8 


21 


5 8 


440 


48 


3 


7 


3 4 


410 


64 


5 


14 


4 16 


sao 


23 


1 


7 


3 8 


860 


49 





5 


8 8 


400 


69 


6 


16 


4 9 


400 


70 


15 


81 


5 10 


840 


65 


9 


17 


3 17 


892 


120 


16 


23 


6 6 


406 


70 


7 


20 


5 6 



R — Consumption of Luxuries, per Inhabitant. 



United Kingdom 

France 

Germany .... 

Rania 

Anstria 

Xwaiy . ... 

Spam 

Belgium and Holland 
Denmark .... 
Sweden and Norway 
United States . . 
Average .... 





0unce« 


. 




Gallons. 




Coffee. 


Te*. 


Tobacco. 


Wine. 


Boor. 


Spirit*. 


15 


72 


23 


0*44 


28-60 


1-05 


52 




29 


20 12 


5-10 


0-90 


83 




72 


2-70 


19-40 


1-33 


3 




26 


0-88 


0-80 


2-20 


35 




80 


7-50 


6-50 


0-80 


18 




22 


17-60 


0-70 


0-30 


4 




32 


13-50 


010 


0-20 


175 


8 


84 


0-80 


22-20 


2-60 


76 


8 


61 


0-30 


12-60 


4-30 


88 


2 


29 


0-20 


5-40 


4-20 


115 


21 


59 


0*60 


10-20 


1-50 


44 


11 


41 


5-50 


8-60 


110 



There are many valuable items of food besides tbose in 
the foregoing tables. Grain is largely supplemented by 
potatoes in Ireland and Germany, and by chestnuts in Italy : 
moreover, this column does not include rice, the consumption 
of iTirhich is rapidly increasing. Meat includes fowl, but 
neither game nor fish, nor lard, all of which enter largely 
into European food. Cheese (q.v.) is another important 
item not included above. The same may be said of fruit 
and vegetables. 



2o6 



FOOD. 





C— 


Cost 


OF Food. 










MiUionB£. 












« 






▲▼waga 




Grain. 


Meat 


Liquor. 


Son- 
dries. 


TotaL 


Inh^taat. 


United Kingdom . 


55 


140 


102 


176 


478 


£13 9 


Franco • . • . 


72 


105 


74 


141 


892 


10 8 


GronnAny . . . 


80 


126 


80 


154 


440 


9 5 


RuBsia .... 


112 


107 


84 


218 


516 


6 8 


Austria .... 


56 


88 


63 


118 


820 


8 8 


Italy 


42 


25 


87 


80 


184 


6 6 


Spain 


82 


21 


20 


50 


128 


7 11 


Belgium & Holland 


21 


17 


19 


45 


102 


10 14 


Denmark . . . 


5 


5 


5 


8 


23 


11 8 


Sweden k Norway 


11 


10 


8 


28 


52 


8 6 


United Stotei . . 
Total. . . . 


85 


110 


74 


255 


524 


10 9 


571 


754 


566 


1,258 


3,149 


£9 8 Oj 



D. — Comparative Cost of 


Food. 






Million* £. 


Ratio of 

Foodto 

Earnings, 


Days of 


National Food 


Work Eaual 
to Food. 




Earnings. 


Value. 


per Cent. 


United Kingdom . . 


1,247 


473 


37-8 


114 i 


France 


965 


392 


40-6 


121 


Germany 


850 


440 


51-8 


155 


Russia 


848 


516 


60-2 


180 


Austria 


602 


320 


531 


159 


Itoly 


345 


184 


533 


163 


Spain 


218 


123 


56-5 


164 


Belgium and Holland 


224 


102 


45-5 


148 


Denmark 


45 


23 


50-6 


152 


Sweden and Norway . 


104 


52 


500 


150 


United States . . . 


1,420 


524 


37-0 


113 



Tho days of work are 300 per annum, allowing rest on 
52 Sundays, and 13 days of sickness for each ioiiabitant, 
the latter being Dr. Farr*s average. 

Those countries are relatively the most affluent where the 
cost of food is lowest as compared with total earnings, vix., 
Great Britain, the United States, and France, and in these 
wealth will most rapidly accumulate. But if we consider 
only the working classes (see Wages)^ we find that in the 
United States the cost of food is exactly one-third the value 
of labour, whereas in Great Britain it is almost one>half, and 
in France still more. 



FOOD. 
E. — Food Impoiitb into United Einodov. 



207 









• 

Thouaandfl of Tons. 


IV>r InhaUtuit, Lte. 




U6O1 


187a 


188a 


180a 


187a 


1880. 


WbMt . 

MMt . . 

Butter . 
Cbeete 
Bogur . . 
Te* . . 
Codm • 
Rioe . . 
Egsi . 






1,588 
91 
48 
80 
441 
85 
16 
19 
8 


1,858 
144 
58 
52 
765 
54 
14 
95 
22 


8,810 
650 
116 

88 
999 

72 

14 
220 

87 


128 
7 
8 
2 
88 
2 
1 
1 

i 


187 
10 

4 
4 

55 
4 
1 
7 
1 


212 

41 

7 

5 

64 

5 

1 

14 

2 


Total . 


1 1 


1 • 


2,271 


8,057 


5,506 


172 


223 


851 



Each inhabitant consumed in 1870 twice his own weight 
of imported food, and in 1880 three times his weight Meat 
includes hud. 



F.— Valui 


1 Gw Food Imports, United Kingdom. 




MiUioiit A, 


Shilling! per Inhabitant 


18«0. 


187a 


issa 


IMO. 


187a 


1880. 


Wheat . . . 


20-9. 


19-7 


89'3 


15 


13 


23 


Meat . . . 




4-4 


7-7 


26-6 


8 


5 


15 


Butter . . 




41 


6-8 


121 


8 


5 


7 


Cheese . . 




1-6 


8-3 


6-1 


1 


2 


8 


Sugar . . . 




12-4 


17-6 


22-2 


8 


11 


18 


Tea . . . 




6-9 


90 


8-8 


4 


6 


5 


Coffee . . , 




1-2 


0-8 


1-3 


1 


1 


1 


Rice . . 




0-4 


0-9 


21 


• • • 


• • • 


1 


Eggs . . . 




0-5 


11 


2-2 


• ■ • 


1 


2 


Total . . 


1 • 


51-4 


66-9 


119-7 1 35 


44 


70 



The United Kingdom imports of food, compared with 
consumption, are as follows : — 37 per cent of the meat (in- 
cluding lard), 58 per cent, of the cheese and butter, and 61 
per cont of the wheat, necessary for its annual supply ' 



G. — Food of French Cities. 
Feb Inhabitant, peb Annum. 



Bread 
Meat 

Butter 



Urn. 




449 


Wine 


127 


Beer 


8 


Cider 



Gallonj^ 
. 35 

5 

6 



The consumption in Pari^ 1880, wu u follows : — 



AW 127 eggs, 48 gallone vine, and 1^ ^lloa epiriU. 
The consamptton of bread per inhabitant in Fui* baa 
declined as followe : — 

Tmt. Lla. 1 Tmi. Um. 

IS3»-35 . . 3&S lBm-99 ... Ml 

185S-G9 . 846 I 1879 .... SSI 

The consnmption of bread per inhabitant 18 falling in 
most French cities, viz. : — 



The conBnmptioQ of meat averagea per annum 181 lbs. 
per inhabitant in Lyons, 1S6 in Bordeaux, and 113 in Lille. 
The ratio is rising in these towns. 

II. — Food Expokts of Ukitkd States. 



Y...r. 




MUUou. 


Pa IiiluhlUiit. 1 














UiulieLi. 


Lta. ,CbaH^LbL 






Cbttwt.Um. 


1821 . . 


s 


22 i 1 


OS 


2-2 


0-1 


1S3I . . 


11 


21 2 


0'» 


2-0 


0-2 


1S41 . . 


s 




0-5 


2-e 




1851 . . 


11 


78 11 


o-a 


3-3 




isei . . 


es 


142 43 


2-0 


4-4 






62 


23S 73 


1-6 






ISSl . . 


285 


1^30 180 


6-8 


301 1 36 1 



I>Ieat includes laid and live cattle. 

L — Food Exports op Russia. 

miUcnu. 



1881 
1865 
1870 
187S 
1880 



lliubaU. Lb*. 



Tiliuof 

tMlh. 

£9,200,000 
8,600,000 
20,800,000 
21,100,000 
24,200 000 



FOREIGN RESIDENTS^POREIGN SERVICE. 209 



rOBEXGN SE8IDENT8. 

A. — ^FoRxiQNXB^ nf Various Countries (1880). 



United IQngdoiii 127 
Vnyiee . 



BwitMilimi 
ItolT . 
SfJn . 

Bdgiam 



[boa- 


Pttroontego 




Thon- 


Pttnsontei^ 


ind*. 
127 


of Pop, 
0-86 


SwedandNor. 


■anda. 
17 


of Pop. 
0-27 


864 


2^0 


Greeoe . • . 


20 


1-20 


291 


0*64 




89 


1-82 


148 


0-21 


Bnrope • . • 


2,866 


0-80 


127 


0-85 


United Stotes. 


6,680 


18-40 


211 


777 


Bnudl . . . 


248 


2-64 


278 


1-02 


Argent Itepub. 


212 


11-20 


41 


0-26 


EOT* . . . 

chal. . . . 


83 


1*62 


64 


1-66 


27 


1-81 


98 


1*96 


China . . . 


4 


• • • 


64 


2*84 


Japan . . . 


2 


0-01 



R — ^Foreign Residents at Various Periods. 







Ratio to Population. 


United 
Kingdom. 


AnuiMk 


United 
Statee. 


United 
Kingdom. 


Franoe. 


United 
States. 


1880 . . 
1870 . . 
1860 . . 
1860 . . 
1840 . . 
1820 . . 
1800 . . 


• • • 

161 

102 

62 

86 

• ■ • 

• • • 


864 
731 
475 
871 

... 
*• ■ 

■ • • 


6,680 

5,569 

4,136 

2,241 

859 

177 

44 


• • • 

0-62 
0-35 
0-23 
013 

■ • ■ 

• • • 


2-30 
203 
1-33 
1-06 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 


13-40 
14-48 
1310 

9-62 

610 

1-86 

0-62 

1 



C. — Foreigners in Cities. 



Paris . 

London 



PerlOOO 
Inliab. 

76 

21 



Berlin . . 
Pestb-Bnda 



PerlOOO 


PerlOOO 


Inhab. 


Inhab. 


13 


Buenos Ayres 88 


14 


Montevideo . 96 



D. — Foreigners in Paris (1881). 



Thousands. 
Belgians . . 46 
Germans . . 31 
Italians . . 22 
Swiss ... 21 

Total 



Tlioiwand*. 
English . . 11 
Dutch . . 9 
Americans . 6 
Russians . . 6 



Thousands. 
Austrians . 6 
Spaniards . 4 
Various . . 6 

164 



FOREIGN 8£BVI0E.~Bctween the years 1691 and 1745 
there were 453,000 Irishmen who died in the French ser- 
vice. 



A. — FOREBTS OF THX WoBLD. 





-M" 


Itettoto 




F»d.ttt. 


pvKn, 






h^ 


'^ 


Burn^ 














Uuted Eingdom . 


3 


3 


« 


60 


15 




23 


17 


60 


EO 






3S 


SG 


76 


U 








83 


666 


20 








27 




62 




Itoly 


11 


IS 


40 


46 




Sp^ .Dd Portog*! 


8 


« 


88 






Belgiou ud Hoa 


H 


10 


18 


48 




ScMdlwU . . . 
Enrope. . . . 




32 


710 


SO 




073 


27 


220 


36 




United St>UB . . 


176 


8 


S43 


18 






17i 





MIO 


2 




Br«il 


135 


8 


1,3B0 


1 




GrmCbKO. . . 


37 


3fi 








Algeri- .... 
Total .... 


fl 


3 


180 






1.201 


12 


333 


... ..n 



Sinco 1848 tho French have converted 9 millioR acres of 
-waste land into forest, producing 7 shillings an acre. Paris 
bums the tiraber of 50,000 acres yearly, requiring an area 
of 1 million acres of forest to keep up Uie supply. Wood- 
cutters in the United States fell 10,000 acres daily, or 3 million 
acres per annum. There are (1882) 16,100 eaw-miUa in 
United States, and 640 in Canada. 8tat« and Commanal 
forests in Franco cover 8 million acres, and ue valued at 
XI 5 per acre. 



£. — Forests in Gkrman't. 



£1,070,000 
640,000 
220,000 
1,740,000 

£3,670,000 



FORGERY— FOUNTAINS. 211 

C. — Crown Forests. 





Aroft, Acres. 


Product 


Per Acre, 
Sliillingii 


Fnaoe . 2,560,000 
Geniumj 9,480,000 
Aiutria . . 7,520,000 
RoHiA . . 888,400,000 
Sweden and Norwaj 10,800,000 
Ita^ 540,000 


£1,520,000 
8,670,000 
1,480,000 

13,200,000 

1,500,000 

220,000 


12 

8 

4 
1 
3 
8 



IVyUl . . 868,750,000 £21,590,000 

Kossiaii crown forests comprise 30 million acres belonging 
to the Czar and 303 millions to the National Exchequer : 
the annual product averages only 10 pence per acre, against 
30 pence in forests not belonging to the State. The Czar 
employs 27,000 wood-police, who cut 12 million tons, chiefly 
firewood, per annum, that is, 1^ tons daily, valued at 2 shil- 
lings per ton (50 cubic feet). In Hungary, besides crown 
forests, there are 1^ million acres held by the clergy : the 
yield of Austrian and Hungarian forests is nearly 60 per 
cent firewood, 40 per cent for carpenters. See Timlter^ 
Firetcood, 

FOBOEBT. — In one year (1820) no fewer than 46 persons 
were hanged for forging Bank of England notes, but some 
of the notes were afterwards asserted to be good. Juries 
refused to hong any more. 

FOBTIFIOATIONS.— Louis Philippe spent 16 millions 
sterling on forts, especially the enceinte of Paris. I^ord 
Palmerston spent 7^ millions on the coast fortifications 
begun by him in 1860. The German Government has spent 
2| millions sterling in military works around Strasburg. 
The site occupied by the Paris fortifications is 3900 acres, 
and was value<l in 1840 at £140 an acre : it is now about 
to be sold for £700 an acre, on the levelling of the forts. 

FOSSILS.— See Geology. 

FOUNDLINOa— The Paris hospital receives 105,000 
yearly, of whom 60 per cent, die before 12 months. There i« 
a similar hospital at Moscow, which receives 12,000 yearly : 
the boys are brought up for the navy. 

FOUNTAINS.— The Drinking Fountain Society of Lon«lon 
(established 1859), of which the Duke of AVestminster is 



213 



FREIGHT—FRIENDLY SOCIETIES. 



president, maintains 511 fountains and 526 troughs, from 
which 15 million persons and 6 million horses and other 
animals drink every month. Sir Richard Wallace erected 
50 drinking fountains for the poer of Paris. 



FEEiaHT. 



A. — By Land and Water. 
Feb 100 Milxb, 1 Ton. 
6 pence I By railway . 



lOihilliiigi 
80 .. 



By sea . 
„ canal . 2 shillingB | „ high-road 

The average varies according to country, but the above is 
a general average for European nations, llie merchandise of 
the world pays £S ocean freight for every £100 worth 
carried. 

B. — Freights bt Railway per 100 Miles, per Ton. 





Pence. 


Belgium . . 


70 


Germany 


84 


United StaU-s . 


66 


Italy .• 


. 108 


Austria . 


. Ill 


Holland . 


118 


Ireland ... 


. 119 



' 


Pence. 


Great Britain 


1^5 


Great Eastern (England) 


120 


Great Western 


130 


North- Western 


130 


Great Northern ,, 


150 


France .... 


154 


Sweden 


160 



The above rates are for grain, except Germany, vrhich id 
the general average (1882). 

FRIENDLY SOCIETIES. 

A. — General Statement. 







Members, 


MilUoDs£. 


CaniUl 

per Mem. 

bcr, £. 


1 
Memben 




No. 


Thou- 
•Ands. 


per 100 
Inluih. 


Great Britain . . 


18,234 


5,780 


56-2 


96 


16 


France .... 


6,777 


1,066 


3 8 


3-6 


3 


Germany .... 


4,920 


1,710 


28-6 


16-3 


4 


Russia .... 


477 


34 


0-3 


80 


• • • 


Austria .... 


128 


73 


0-6 


8-2 


« • • 


lUly 


2,091 


330 


0-9 


30 


1 


Switzerland . . . 


632 


101 


0-3 


3-0 


4 


Holland and Belg. 


514 


420 


0-2 


0-5 


4 


Denmark. . . . 


721 


99 


01 


10 


5 


Canada .... 


40 


80 


51 


68-0 


2 


Australia . . . 
Total .... 


879 


55 


0-7 


13-0 


2 


35,413 


9,748 


96-8 


9-9 


8 



FRIENDLY SOCIETIES^FROST. 



213 



B. — ^Frxbkdlt Sooieties of Great Britain. 



Vatnra, 
Friendly • 
FMHdent • 
Building . 

ToUl. 



Kmnber. 

16,879 
1,687 
1,268 

18»284 



Merobon. 

4,692,000 
716,000 
872,000 

6,780,000 



Funds. 
£12,760,000 
6,887,000 
87,080,000 

£56,167,000 



Indnding non-registered societies, the estimated number 
of members is 7 millions, or one-fifth of the population ; 56 
per cent men, and ii per cent, women. In 10 years the 
OddfeUows and Foresters have increased 310,000, and their 



funds oyer 2 millions sterling. 



C. — ^French Fribndlt Societieb. 



Number of If embera. 



Tmt. 
1860 
1870 
1880 



Female. 
70,000 
107,000 
141,000 



ToUL 
681,000 
826,000 
1,066,000 



461,000 
719,000 
926,000 

The revenue in 1880 was £820,000, of which £670,000 
was given to sick and aged members, the balance of £150,000 
going to increase the reserve funds, Avhich amount to 
£3,760,000. 



D. — German Friendly Socteties. 



Teer. 
1860 
1870 
1880 



Bodetiee. 
133 
740 
4,920 



Members. 

31,600 

814,700 

1,710,000 



Reeerre Funds. 
£80,000 
2,200,000 
8,660,000 



The principal societies are those founded on the plans of 
Mr. Schultz-Delitsch, who commenced his labours in 1864 ; 
they are of a co-opemti ve nature, with a " turn-over " which 
in 1880 exceeded 140 millions sterling. There is also Uie 
Journeymen's Union, with 268,000 members, and an income 
of £1,100,000, supporting widows and orphans. 

FBOST. 

A. IK 

1234. Mediterranean frozen : traffic with carta. 

1420. Boephonu frozen. 

1468. Wine at Antwerp told in blocks. 

1607. First fair on the Thames. 

1668. Swedish artillcxy crossed the Sound. 

1716. Oxen rrva.«ted on the Thames. 

1740. Third Thames fair, with shops. 



214 



FROST—FRUIT. 



1766. Snow knee-deep at Naples. 

1789. Thermometer Fahrenheit marked 23* below zero at Frankfoit, 

and 86° at Baale. 
1809. Moecow, 48" below sero^ g^atest cold recorded there : mercmy 

frozen. 
1829. Jakoutsk, Siberia, 78* below zero on 25th January : greateit cold 

on any record. 
1846. December marked 25* below zero at Pontarlier : lowest ever 

marked in France. 
1855. Fires on Serpentine, Hyde Park. 
1864. January, Fahrenheit stood at zero in Torin: greater cold 

recorded in Italy. 

Captain Parry, in his Arctic explorations, suffered for 
some time 51 degrees below zero. Frost is diminishing in 
Canada with the increase of population, viz. : — 



Hudson's Bat Closed. 



1828-37 
1871-80 



184 days per annum. 
179 „ 



>i 



ft 



FBOZEN 



'. — An engine of 70 horse-power can 
refrigerate a chamber for 250 tons of meat from Australia to 
Europe, using 1 cwt of coal per hour, or 1 J ton per day. 



FRUIT. — The degrees of sugar in various fruits are :- 



Peach 


. 1-6 


Apple 
Mulberry 


Raspberry 


. 40 


Strawberry 


. 5-7 


Pear 


Currant . 


. 61 


Cherry 


Gooseberry 


. 7-2 


Grape 



7-9 

9^ 

9*4 

10-8 

14-9 



A. — Importing Countries. 



Year. 


Tons per Anntun. 


Value (Thouaanda£>. 


Lba. per Inbabltani. 


U. Kingdom. 


Franco. 


U. Blingdom. 


France. 


U. Kingdom. France. 

1 


1855 
1860 
1865 
1870 
1875 
1880 


43,400 
79,100 
104,600 
107,400 
152,400 
152,600 


• • • 

• • • 

82,'ioO 

61,100 

169,700 


1,410 
1,840 
2,180 
2,160 
8,810 
8,260 


• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

540 
1,100 
8,880 


8 
6 

8 

8 t 2 
10 . 4 
10 10 



Tlie United States have regularly imported since 1871 
about 6 lbs. fruit per inhabitant per annum. 



FUEL—FUNERA LS. 



21 



B. — ExPOSntO COUNTRIEB. 



Tmt. 


Ttaa per Annam. 


Value in £ (Tbousanda 
omitted). 


Avenge 

Value 

per Ton. 


IUI7. 


8|MlllJ. 


Oroeoe. 


Italy. 


Spain. 

710 

850 

1,880 

1,520 

1,680 


Greece. 


1863 
1865 
1870 
1875 
1880 


48»800 
72,600 
80,800 
09,100 
98»500 


87,100 
42,800 
62,600 
78,400 
121,200 


44,100 
68,800 
52,600 
89,800 

• •• 


1,240 
1,640 
1,100 
1,620 
1,860 


540 

730 

720 

1,470 

• • • 


£20 
19 
16 
17 
14 



FUEL. 



A. — Annual Consumption. 





Mflliona. 




Coal, 


Flrewnnd, 


Coal, 


1 

Firewood, 




Tona. 


Cable Feet. 


Cwts. 


Cubio Feet. 


United EliDgdom 


180 


60 


74 


2 


Fiaiios 


27 


850 


14 


23 


QenntsBj . 


55 


760 


24 


18 


RiiaiiA 


9 


2,770 


2 


33 


Anstrift 


16 


1,120 


9 


29 


Italy 


8 


230 


2 


8 


Sp*iii and Portugal . 


2 


110 


2 


6 


Belgiiim . 


12 


10 


44 


2 


Holland . 


3 


10 


14 


2 


Sweden and Norway . 
Enzope ... 


2 


820 


5 
17 


40 


259 


6,240 


20 


United SUtes . 


70 


1,410 


28 


26 


Canada 
Total . 


2 


140 


9 


81 


331 


7,790 


i 18 


22 



Pounds of water evaporated by 1 lb. of fuel as follows : — 



Straw. . . ,K , 1*9 

Wood 31 

Peat 3*8 



Coke or charcoal 

Coal. 

Petroleum 



6*4 

7-9 

14-6 



FIJin)&— See Consols. 

FT7HERALS. 

A. — Chadwick's Table for England. 



Panpers 

Working-class 

Middle-class 



138. 

£5 

£40 



I 



Gentry , 
NobUity 



£100 
1,000 



Average : £10 for eacli interment, or 5 millions per annum. 



2l6 



FURNA CES^FURNITURE. 



B. — French Offioial CLASSincATiox. 

Annual Pereentag*. 



Fnnenliof 




1878-74. 


1878-7a 


Rich penons 
Hiddle-dass . 


• 


8-2 


8-5 


• 


18-6 


14-8 


Working-cUn 


• 


83-2 


82*2 


Total 


• 


100-0 


100-0 


SNAOES (1881) :- 


— 








No. 


Tons Pig 


TVmspcr 




*»w. 


Iron. 


Pumaoe. 


Great Britain . 


555 


8,826,000 


14,700 


United States . 


487 


4,160,000 


9,400 


Germany. 


220 


2,790,000 


12,700 


France ... 


270 


1,880,000 


7,000 


KnsBia . 


206 


480,000 


2,850 


Belgium . 


40 


610,000 


15,200 


Austria . 


98 


520,000 


5,800 


Sweden . 


224 


390,000 


1,760 



Total . . 2,050 



19,156,000 



9,400 



FTJBNITXJBR — Including also carriages, clothing, jewel- 
lery, paintings, && ; the value under this item amounts to 
half the value of house-property. 

A. — FORNITURB IN UNITED KlNGD03f. 



Tesr. 


Millions £. 


Per Houae. 


Per Inhabi 


1802 . 


190 


£70 


£12 


1830 . 


270 


75 


18 


1850. 


440 


95 


16 


1860 . 


580 


118 


20 


1870. 


740 


181 


24 


1880 . 


. 1,030 


158 


29 




Jl — Classification 


IN 1880. 






Houtes. Fumiturs, 
Thousands. MiUions £. 


ATera^e. 


Class. 


Per House. 


Per InhaU. 


Ist . 


23 136 


£5,900 


£1.080 


2nd . 


261 274 


1,050 


190 


Srd . 


663 172 


807 


55 


4th . 


. 1,423 186 


130 


23 


5th . 


. 4,175 262 




62 11 



Total 



6,445 



1,030 



£158 



£29 



The above does not include churches or other publio 
buildings. 



FURS— G A RRISONS. 



217 



FUB8. — ^The principal fair is at Leipzig: the sales in 

1880 were :— 

Thousands of Skins. 

Fox .... 180 

Skunk ... 950 
Squirrel, &c. . 4,855 

In Bussia and Siberia the annual slaughter of fur-bearing 
animals is as follows : — 50,000 martens, 3 million ermines, 
15 million marmots, 25 million squirrels. 



Bear .... 6 


Beaver . 


80 


Sable .... 54 


Black cat 


. 125 


Otter .... 66 


Ermine . 


. 160 



a 

QAELIO.^-The number of persons speaking Gaelic in the 
United Kingdom is as follows : — 

Ratio to 
Number. PopulatioDi 

Per Ceut. 
Ireland .... 660,000 18 

Scotland .... 282,000 7 

Wales . . * . 850,000 33 



United Kingdom . 



1,242,000 



GARRISONS. 



station. 
Mediterranean 
West Indies 
Africa . 
Ceylon, ftc. . 

Total . 



A. — British Colonial. 



Hon. 
11,000 
6,400 
6,600 
8,500 

27,500 



Annual Cost. 

£750,000 

470,000 

600,000 

260,000 

£2,080,000 



Per Man. 

£68 

73 

91 

74 



£75 



The garrison in Ireland varies from 20,000 to 30,000 meiL 
In India it is ordinarily 70,000. In Great Britain from 
60,000 to 70,000. 





B.— German (1883). 






Mon. 




Men. 


Berlin . 


. 17,800 


Coblenz . 


. 6,400 


Metz 


. 14,400 


Konigfiberg 


. 6,400 


Strasborg 


9,000 


Potsdam . 


. 6,600 


^layence . 


7,700 


Madgeburg 


. 6,100 


Cologne . 


7,700 


Spandau 


4,300 



There are 29 smaller garrisons, ranging from 2000 to 4000 
men each. 



2l8 



GAS. 



GAS. 



A. — Cost op Stbebt Lightino. 





Ooot, 
per Annum. 


Price per 

1000 Feet, 

Pence. 


Cort,per 
Inhao., 
Pence. 


Ouidle 
Power. 


London 


. £460,000 


45 


80 


12 


Paris . 


620,000 


68 


70 


18 


Rome . 


24,000 


«•• 


20 


• •• 


Vienna 


48,000 


45 


10 


15 


Berlin . 


53,000 


51 


13 


16 


New York . 


* •• • 


120 


• • • 


16 


SanFrandflOO 


59,000 


• • • 


67 


• • • 


Glasgow 


• • • 


48 


• • • 


28 


Bucharest 


20,000 


• • • 


24 


• • • 


Palermo 


20,000 


• • • 


28 


• • • 


Liverpool 


* • • • 


42 


• • • 


22 


Turin . 


18.000 


• • • 


20 


• • • 


Florence 


14,000 


• • • 


22 


• • • 


Manchester . 


■ • • • 


86 


• • • 


22 


Buda-Pesth . 


16,000 


• •• 


12 


• • • 



B. — Consumption in London and Paris. 



London. 



Pftris. 



■~v /<■ 





I860. 


1880. 


i8oa 


1880L 


Millions cubic feet . . 


8,200 


18,100 


2,660 


8,470 


Perinhab. „ „ 


2,980 


4,750 


1,610 


8,940 



The Paris Gas Company in 1880 showed receipts £3, 450,000, 
net profit £1,600,000. Paris has 49,000 street lamps, the 
other French towns 190,000; total 239,000. 

C. — Consumption in United Kingdom. 





London. 


Other Towns. 


TotftL 


Millions cubic feet . 


. 18,100 


58,500 


71,600 


Per inhab. „ „ 


4,750 


8,100 


8,400 



The average expenditure for gas is 21 shillings per inhabi- 
tant per annum in London, and 10 shillings in other towns. 
A ton of coal gives 9000 cubic feet of gas. 

D. — London Gas and Watbr Supply. 

Thoumnda Omitted. 





Oas. 


Water. 


TotaL 


Capital 


£13,026 


£12,250 


£25,276 


Income 


3,993 


2,150 


6,148 


Expenses . 


2,610 


1,420 


4,080 


Profit, per annum 


1,388 


730 


2,113 



GEOLOGY^GLASS. 



219 



GBQLOQY. — ^Professor Philips gives the following table 
of stnta, and number of organic forms to each stratum : — 



TertiMy 

Cretaceoiif. 

Oolitic 

8«Iiferoiia . 

Cttrboniferoiia 

Primary 



Fatt 

Thick. 

2,000 
1,100 
2,600 
2,000 
10,000 
20,000 



Orgmio Forma 

per 100 Feet 

141 

71 

46 

8 

6 

2 



A. — F06SIL Rbicains. 



ReptilM 
FUm. 



Oonohifenk 
ChMteropoda 
KepluJopoda 
GbnuUoea^ &C 

Total . 

GIANTS. 



Name. 

Goliath . . 
Galbara . . 
Funnam . . 
Do Vallemont 
Coant Bacart 
Theutobochus 
Unknown . 
John Middleton 



Kama. 

Frederic*! Swede 
Cujanua . . . 
Gilly . . . . 
Patrick Ck>tter . 
Chang Gow . . 



144 

71 

188 

74 

2,026 

880 

788 

1,970 



. 6,186 



Terrestrial plaota 

,, animals 
Marine plants 

„ animals . 
Fr«^-water plants 
animals 



»t 



Total 



500 
830 

40 
6,065 

40 
260 

7,285 



A. — Anciekt. 



PUce. 

Palestine 
Rome . 
Scotland 
Rouen . 
Dauphiny 
Dauphiny 
Palermo 
England 



Height, 
Feet. 

11-0 

10-0 

11-6 

17-0 

22-6 

25-5 

800 

9-3 



If 



B. — Modern. 



Birthplace. 

Sweden 
Finland 
Tyrol . 
Cork . 
Pekin . 



Hcitrht, 
Feet. 
8*4 
7-9 
81 
8-7 
7-8 



Period. 

B.a 1068. 
Claudius Caesar. 
Eugene II. 
14th century. 
16th 
16th 

15th „ 
A.D. 1578. 



Data. 



>t 



1806 
1880 



GLASS. — Consumption in United Kingdom as follows : — 



1801 
1833 



16,300 tona 
18,200 



>* 



In 1880 the consumption of plato gloss in Great Britain 
amounted to 6 million square feet, of which one-sixth was 
imported^ the rest native manufacture. 



220 OLOVBS—GOLD. 

OLOVEB. — Ftaiice makes Tear); 26 million p*iii^ and 
exports IS million pain. In 10 years ending 1880 Gnat 
Britain imported 15 million pain per annum, valued at 1{ 



aLTOEEINE.— Prodocticm in 18S0 :— 



HoUttDd. 









out . 000 




. 1,810 




. 2,»S0 






Auitrw . 




Italy . 


. 1,720 


SwiUetloDd 




Greece . 


. 1,840 



Ronnuuiiji 1P4 

Turkej . . . 7S0 

South Africa . . S,7»0 

ladu . 19,000 

An ordinary goat givea a quart of milk daily, and lives 
10 years. The Turkish breed, known as Angois, prodaces 
a fine hair trorth 2 Bhillings per lb. — say 2 lbs. per goat per 
annum. One-third of the goats in Soutli A^ca are of 
Angora, or mixed breed, tlie first baring been introdaced 
from Smyrna in 1860. 

OOITBE. — In France 42,000 persons affected, two-tbiids 
women. It is prevalent in ports of Switzerland and at Men- 
doxa (foot of the Andes), supposed to be caused by snow 



A.— PflODUcnoN IN 500 Ybabs (1380-1880). 





Too.. 


UUUoii.4. 


United SUtes 


2,042 


280 




1,840 


2G8 


Spaniih-America . 


2,220 


SIO 


Kri^ . . . 


1,040 


145 


KuHia. 


1,23 1> 


173 


Afrie.. . . 


7M 


104 


AMtrta . . 


460 


65 


Other countriei . 


778 


107 



GOLD. 



221 



B. — Periods of Production. 



A.D. 


Toxu. 


Increase of 
Period. 


Total Value, 
Millions £. 


1600 . 


750 


• • • 


104 


1700 . 


. 1,660 


910 tons 


282 


1800 . 


. 8,570 


1,910 „ 


497 


1850 . 


4,750 


1,180 „ 


661 


1880 . 


. 10,355 


5,605 „ 


1,448 



C. — Production since 1850. 

MilUons £. 



United States 
AnstndiA 
Rnasia. 
Other coontries 



Total 



1861-60. 

. 102 

. 104 

. 88 

. 88 

. 282 



1861-70. 
98 
82 
40 
44 

264 



1871-80. 
70 
72 
48 
50 

240 



80 years. 
270 
258 
126 
132 

786 



D. — Production and Consumption. 



Tc.irs. 


Production, 
Tons. 


Consumption, Tons. 


Coinage. 


Manufacture. 


The East. 


Total. 


1831-40 . 
1841-50 . 
1851-60 . 
1861-70 . 
1871-80 . 


203 

548 

2,018 

1,885 

1,703 


50 

350 

1,683 

1,008 

849 


180 
200 
280 
570 
840 


10 

28 

100 

300 

120 


240 

578 

2,013 

1,878 

1,809 


50 years 


6,357 


3,890 


2,070 558 1 6,518 



Teara. 


Production, 
Millions £. 




Consumption, 


Millions £. 
















Coinage. 


Manufacture. 


The East. 
1 


Total. 
33 


! 1831-40 . 


28 


7 


25 


; 1841-50 . 


77 


49 


28 


4 


81 


1851-60 . 


282 


223 


39 


14 


281 


1861-70 . 


264 


142 


80 


42 


264 


1871-80 . 
50 years 


240 


119 


118 


17 


254 


891 


545 


290 


78 


913 



For gold movement since 1860 see Bulliuu, 
The above table shows that the production since 1831 
\ra.s not enough, but that the world used up some of previous 
stuck existing, as has likewise occurred with Silver (q.v.) 




GOLD~GRA DIENTS. 



E.— PRODOOTIOS IK FoUB Ybabs (1681-84). 



rrnitedStktei. 

Rani* 

Spuifih-Americk 
Jftpftn, Afric>, Ix. . 


ISO 

ISO 
40 

ss 


£2^,800,000 
23,«00,000 
17,800,000 
6,700,000 

*,eoo,ooo 


ToUI . . .- . 


640 


■. £77,800,000 



The ki^t nugget ever found was the "Welcome," at 
Ballarat, Australia, on June 11, 1868; it weighed 2020 oz., 
and was worth £8376. Austnlian ore haa averaged only 30 
shillings pef ton, Colifomion £2, and the earuiiigt of minen 
£85 and £90 leepectivelj per sunnm. 

Gold bearing the "hall-mark" must have at least IScanti, 
representing a value of 64 shillings per ounce : the British 
standard is 22 carats, worth about 78 Bhillings (£3, 17b. lOd.) 
per ounce. The wear and tear of coin amounts to 1 ton of 
gold per annum. Allowing also for loss bj shipwreck, fire, 
&C., the stock of existing gold is about 9900 tons, oi 21 
times the amount of coin. Jewellers melt down nearly 100 



tons per anni 
in England. 



I, of which one-third i 



1 France, one-fifth 



A. — Railways with UsAvr Gkadikkts. 



Flar«Dcc-Bolognk , 
MoDt Ceni* . . 
GeDOk-Turia . . . 
DarjeeliDg . 
Foti-TiflU . 
Einuedeln . 

Zuneh-Utlibei^ . 
Righi .... 



Apennini 
Alps . 



Gndtnt. 



UulDIDBl 

i,s8a 

4,290 
1,320 



3wlU«rUnd 
SwitierlMid . 



The Zurich-Utlibcrg is the maxiiiiiim of simple adhesion, 
the Kigbi being furnished with clip-brakes. The Vesuvius 
line has one gradient ssid to be as steep as a ladder (63), the 
Righi being compared to a slairca^a The Philadelphia 
and Pittsburg has an inclined plane of 46 in 100, length 840 
feet Cantagallo, Uruil, has 9J per cent, incli&s. 




(at 25 Lb9. PBS Ton, Lktil Wai> 

47 11m. p«r ton 6 p«t emt. . . 187 lb*. p«r ton 
70 I, — 



I 10 



aso , 



C — ^M'Kku.'b Mail Coach Dtnahombteb. 

FotM Baqidnd >t Ifllia par IlDar. 
OMillnt. imiH. 8HI]a! UIHImT' 

Lml ... Ill Um. ISO »». 138 Ibi. 

UpOT«nt.. . 160 „ 1« „ I7S „ 

* „ . . S13 „ SIS „ SSE „ 

6 „ . . S68 „ SSO „ SIS , 

A. — CaOPS OF TBI WOBLD. 

Valu, Burtu 



IbLe, a 



ofDuihaU. 

2,078 

1,764 



6*0 
206 



Total . . &05 8,307 1,316 

It. — AcRItAGB L'N'DRK GOAIM. 









uiotKorA 


™. 






T>iut 


0,... 


Darlex. 


2X 


10-5 




United KiDgdom 


; 3-0 


42 


2-5 


OS 




Krwco . . 


■ 17-1 


00 


3-5 


8-5 


3S1 






*-5 


»•! 


4-0 


17-1 


34-7 




KuMia '. 


29-0 


33-0 


16-2 


R2-8 


161 fl 




Aiutria . 


8-5 


71 


60 


15-5 


361 




lUJy . . 
Rnaln and rnrtucml 


115 


1-0 


1-0 


65 


19-0 




8-0 


la 


4-0 


60 


190 


BclKitim.ndH<.Ilu>^ 


1-0 


1-0 




2-0 


40 




ScandiniTu . 


0-5 


2-5 


i'-i) 


3-0 


TO 






1 *o 


0-5 


20 


4-0 


10-5 




F.nniTC . 


1 8S-1 


6R-4 


39-2 


144-2 


339-9 




Unitrf State- . 


; 35-2 


l&'O 


■1-0 


65-0 


117-2 




C»»d. . . 


2-0 


•i-0 


0-5 


05 


5-(i 




Aii>t>«Ii* . . 


SO 




0-5 


05 


4-0 




India . . 


is-u 








19-0 




Japui . - 


1-0 




2-0 


i'fl 


4 




JgS. : : 


1-0 




1-0 


1-0 


30 




20 




2-0 




4 




Scnith America 


3-0 






BO 


6-0 




TbeW.»-l.i . 


161-3 


"^ 


47-2 


218-2 


~^5.~ 


\ 



22d 



GRAIN. 



C. — Grain Crops of CouNTRin. 







Millions of BoaheU 
















V»lae, 




Whest 


Oats. 


Barley. 


Othv 
KiDdn 


TdtaL 


MUUons 


United Kingdom 


74 


180 


90 


28 


822 


68 


Fnuioe 


272 


220 


80 


154 


726 


161 




94 


180 


86 


274 


634 


129 


Roflda 


210 


520 


180 


850 


1,710 


266 


Anrtria 


115 


180 


80 


228 


548 


110 


lUlj. . 


140 


20 


20 


113 


298 


65 


Spsin and Poriogal . 
Belgium and Holland 


145 
24 


18 
85 


76 

• • • 


91 
46 


825 

105 


63 
21 


Scandinavia • 


7 


76 


87 


50 


170 


84 


Enrope . • • 


85 


10 


40 


90 


225 


45 


1,166 


1,884 


689 


1,919 


5,058 


967 


United States . 


440 


405 


40 


1,585 


2,470 


207 




45 


55 


15 


15 


180 


22 


Australia . 


85 


• •• 


15 


10 


60 


13 


India 


270 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


270 


67 


Other countries . 


120 


• • • 


110 


179 


409 


70 
1,346 


The World . 


2,076 


1,794 


819 


3,708 


8,397 



D. — Production and Consumption 


OF Grain. 




MiUioDi of Bushels. 


Bushels per InlusbL 


Produc- 


Conftump- 


Produe- Conmimp-' 




tion. 


tion. 


Uon. 


tion. 


United Kingdom 


322 


607 


91 


17-8 i 


France .... 


726 


895 


20-4 


25-8 1 


Germany. 


634 


750 


14-1 


16-7 


Russia .... 


1,710 


1,500 


228 


20-0 


Austria .... 


548 


516 


14-8 


189 


Italy .... 


293 


298 


10-7 


109 


Spain and Portugal . 
Belgium and HoUand 


325 


825 


16-2 


16-2 


105 


145 


111 


15-5 


Scandinavia . 


170 


160 


201 


18-9 


Roumania, &c 
Europe 


225 


205 


821 


29-8 


5,058 


5,401 


168 


18-0 


United States . 


2,470 


1,740 


48-8 


84 1 


Canada .... 


130 


120 


81-2 


28-8 


Australia. 


60 


40 


22-2 


14-8 ■ 


Algeria .... 


50 


45 


166 


15-0 


Argentine Republic. 


16 


12 


53 


4-0 


Other countries 
Total .... 


643 


1,069 


• • • 


• • ■ 


8,397 


8.397 


• • • 


• • • 



GRAIN. 



225 



£. — Gbaih Cbops of Unitbd Kingdom. 

{Affermgefor 10 Tean ending 1880). 







United 

Klnfdon 

Aona. 


MmioiM of Buahelt. 




Britftln. ^ 


r».i.«^ United 


Wlieat 


• • 


8,468,000 80 


4 


84 


Oftti . 


• . 


4,158,000 118 


55 


168 


Bukr- 


• • 


2,704»000 88 


8 


91 


Bj» . 


■ • 


81,000 2 


• •• 


2 


Total 


• • 


10,886,000 278 


67 


845 


F. — Grain Imfobtb into Unitsd Kingdoil 


1 




Amraal ATonga 




Annoftl Ayengei 




miUoa 


LbtbMr 
InhaV. 


Period. 


Million Lbuper 




Buhela. 




Bubela. 


InhaU 


1761-SO. 


1 


5 


1881-40 . 


8 


18 


1781-90. 


1 


5 


1841-50 . 


81 


64 


1791-1800 . 


4 


15 


1851-60 . 


. 78 


154 


1801-10 . 


5 


17 


1861-70 . 


. 127 


288 


1811-20. 


4 


12 


1871-80 . 


. 229 


874 


1821-80. 


5 


12 


1881 . 


. 256 


409 



G. — Grain Imports into France — Value. 

Period. Annual ATomge. Per Inhabitant 

1841-60 .... £1,410,000 10 pence 

1861-70 .... 8,110,000 21 „ 

1871-80 .... 10,400,000 72 „ 

The above shows net imports — that is, after deducting 
values of exported grain in years of surplus. 

H. — Grain Exports op United States. 



Annual ATerage. 




Annual ATerage. 


I'*^^*- Million 


Lba. per 
Inbab. 


Period. 


MUlion Lba. per 
Bufthela. Inbao. 


BuabeU 




1821-40. 6 


26 


1861-70 . 


48 


76 


1841-50. 15 


41 


1871-80 . 


. 147 


211 


1851-60. . 29 


60 


1881 . 


. 285 


812 


L — Grain Crops ( 


3P United States. 








MilUoD BusbeU. 






1850. 


180a 


1870. 


IMOi' 


Whest 


101 


178 


288 


460 


Barley 


5 


16 


30 


44 


Oftts .... 


147 


173 


282 


408 


Bye .... 


14 


21 


17 


20 


Buckwheat 


9 


18 


10 


12 


Maize 


592 
868 


839 


761 


1,765 


Tutal . 


1,240 


1,388 


2 099 

P 



CRAN1TB~^RA VITY. 



K — Graik Cbops and Expobiv ow RoanA. 



^. 
















Crop. 


Export. 


oS^. 


Crop. 


Exporl 


Boo* 
a>UQnp. 


1800-13 . 
188*-40 . 
18*0-*7 . 
1867-68 . 
1871-80 . 


690 
1,0*0 
1,210 
1,270 
1,730 


10 
27 
83 
34 
148 


880 
1,01S 
1.178 
1,288 
1,584 


22 
21 
23 
20 
22 


. 2 


21 
12 



Uuzs 

Whe«t 



L. — COHFONSNTS OF GRAIN (PI 
^■^ Sitn)B«noot Fit. 



Cent.) 



GEANITE la worth i shillings per cubic foot, ftnd requiies 
a crusbing force of 24,500 Ibe. to a half-inch cuba 

OEAVITT, SFEOniO. 

A. — COMPAKBD WITH WaTBB, 



Liquids 




Timbtr. 




MottU. 




W»ter. . . 


100 


Cork . . . 


24 


Zinc . . . 


719 




103 


PopUr . . 


S8 


CwtiTOD . 


721 


De«l&*. . 


124 


Fir . . . 


GS 


Tin . . . 


729 


Aloohol . . 


64 


Cedar . . 


81 


Bar iron . 


779 


Olive oil . . 


62 


Pear . . . 


66 


Steel. . . 


783 




99 


W&Inat . . 


67 


Copper . . 


6W 


WinV . . . 


100 


Cherrj . . 


72 


BfJ^ . . 


840 


Vnae . . . 


101 


Maple . . 


76 


Silver . . 


1,051 


Cider . . . 


102 


Apple . . 


79 


l>ad . . 


1.135 


Beer . . . 


102 


A.h . . . 


84 




1,357 


Womw.'. milk 


102 


B««h . . 


85 


Gold . . '. 


1,»2« 


Cow'i 


103 




106 


Platina. . 


1.950 


Go.t'1 


104 


0.k^ .' . 


117 






POTter. . . 


104 


Ebenj . . 


183 






A gaUon of 


wine 


OX water woig 
Pbkhodb Sk 


s 10 lbs. 




EmmJd . . 


277-5 




353 1 0.met . . . 


406-3 


Crjrt»l. . . 


2863 


Topax. . . 


4011 


Ruby . . . 


4^-S 



GREENBACKS. 



227 







SURDBIB. 


ladlgo. . • 


. 77 


P^ . . 


. . 188 


Chu^ptywdsr • 


. 93 


Opituii 
Uoney . 


. . 184 


Butter. . . 


94 


. . 145 


loe .... 


. 117 


Ivoiy . . 
Bndc. . 


. . 188 


CamT . . . 
Cod . . . 


. 120 


. . 200 


. 180 


Sulphnr . 


. . 203 



B. — ^Weight in Ccbio Fsbt. 





Lbs. por 
Cub. Ft 


Cork . . 


. 15 


Cedar. 


. 86 


Beech. 


. 51 


Butter 


. 56 


Water. 


. 62 


Mahogany , 


. 66 


loe 


. . 70 


Oak . 


. 70 


Clay . 


. . 72 


Coal . 


. 80 


OBEEN 


BACKS.— 



Cub. Ft 




psrlVm. 




150 


Peat 


62 


Brick . 


44 


Stone . 


40 


Granite. 


86 


Glass . 


84 


Iron 


82 


Copper . 


82 


SUver . 


81 


Lead . 


28 


Gold . 



Poroelain 


. . 226 


Stone . . . 


. . 252 


Marble . . 


. . 270 


Granite . . 


. . 278 


Chalk. . , 


. . 279 


Glass . . 


. . 289 


BBT. 

Lbs. per 
Cub. Ft 


Cub. Ft 


per Ton. 


80 


28 




120 


190 




150 


15-0 




166 


18-5 




172 


18-0 




470 


4-8 




520 


4-8 




680 


8-6 




680 


8-8 




. 1,155 


2-0 



convertible from 1862 till December 1879. 



Tear. 


Table of Value Compared with Gold. 




1 




Uaxlmum. 


Minimum. 


Average. 


Value of $100. 


1862 


98 


75 


88 


£18 6 


1863 






79 


62 


69 


14 6 6 


1864 . 






64 


89 


49 


10 4 


1865 






74 


46 


64 


13 6 4 


1866 






79 


66 


71 


14 15 


1867 






74 


70 


72 


14 19 


1868 






74 


69 


72 


14 19 


1869 






82 


72' 


75 


15 12 


1870 






90 


82 


87 


18 2 


1871 






92 


87 


90 


18 14 


1872 






92 


87 


89 


18 10 


1873 






92 


85 


88 


18 6 


1874 






91 


88 


90 


18 14 


1875 






89 


85 


87 


18 2 


1876 






93 


87 


90 


18 14 


1877 






97 


94 


96 


19 19 


1878 






• • • 


• • • 


98 


20 7 


1879 






100 


100 


100 


20 16 



The average for 10 years ending 1870 was 76, and fur the 
following decade 93. 



saS 



GUA NO~HARBOVRS. 



OUAITO. — The FeruTun OoT«mment exported bom tba 
ChiDcha iBl&nds betveen 1850 and 1880 more than 13 mil- 
lion tons, worth 110 millious Bterlin^ Great Britain paid 
65 milUoiu foi 5,200,000 tons aince 1856. 

aULF BTBEAH.— Equal to a river 50 milee wide, 1000 
feet deep, current 4 miles an hour, with a tempetatuie of 
65° Fahrenheit, cooling down to W as it gets north, 

OUSPOWDEB^ 



EngUdi. . 


-Tb" 


IB 


-lo- 


100 


Freneh. . 


78 




ll 


100 


GemiM 


7S 




14 


100 


RtUdM 


74 




13 


100 


AnrtiiMi 


n 




11 


100 


SpanUi 


78 




13 


100 


sWub 


7S 




S 


100 


Chineu 


7S 




10 


100 


Amarioui 


7S 




13 


100 


Sporting . 


77 




10 


100 




umber 


in Europe 


reaches 


712,000; 


YU.:— 










Orut BribuD . . 


18,000 


At»tri> 




. 197.000 


Ri>Mi> .... 


15.000 


Routuuiia 




. 198.000 


Scuidiiutvu . 


7.000 


Turkey 




. S00,000 


ai«in . . . . 


40,000 


G«™n,, 


te. '. 


42,000 



HAIt«T0BH8. 

less, Julj SOth, Norwich ; wMokcd botun mud klllad nuny 

1697, Ma; 4th ; kiUed ihecp in many pvt* of Endland. 
177I>, M>j 13th, Mureik, Spun ; haiutonn like onnpa, wal^ 

ing SO oL 
1814. in Luiguedoc. {rieCM of ice fell, weighing 11 Ib^ 
1874, New Jeiwy, U.S., hulrtonei like turke; egga, 

Damage to crops in France by hail since 1850 has averaged 
£1,420,000 per annum. 

HANK — A measure of yam ; 840 yards. " Tarn of 
sixties " means 60 hanks to the tb., and so of othon. 

HASBOUBa.— See Doekt. 



HARES AND RABBITS— HEAT. 



229 



HARES AHD RABBITS.— About 30 millions are killed 
eveiy year in the United Kingdom, wofth £2,200,000. 



. — ^There are 12 million silk hats made annually in 
the United Kingdom, worth 4 millions sterling. The most 
ooetly hats in the world are those made at Panama, of straw, 
whidi take six months to make, and are sold at £5 each. 



United Kingdom 
Fxanoe 
Gennany . 

Auitri» 

IUl;r 

Spam And Portuffal . 

Belgium and HoUand 

ScandinftTiA 

Europe . 
United States . 



XilUon 
Tons. 

4 

14 
26 
20 
15 

8 

2 

8 

7 

94 
86 



Yalae, 
XiUious £. 

16 
82 
60 
20 
80 

6 

4 

8 
14 

190 
54 



Tons per 
HaMlol 
Cattle. 

0-26 

0*80 

1-16 

040 

0-80 

0*60 

0*27 

0-85 

1-12 



064 
0-66 



Total . .180 244 0*65 

In the above table all kinds of farm-stock are reduced to 
common denominator, as already laid down in Cattle, 



A. — Scale in Deorbeb Fabbenhsit. 



Degree. 




Degree. 




82 . . Ice melts. 


594 . 


Lead melti. 


50 . . Temperature of globe. 


1,140 . 


Heat of common fire. 


98. . Blood-heat 


2,233 . 


. Brass melti. 


174. . Alcohol boils. 


8,479 . 


Jion melti. 


212 . . Water boils. 






B. — Spboific Heat of MiNERATiH (W 


ATER BEINO 1000). 


Lead .... 29 


Zinc .... 98 


Glass . . , . 117 


Mercury ... 88 


Gopper ... 95 


Sulphur ... 188 


Bilrer .... 56 


Iron .... 110 




C. — Highest Tempbbature becsi 


nXT MARKEa 


Pleoe. Date. 


DegreeelUi, 
(Shade). 


London . . July 15, 1881 . 


951 


Naples „ 25, n 


96 


Paria . „ 15, „ . 


. 1001 


Rio Janeiro December, 1880 


. 103 


Adelaide, aA. 


• Janu 


ary, 1881 . 


• 114 



HEIGHT— HERRING-FISHERY. 



Fra;biirg Cathednl 
Salubury „ 

Florence „ 

BL Fwil's, London . 



St. Nb^oU^ HMnbuTB 
St Peter*!, Rons . 
Stnibnrg Cktimdnl 
Pjnmid oF Cbeopa . 
St. atephm'a, Viaiin* 
Anleni CMbednl . 
HEIOHT OF MEN. — See Anthropometry. 



A. — Production (Thousands of Tom). 
. . . 110 I Rqh[» ... 60 I Hollud . . . 
. . . eo I Fnoee . . . £0 | Hanilla, Ac . . 

B. — CoNSUKPTiotr iH Gbx&t Bbrain. 



1810 . 


. 48,000 


1830 . 


. 26,500 


1840 . 


. 30,100 


I860 . 


. 54,200 



1S60 . 


85,200 £1 


1870 . 


71,800 3 


1680 . 


73,400 SI 


1881 . 


78,800 3<1 


r of eggs 


laid jeas\j u 


HilUon 


Annul ViJiia ar 


Em>- 


En>*n<IChlck«a. 


2.000 


£0,800,000 


S,700 


14,200,000 


3,000 


12,400,000 


2,800 


11,200,000 


1,600 


6,500,000 



per ben. 

United KiDEdom 

Gemuny 

AnitriB . 
luly . 

Ilen-eggB usually form 80 per cent, of all eggs in ordinsiy 
use. The food of hens costs about fiO per cent of the Taluu 
they produce yearly. Mr. Baker, of New York, who is 
supposed to be "the chicken-king of the world," hatches 
yearly 260,000 chickens by steam. 

H'RRTi.TW 'n-yiBHERT. 



EdeUiIi 



TouHnrtafl. 


TUofc 


. . . . 140,000 


£1.700,000 


. 80,000 


950,000 


20,000 


240,000 


42,000 


660,000 


. 60,000 


700,000 


. 48,000 


600,000 



Import. 


Export. 


CoDsump- 
ti«»n. 


68 


18 


55 


98 


28 


70 


145 


89 


106 


165 


50 


115 



HIDES— HOPS. 231 

About 10,000 herrings go to a ton, a British barrel con- 
taining 1000, a Norwegian 500 fish. The number of men 
engaged in herring- fishing is 180,000, who catch on an 
average 22,000 fish eacL See Fisheriea. 

^frnpft — The importation into the United Kingdom shows 

thus : — MilUoni of Lbs. 

Made into 
Leather, 
Millions Lbs. 
1850 ... 68 18 55 70 

1860 ... 98 28 70 87 

1870 . . .145 89 106 132 

1881 .165 50 115 144 

British hides will be found included under Leather. 

HOLIDAY-TBAFFIO.— During the Christmas holidays 
of 1882, the railways brought to London 260,000 hampers 
with presents from friends in the country, and conveyed 
138,000 passengers from London to Scotland, Ireland, Man- 
chester, Birmingham, &c. 

HOMESTEAD GKANTS.— In 1862 the United States 
law was passed to encourage settlers from Eiurope, whereby 
lots of i square miles or 160 acres are given to immigrants, 
on condition of 5 years' occupation, the fees for title-deeds 
seldom exceeding £3 sterling. In this manner the American 
Govemment has in 20 years given away 67 million acres to 
420,000 immigrant families. 

In Canada similar grants are made of 200 acres to the 
head of a family, and 100 acres to each male adult, subject 
to these conditions : — (1.) To build a log-but or house not 
less than 16 x 20 feet. (2.) To reside for 6 months each 
year during 5 years on the farm. (3.) To cultivate at least 
15 acres in every 100. 

Free grants are likewise given in Australia to any settlers 
not Chinamen; and in Algeria, only to settlers of French 
extraction. 

HOPS. 

AerM. Crop, Tons. Value. 

England . • . 67,000 26,000 £3,120.000 

Germany . . . 62,000 19,000 2,340,000 

France . . . 9,000 4,500 550,000 

United Stotefl . . 10,000 6,000 600,000 

Germany consumes only throe-fourths of her crop, but 
England has to import annually 7000 tons, her consumption 
averaging 33,000 tons. 



232 



HORSES— HORSB'PO WBR. 



H0B8ES. — ^There aie 52 million honesi npiesenting a 

« M ^ ^ ^^ *W * A V* 



V«K&«««^ \/A «^ • • 


r «J 


HonM 


PtrlOO 


HOCSM 


PirlOO 


^hooMndiX 


Inhab. 


(ThouMiids). luhth. 


United Kingdom 2,906 


8 


Denmark • . 852 


18 


Fnnoe . . . 2,888 


8 


Sweden . . 466 


11 


Germftny . . 




8,860 


7 


Norway . . 152 


8 


Rnasift. . . 




. 16,200 


21 


Greece ... 97 


6 


Anstm . . 




. 8,760 


10 




10 


Switeerland . 




110 


4 


United States 10,888 


90 


lUl^ . . . 
Spam • . . 




658 


2 


Canada . . 866 


20 




590 


4 


Australia . . 1,606 


89 


PortngAl . . 




70 


2 


Rirer Plate . 6,150 


175 


HoIlAnd . . 




280 


7 


Cape Colony . 241 


28 


Bdgiom . . 




288 


6 


Algeria . . 850 


117 



A horse lives 25 years, and weighs 1000 lbs. An omnibus 
or tramway horse lasts only 4 to 5 years. The society for 
eating horse-flesh, founded at Paris in 1866, consumes over 
2 million lbs. yearly, at a cost of 2^ pence per lb. — the ave- 
rage yield of meat being 450 lbs. per horse. 

HOBSE-POWEB. — One horse-power will raise 10 tons per 
minute a height of 12 inches, working 8 hours a day. This 
is about 5000 foot-tons daily, or 12 times a man's work. 

(1.) Mail-coach horses : 4 will draw a coach, say 2 tons, 
at the rate of 10 miles an hour, for 6 days every week, and 
last 5 years. 

(2.) Canal horses : 1 will draw a barge of 25 tons, resist- 
ance 108 lbs., at 2^ miles per hour. 

(3.) Waggoners' horses : 1 will easily draw a ton 30 miles 
in a day of 12 hours. 

Sims mentions a Devonshire cart-horse, 15 hands, 1200 
lbs., which gave an average of 8000 foot-tons daily. 

The horse-power of Niagara is 3^ million nominal, equal 
to 10 million horses effective, and valued at £15,000,000 
per annum, if conveyed by electricity to New York. 

The measurement of horse-power, that is, of raising a 
certain weight 12 inches per minute during 8 hours daUy, 
is variously given by the best authorities, viz. : — 





Lbs. 




Urn. 


Smeftton 


. 22,000 


Detagolien . 


. 27,500 


Sims 


. 28,400 


Watt . 


. 82.000 


Tredgold 


. 27,500 


Saonnre 


. 84,000 



HOSPITALS. 



233 



HOSPRALa 



Beriin. . 

Vew York 

Copenhagen 

J>ipeic 

MAiteiUes 

Vienna 



A. — Municipal Hospitals. 



8«nFTmncboo 
Hooen. 



Subsidy. 

£858,000 
70,000 
84,000 
82,000 
81,000 
24,000 
28,000 
28,000 
20,000 
19,000 
17,000 



Pence 

perlnhab. 

42 

16 

7 
86 
65 
16 

5 
27 
21 
44 
18 



Nantes . 

Florence 

Venice . 

Stockholm 

Tonlouae 

Turin . 

BudA 

GhriatianU 

Rennes . 

Havre 

Frankfort 



Subddy.' 

£15,000 

14,000 

14,000 

11,000 

10,000 

10,000 

9,000 

8,000 

8,000 

5,000 

4,000 



Pence 

per Inhabti 

80 

21 

25 

16 

18 

18 

6 

22 

21 

11 

8 



B. — Principal Hospitals in United Kingdom. 



Hoepitala. 

St Bartholomew's 

St Thomas's 

Guy's . 

Bristol • 

lieicester 

Edinburgh 

Aberdeen 

Manchester 

LiTerpool 

Leeds 

Birmingham 

Glasgow. 

Misericordia (Dublin) 

London (Whitechapel) 



Founded 

A.D. 

1547 
1548 
1722 
1735 

1736 
1739 
1758 

1767 
1778 
1794 
1855 



Beds. 

600 
860 
620 
270 
220 
500 
240 
830 
830 
830 
800 
630 
230 
790 



Annnsl 
Patients. 

5,500 
8,200 
5,600 
2,600 
2,000 
4,500 
2,100 
8,000 
8,000 
3,000 
2,700 
5,700 
2,100 
7,170 



Deeth> 
Bute. 

6-0 

120 
97 
7 
50 

10-5 
6-5 

10-8 
7-2 
7-0 
8-0 

10-7 
6-5 



Death-rate averages 6j^ per cent, in Irish hospitals, 8 in 
English, and 9^ per cent in Scotch. There are in the 
United Kingdom 496 hospitals, with 16,400 beds, relieving 
145,000 sick yearly, who are attended by 820 physicians. 
Total expenditure £1,200,000, or £8 per patient, equal to 
5 shillings a day for each bed occupied. Death-rate is lowest 
in small hospitals, viz. : — 



Less than 100 beds 
100 to 200 beds 
Over 200 beds 



6-5 

7 1 

8 



In the year 1800 there were but 51 hospitals in Great 
Britain and Ireland. 



234 



HOSPITALS. 



The London Charities report for 1881 showed that the 
city hoapitals received £503,000, being 82 in number. This 
is equal to a subaidy of 3 shillings per inh&bitant annually 
to the hospitals, as compared with oUier cities in Table A. 

C. — Britibh akd Fbskch Hospitau Compahui. 



Nomberotbed. . . ie,«H) 


72,100 


Adminion . 146,000 


498,000 


Eipeoditure . . . £1,200,000 


£2.*82.000 




IfiSI 


B«l^perphjaicUci. . 20 


40 


Duly Gort p«r bed pence . 64 


ss 


The average of days to eocb patient are 


:— 


Dublin ... 27 1 GlMgow ... SO 1 


AJlEoeUnd . 


Pftria .... 28 1 Gny'a . . . . Z5 \ 


AllFrrow. . 



The average death-rate on the Continent is 13 per cent. 
D._Nbw Yoke Hospitals (1882). 



Subeidiei 


. £34.000 


Free . . 


MIS 


Pay patient* . 


18,000 


Pay 


2.220 


Donatioas . 


38,000 










Total. . 


»,I6S 


lUceipU 


. £88,000 










Daja free 


282.000 




. £92,000 


Total dayi . 





The average was 37 days to each free, and 48 to each 
paying patient, and the cost in general £10 per patient, or 
S shilBngs per day, which exceeds the averages above given 
in Table C. 



E. — HOBFITAU COMPARED WITH PoPULATIOtT. 





A<lnltU4 ti 




H-piuO. 


United Kingdom 


. . 146,000 


France 


. . 4SB.aOO 


Spain .... 


343,000 


New York . 


»,200 


See Sieknetg. 





HOUSES. 



235 



HOUSBI. 



A. — Houses and ' 


Value, 








HOOMS. 

Thouaanoa. 


Value, 
Millions £. 


Average 
per House. 


Da per 
luhab. 


Inhab. 
perHouie. 


TTniied Kingdom . 


6,452 


2,280 


£852 


£65 


5-4 


Fnnoe .... 


8,813 


1,890 


218 


50 


4-8 


Germftny. . . . 


6,770 


1,470 


255 


83 


7.7 


Rnana .... 


9,150 


880 


96 


11 


9 1 


Anstrift .... 


6,290 


770 


124 


21 


5-9 


Ital^ 


4,420 


656 


143 


28 


6*3 


Spain and Portugal 


8,810 


420 


111 


21 


5-4 


Belffiom .... 
HoUand .... 


1,060 


140 


182 


25 


5 1 


720 


116 


155 


29 


5-5 


Scandinavia. . . 
Enropo 


1,200 


180 


109 


18 


6-9 


47,685 


8,752 


£185 


£29 


6-8 


United States . . 
Total .... 


8,956 


2,780 


311 


58 


6;6 


56,641 


11,582 


£203 


£52 


6*6 



The abovo table is not official. 

B. — IIOUSB-PBOPERTT, UrBAN AND RuRAL. 



U. Kingdom . 

France . . . 

Germany . . 

RoBsia? . . . 

Aostria? . . 

Italy? . . . 

Spain k Port ? 

Belgimn . . . 

HoUand . . . 
Scandinavia 

Europe . . 



Value,MillionB£. 


Ratio. 


Hotiae Value per lubab. 


Urban. 


Rural. 


Urban. 


Rural. 


Urban. 


Rural. 


OeneraL 


1,206 


1.074 


53 


47 


£89 


£48 


£65 


502 


1,388 


26 


74 


71 


44 


50 


330 1,140 


22 


78 


45 


80 


33 


120 


760 


14 


86 


24 


9 


11 


140 


630 


18 


82 


56 


18 


21 


202 


454 


30 


70 


44 


18 


[23 


97 


323 


23 


77 


41 


18 


21 


53 


. 87 


38 


62 


36 


22 


25 


48 


68 


41 


59 


42 


24 


29 


84 


96 


26 


74 


41 


12 


18 

1 


2,782 


6,020 


31 


69 


£56 


£22 


£29 ; 



The above table is not official. 

C. — Yalub of Housk Built pbb Annum. 



Amount 

Belgium . . £4,900,000 
Bnenoe Ayres 720,000 
France . . 82,600,000 
GlaMow . . 1,630,000 
Loodim . . 15,800,000 



ShiUinga 




per 


Amount 


Inbab. 




15 


New York .£5,600,000 


61 


Montevideo 230,000 


17 


Toronto . . 320,000 


62 


Turin . . 250,000 


77 


U. Kingdom 68,000,000 



ShiUinga 

per 
luhab. 
88 
39 
69 
22 
39 



2j6 HOUSES. 

D. — Houses in Great Britain (iothout Ibxland). 



Tear. 



Hotuet in TboaMndc 



Number. 



1821 
1831 
1841 
1851 
1861 
1871 
1881 



2,298 
2,695 
8,257 
8,648 
4,189 
4,672 
5,475 



from 1821. 



402 
964 
1,855 
1,846 
2,879 
8,182 



Rantel, 


Rmt 


lUIUona 


per 


£. 


Huuaa. 


19-4 


£8*4 


271 


10-0 


88*5 


11-8 


44-8 


121 


58-2 


14-0 


74-5 


16-0 


114^ 


21-0 



Bent 
per 

Inbab. 



£1*4 
17 
21 
2-2 
2-5 
2-9 
8-8 



House-pioperty has apparently risen in value faster in 
London than tlm)aghoTit England. There is a house in 
Lombard Street, the rent of which was £25 a year in 1665, 
and the building on the same site is now rented for £2600 
a year, under lease from 1877. 

£. — Classifioation in Great Britain (1681). 



Claaa. 


Housea. 

TliOUMUUU. 


Rentel, 
MUlions £. 


1 


21 


14 


2 


288 


28-5 


8 


512 


17-9 


4 


1,294 


19-4 


5 


8,410 


84*4 



Arerage 


Ratio of 


Rental. 


Huuaea. 


£665 


0*4 


120 


4-8 


35 


9-8 


15 


28-4 


10 


62^ 



Total 



5,475 



114-2 



£21 



100-0 



F. — House-property of United Kingdom (1883). 

MilUona £. 



Lcmdoii . 
Provinces 
Scotland 
Ireland . 

Total 



RentaL 

81-6 

73-4 

11-8 

8-3 



120 1 



Capital Value. 

620 

1,387 

213 

60 

2,280 



nouee-propL 
Inhab. 



per 




£65 



The increase in the value of house-property varies from 
50 to 70 millions sterling per annum, that is, on an average, 
35 per cent of the increase of national wealth. It is not 
merely the number of houses growing faster than population, 
but also a higher ratio of those paying house-duty, vix. :^ 



Tear. 

1851 
1871 

:.88i 



Subject to 

Bouae-duty. 

434,000 

797.000 

1,002,000 



Ratio to 
Total Number. 

12 percent. 

17 „ 

18 „ 



HOUSES. 



237 



The average value per house in Great Britain has risen 
from £216 in 1851 to £380 in 1881 : this is not including 
Ireland. 

G. — Houses of Great Britain in 1812 (Colqtthoun). 

Number. 



Rental. 

Over £100 
£40 to £100 
£20 to £40 
£10 to £20 
Under £10 

Total 



Urban. 

6,500 

S0,000 

100,000 

200,000 

679,000 



RoraL TbtaL 

500 7,000 

6,000 86,000 

20,000 120,000 

100,000 800,000 

995,000 1,574,000 

2,037,000 880 




915,500 1,121,500 

H. — Houses op United Kingdom in 1832. 

Ai 



OTer £40 
£20 to £40 
£10 to £20 
Unde]L£10 



Number. 

84,400 

130,400 

229,600 

8,788,000 



Rental. 

£5,100,000 
4,150,000 
5,200,000 

15,850,000 



4,232,400 29,800,000 




Ratio. 

17 
14 
17 
52 



100 



L — Houses op England and Wales in 1862. 

Annual 

Rental. 
Over £1,000 , 
£500 to £1,000 
£200 to £500 
£100 to £200 
£50 to £100 
£30 to £50 . 
£20 to £30 . 
Under £20 . 



Total 



Number. 


Aggregate 
Rental 


Value 
(Millions £.) 


Ratio 


233 


£440,000 


8 


0-7 


924 


650.000 


12 


11 


8,633 


2,860,000 


51 


4-5 


82,806 


4,830,000 


86 


7-6 


101,948 


7,120,000 


128 


11-8 


169,920 


6,880,000 


124 


11-0 


205,528 


5,110,000 


92 


8-3 


8,624,608 


84,700,000 


626 


55-5 



4,144,600 62,590,000 1,127 

K — House- Valuation in Cities. 



100-0 



London . 
Parifl . . 
Liverpool 
Manoiester 
Glaa^w . 
Birmingham 
Nevrcastle 
Brighton . 
A^eecLB • 



MUUonfl£. Perlnhab. 



620 
286 
66 
62 
54 
28 
14 
12 
22 



£158 

130 

120 

109 

106 

70 

97 

96 

71 



New York 
Rome . 
Sheffield 
Buda . 
Bristol. 
Turin . 
Milan . 
Sydney 
Melbourne 



Milliona£. Per Inhabw 



224 
14 
18 
44 

16 
10 
13 
15 
10 



£181 

48 

63 

120 

77 

52 

41 

140 

140 



Sydney and Melbourne do not include the suburbs, in 
'M'bich the bulk of population resides. 



238 



HOUSES. 



1836 
1852 
1882 



L. — HousBS IK Francb. 

Window* 
per BouM. 

4*6 

6-0 

6-6 



HOUMS. 

6.805,000 
7,524,000 
8,818,000 



Inhahltantt 
per Hooee. 

4-98 

4-77 

4*28 



This shows that the houses have improved 25 per cent as 
regards the number of windows, and the population have 
15 per cent more houses per 1000 inhabitants than they 
had 50 years aga The classification of houses in 1868 was 
as follows : — 



CUm. 




Houeet. 


Rstia 


Gentry 


• • 


168,000 


2-2 


Commercial, < 


&0. 


583,000 


7-9 


Tradesmen 


• • 


. 2,167,000 


29-4 


Operatives, ^tc 


. 4,458,000 


60-5 


Total 


• • 


. 7,861,000 


100-0 


M. 


— HoUSBS 


IN Paris (1882). 




Rent 


Number. 


««"**>• (Mim^£) »*«« 


Over £600 . 


1,920 


£1,100,000 17 


6-0 


£160 to £600 


13,100 


4,2CO,000 63 


22-0 


£40 to £160 . 


66,250 


6,300,000 94 


82-7 


£16 to £40 . 


135,400 


2,800,000 42 


14-8 


Under £15 . 


469,000 


4,700,000 70 


24-5 



Total . . 684,670 £19,100,000 286 100*0 

The above shows the "logements" or tenancies, but the 
actual number of houses is less than half. The official valua- 
tion deducts 25 per cent, from the above for repairs, &e. 

K — Growth of Housk-Pbopkrtt in Paris. 





Teiir. 




Mmione£. 


For Inhah. 






1848 


. • . . 


81 


£82 






1860 


• • • • 


188 


109 






1870 


• • • • 


223 


122 






1882 


• • • • 


286 


128 






0.- 


-Houses in United State& 












Relatlre Inermim, 






Hoaaes. 


Inhabitant, 
per House. 


SOTei 
Hounea. 


ira. 


Tear. 


Popul*. 
ti«n. 


1850 


• 


. 3,362,000 


6-9 


100 


100 


1860 


• . 


. 4,970,000 


6-3 


160 


135 


1870 


• • 


7,043,000 


5-5 


211 


166 


1880 


. • 


8,956,000 


5-6 


270 


218 



HUNGER AND WANT--ILLBGITIMACY. 239 



Nuanber. 


Per 1,000 Deaths. 


101 


1-2 


812 


0-0 


8,789 


87« 


260 


0-8 



HUHGEB AHD WAlfT. — ^Deaths lecoided in 1879 from 
this cause were : — 

liondati • • • 

England 

Ireliuid 

Fnusoe 

In England there were 60 male to 40 female victims ; in 
France 85 to 15. In London the real number of victims 
was much greater, many of the suicides resulting from 
hunger. 

UUMTIHG IH FBANOE. — The number of licenses com- 
pares with population thus : — 

• Tear. UowMee. 

1846 145,000 

1859 249,000 

1869 828,000 

1879 847,000 

See Wild BeasU 



Per 1,000 IiilMbitanta. 
4-1 
6-9 
8-6 
9-2 



ICE. — Norway exports 160,000 tons yearly, valued at 7 
shillings per ton, mostly for England. Lake Wenham, in 
the United States, produces 300,000 tons, of which one- 
fourth is shipped from Boston for Europe, valued at 12 
shillings per ton. Ice is 17 per cent, heavier than water. 

ILLEGITIMA07. 



A. — Percentage of Illeoitxhatb Births. 



Englimd . 


. . 4-5 


SootUnd . 


. . 8-9 


Ireland 


. . 23 


Franoe 


. . 7-2 


Germany . 


. . 8-4 


Ru^aia . . 


. . 31 



Austria . . . 12*9 
Italy. ... 6-8 
Switzerland . 4*6 
Spidn & Portugal 5*5 
Belffium . . 7*0 
HoUand . . 3*5 



Denmark . . 
Sweden . . 
Norway . . 
Greece . . . 
United SUtes 
Canada . . 



11-2 
10-2 
8*5 
1*6 
7-0 
5.0 



B. — England and France Compared. 



Tears. 
1841-50 
1851-60 
1861-70 
1871-80 



EngUnd. 
67 
6-5 
61 
51 



Franco. 
72 
7-4 
7*5 
7*8 



240 



IMMIGRA TION— IMPORTS. 



DOCGBATIOK. — ^The Aosinlian colonies hare 
pended 8^ millions in promoting immigration, yil. ^— 



ex- 



New Zealand 
Victcnia 
QaeenaUnd, ftc. fta 



Ksrosncled. 
£1,950,000 
2,880,000 
8,600,000 

£8,480,000 



Immlfrantiu 
101,000 
167,000 
802*000 

470,000 




£18 



The yalne of an able-bodied immigrant, male or female^ ii 
estimated by Engel at £200, in the United SUtes at £16$, 
by Dr. Farr at £246, in Buenos Ayres at £240, and in 
Australia at £260. Each immigrant, big and little, in- 
creases the Australian revenue by £4 a year, equal to £10 a 
year for those between 20 and 60 years of age. See Emigra- 
tion, 

IMPORTS. 



A— Value op Net Imports (1881-82). 



U. Elingdom 
France . 
Germany 
Russia . 
Austria . 
lUly . 
Spain . 
Portugal 
Belgium 
Holland 



Millions £. 

348 
199 
148 

62 

64 

53 

20 
8 

67 

76 



Per Inhab. 
Shillinifa. 

196 

104 

65 

14 

33 

86 

25 

35 
246 
875 



MillloosA. 

Scandinavia 36 
U. SUtea 



India 
£gypt 
China 
Japan . 
Australia 
Canada . 
S. America 
& Africa 



151 
38 

7 
25 

8 
68 
25 
42 

9 



Perlnhah. 

lUkUllngSw 

84 

55 

4 

80 

2 

5 

420 

110 

81 

168 



£. — British Imports, Fboqress op. 



Tear. Reign. 

1355 Edward IIL 

1573 Elizabeth 

1614 James L 

1687 James IL 

1718 Anne. . 

1750 George II. 

1761 George UL 
1775 



Thou- 
sands £. 

120 
2,100 
2,140 
4,200 
6,850 
7,290 
10,292 
14,816 



Per 

InhAb. 

SbiL 

1 

9 

8 

15 
24 
21 
28 
37 



Reign. 



Tboa> 
sands £. 



1801 
1820 
1835 
1840 
1850 
1860 
1870 
1882 



George IIL 81,420 
George IV. 86,515 
William IV. 48,912 
Victoria. . 52.000 
95,000 
182,000 
259,000 
848,000 



P«1 

Inhabc 
ShiL 

40 

86 

38 

89 



•I 
•I 
If 



125 
167 
198 



The amounts above are according to the value in weight 
of silver. They stand for England and Wales down to 1800, 
and afterwards for the United Kingdom. They are nel 
imports, exclusive of goods in transit 



c 


.— Bmtish Importb, Valcb. 








OnMlmportiOlll 


IUd>x«. 












1890. 


iro. 


WBO. 


IHO. 


1870. 


UHl 


Oottoi . . . 


S6S 


68-B 


42-8 


80-4 


45-4 


S7-8 




ll-O 


lS-8 


26-4 


87 


10-S 


13-0 




9-» 


S-3 


81 


8-8 


4-8 


S-4 




B-« 


10-4 


10-1 


6-6 


97 


8-7 


Oi^. . . . 


S3-8 


887 


895 


83-0 


SI'S 


888 




8-9 


77 


26'S 


8-9 


77 


26'S 


Batter, Ac . . 


A-S 


11-9 


21-2 


8-8 


11-9 


21-3 




13-8 


17-« 


ISD 


12'4 


17-1 


22-4 1 




S-T 


15 4 


19-8 


7-6 


9-2 


10-9 




8-a 


S-0 


s-s 


47 


7-1 


7-4 


TImlwr . . . 


107 


la-a 


16-8 


107 


lS-3 


18-8 




8-4 


28-6 


837 


s-o 


28-0 


82-8 


Totd . . 


6S-4 


781 


uo-o 


46-9 


821 


88-0 


211 D 


S08-0 


411'0 


182-0 


269-0 


848-0 



D. — British Impobtb, QuAKrmg Coksumbd. 







HIUIOM. 






IStO- 


WTO. 


1880. 


IMO. 1 18T0. 


40 


Cotton, Ib^ . . 


1.141 


1,101 


1,404 


39 


35 






118 












Meat „ 




86 


184 


840 






24 


Butter „ 




97 


ISO 


258 








Che«n „ 




87 


116 


198 








Coffee „ 




36 


31 


32 








T» 




78 


IIS 


160 








8ng»r „ 




980 


1,180 


2,220 


34 




63 






42 


210 


510 








Tofaaooo „ 




35 


40 


60 


1-2 


1-S 


1-4 






173 


420 


770 




14 


22 


^L,«iloD. . 


7 


16 


16 


0-5 


0-6 


0-6 


SB 


MO 


265 


2 


6 


8 




l"™" 


PIIIUOB. 








)■ 


B.UO. 1 


\ 1SW. 


,87^ 1 


1880. 1 


800. 


ism. 1 luo. 1 


Food .... 


67-3 


87-6 


S5'2 


7-0 


3.1-8 


44 '6 


FibiM. . . . 


61-1 


701 


60-4 


8-1 


271 


17-3 


MknurMtam . 


60 


26-0 


826 


3-3 


lo-o 


9-3 


BuDdriM. . . 


67-6 


76-8 


99-8 


1'6 


291 


28-S 


Tat>l . 




182-0 


2.19-0 ' 


48-0 ■ I 


M-O 


100-0 


1000 



IMPORTS, 
I Imports, Whxri Fron. 



,^ 


a» Import. (1[1111«.«. 


K«. 1 


im 


18T0. 


iwa 


UTI. 


ISM. 


Pr«nce .... 


18 


38 


43 


IS'S 


106 


Germmy . . . 


15 


IB 


34 


60 


6-8 




16 


20 


IS 


6-6 


8-> 


lUlT 


S 


1 


S 


IS 


07 


&«iliftPortUK»l. 


a 


S 


14 


3-0 


8-4 




s 


U 


28 


4< 


63 


Belgium. . . . 


1 


11 


11 


S6 


27 


Eim^ . . . 


7 


13 


14 


4-0 


»■» 


77 


123 


15S 


40-6 


87-2 




IB 




107 




S6-0 


South America . 


10 


20 


17 


«■« 


4-1 


ChlDft Uld JUUD . 

Turkey ud Egypt 





10 


IS 


83 


s-g 


10 


21 


13 


7-0 


81 




43 


65 


»S 


21-6 


227 


Total . . 


U 


14 


16 


4-6 


4 


211 


303 


411 


lOOD 


100 



F. — Imports into Frakce. 





V^lua 


n £ (TliDUHodi Omlttdl), Anniul A 


«M« 


IM1-SS. 


ib«s-tol 


1811-76. 


iB7«-Ba 


IMt 


GndQ . . . 


6.100 


7.600 


10.400 


21.200 


21 .000 


Wool . . . 


8,21*0 


8.800 


12,600 


12,700 


12,800 


Silfc . . . 


lO.JOO 


14,300 


14,800 


14,100 


18.800 


Timber . . 


6,400 


7,000 


6,600 


S,100 


7,800 


R«w cotton . 


10,400 


12,100 








Cattle. . . 


2,900 


4,700 


6,600 






WiDtJ . . . 






800 


4,100 


14.100 




4,400 


6.200 


8,900 








8.800 


4,900 


6,400 






Sugar . . . 




4,600 


4,200 


4,200 




Total . . 


42,600 


63,100 
122,200 


65,700 
141,800 


78,200 
172,400 


94.700 


flMOO 


109.000 ! 



G. — Impoktb isTo Gkhmakt. 

Valur, Afinaai Avtragt, iei6-80 {Thouinul* OwtiHfd\ 
Rnin . £29.200 i Yanii . J.7.600 

Wnoi . . 10,800 I Silk . 6,500 

Cotton . . . 9,700 Hide* . 4.200 

Coffee . . 9,100 I SundriM. . . 99,700 
Total £176,800 



IMPORTS. 



243 



H. — Imports into Italy. 





Value in £ CThouBands Omitted). 


Fence, 


per Inhabitant 


1862. 


1870. 


1880. 


186S. 


1870. 


1880. 


Raw cotton . . 


800 


1,400 


8,800 


8 


13 


28 


Grain .... 


8,100 


8,200 


2,800 


84 


80 


24 


Coal ... . 


700 


1,500 


2,300 


8 


14 


21 


Silk, raw . . . 


4,100 


1,800 


2.100 


45 


12 


19 


Wool .... 


500 


500 


1,200 


5 


4 


11 


Sundries . . . 
Total . . 


24,500 


27,900 


85,500 


270 


260 


802 


83,200 


85,800 


47,200 


865 


333 


405 



I. — Imports into Spain. 





Value in £ (Thousands Omitted), Annual Average. 


1861-65. 


1866-70. 


1871-76. 


1876-80. 1880. 

1 


Raw cotton . 
Dry goods . 
Timber . . 
Machinery . 
God-fish . . 
Goal . . . 
Sundries . . 


900 
2,700 
400 
300 
500 
800 
10,500 


1,400 
2,200 
400 
200 
600 
400 
12,000 


3.100 
2,100 
800 
800 
700 
700 
10,700 

18,400 


2,800 

2,600 

1,000 

700 

700 

800 

10,000 


3,000 
2,500 
1,100 ! 
1,000 

800 

900 
9,600 


Total . . 


! 15,600 


17,100 


18,600 


18,900 ! 



K. — Imports into Belc;ium. 





Value in £ (Thousands Omitted). 


RhillingB per 1 


rnhah. 


1860. 


1870. 


1880. 


1860. 


1870. 


1 

1880. 


Grain . . 


2,800 


3,600 


13,400 


11 


14 


48 


Wool. . . 


2,100 


3,500 


7,400 


9 


14 


27 


Meat . . . 


700 


1,300 


4,900 


3 


5 


18 


Flax . . . 


700 


2,600 


4,000 


3 


11 


15 


Iron . . . 


400 


900 


1,000 


2 


4 


4 


Umber . . 


600 


800 


2,100 


3 


8 


8 


Raw cotton 


800 


1,400 


1,700 


3 


6 


6 


Sundries . . 
Total . 


12,600 


22,700 


32,700 


52 


90 


118 


20,700 


86,800 


67.200 


86 


147 


244 




IMPORTS— lUPROVEUBNTS. 
L — Ihforts into Holland. 





TihuliiX<Tliaiuuda 


OmUted}. 


8bllllDg.[nI»h.b. [ 


1HL 


1870. 


1B80. 


1«U 


WIO. 


ino 


OaId. . . 


S,100 




8.i00 


19 


IS 


42 




900 






C 


8 


2» 


GoSce . . 


2,700 


8,600 


3,800 


16 


20 


18 


Sngmr. . . 


2,600 


3,600 


2,800 


16 


20 


14 


Raw cotton. 


1,600 


1,800 


2,300 


10 


10 


la 


lUlow . . 




400 


2,300 


1 


2 


12 


Rtw . . . 


1,200 


1,000 


1,900 


7 


> 


9 


Smulri«i, . 
Total . 


1E,000 


as,700 


41.900 


M 


130 


210 


27,200 


88,800 


69,000 


163 


211 


346 



iL — Imposts into Rubbu. 





1 *' 




'■ IMl-M. 


18«-«. 1 mi-js. 1 18-«-». 


1,610 


Cotfem, cwU. . 


. 1 390 


820 


1,280 


1,560 


CMa,ton. . . 


610 




1,060 


1,640 


1,990 




20 


184 




866 


89« 




88 


167 


243 


220 


320 


Cofls^cwta . 


116 


12S 


ua 


135 


160 


Rioe,^ „ . 


80 


98 


ISO 


151 


310 







N. 


— iMPOBn INTO United States. 




Ytii. 


Viltia (Id Onid) NUIlou Btollng. 


RMto 


oia.. 


2:;^: 


Bu^, 


^X" 


driu. 




sbmnci 


1821 . . . 


5 


\ 




18 


1831 






9 






H 




17 


27 


1841 






10 










24 


28 


1861 






18 






»l 




42 


33 


1861 






18 








22* 


67 


85 






















1881 




; 26 


n 18 18 


69 


130 


60 



Raa Rivoli, Puis 
Boulev., Sebutiipol . 

New Cuinon Street, Londun 
Victoria Street, 

Baion Haussman rebuilt a great 



c>st £2,860,000 
„ 1,390,000 
„ 600.000 
„ 330,000 
n of I'aris in tlie 



years 1653 to 1669, at an outlay of 85 milliona sterling. 



, K K 

i 
1 




il'ii 

u. 8 

p 

z 


1 t S 3 § S S S s 

. "MiML 



INCOME. 



a45 



orooME. 



A. — Gross Eabninqs ov Nation& 







Jlillknu Sterling. 


Ratio par 
Inlubiunt. 




Agricoltaie. 


Other 
Industrlfle. 


TotaL 


UnHadK 
Franoe . 
Gennany 
RoMia . 
Anatria . 
Italy . . 
Spain. . 
Portugal. 
Beltfinm 
HoUand . 

Sweden k 
Switierlai 
Greeoe 


ingdcMn . 

a • • 

• • • 
» • • • 

« • • 

» • • • 

• • • 

• • • 
ft • • • 
1 • • • 

• • • 

f Norway 

» • • • 


266 
444 

466 

509 

822 

178 

186 

81 

46 

45 

87 

71 

18 

10 


981 

621 

894 

889 

280 

167 

82 

80 

76 

59 

10 

33 

26 

13 


1,247 
966 
860 
848 
602 
846 
218 

61 
120 
104 

47 
104 

44 

28 


£86-2 
25*7 
187 
9*9 
16*8 
12*0 
13*8 
13*6 
22-1 
26 
23*2 
16-2 
16*0 
11-8 


Earope . . . 
United States . . 
Canada .... 


2,568 

604 

58 

76 


8,010 

816 

60 

67 


5,678 

1,420 

118 

133 


18-0 
27-2 
26-9 
43-4 


TheWt 


[>rld . . 


8,306 


3,943 


7,249 


19 6 



Agriculture includes not only tillage, but also pastoral 
farming and forestry. The table is not official 

B. — British Incomb at Various Dates. 



Tear. 


Hillious £. ] 


Per Inhab. 




Kingdom. 


1664 


42 




£7-8 


England and Wales. 


1688 


46 




8-2 




1, 


1770 


122 




16-8 




If 


1806 


170 




15-2 


Great Britain. 


1822 


280 




19-8 




N 


1840 


640 




20-6 


United Kingdom. 


1860 


760 




26-2 




„ 


1882 


1,247 




86-2 




*t 


c- 


—French Income at 


Various Dates. 


Tear. 


Million! 


£. 


For Tnhab. 


Pop. (MiUionsX 


1780 




160 




£61 


26-3 


1800 




216 




7-7 


27-4 


1820 




815 




10-4 


30-8 


1840 




480 




141 


84*0 


1868 




806 




21*6 


37-6 


1882 




965 




257 


87-6 



INCOME-TAX. 
D. — Ikgohe 07 Bbitibh Pboflk. 



CUs. 


LD.1SSS. 


A.I1. iwa 


"■- 1 


sr^ 


brnlngi 


F>mm«, 
Number. 


Sm!^ 




oJm!^ 


(JentiT.. 
Middle . 

WorUDg 

ToUl . 


18,600 

114,000 
310,000 
769,600 




12 
16 
11 


36,000 


28 
57 
67 
78 


222,000 
604,000 
1,220,000 
4,628,000 


S33 
241 
244 
447 


1,200,000 


46 


1,780,000 230 


6,675,000 


1,26E 



E. — Eabninob of British Nation in ] 



Engluid . . . 1,048 
ScoUuid ... 121 
Irelud ... 78 


£41 
32 
16 


84-0 
68 


United Kingdom 1,247 


38 


100-0 


mOOME-TAi ^ 






r«« ATenga Rata AddiuI 
'"«■ (PmceX Product 
1842-61 7-0 £5,487.000 
1862-61 9-8 10,224,000 
1862-71 6-6 7,784,000 
1872-81 3-8 7,062,000 
40 veM S'O 7,625,000 
1881 6-0 10,660,000 


£782,000 
1,041,000 

1.408,000 
1.868,000 
1,275,000 
1.775,000 


Pro! 

63 
52 
66 
73 


B. — Ass£9SXBNTa IN United Kinodok 






Hmi»D<£. 




'1B50. 19W 

Hou^e ... 47 61 
Land. ... 66 68 
Profuaioiui, *c . 171 216 


1870, 
77 
65 

S03 


65 
437 



Tot&l . . 274 335 445 63> 

This includes an estimate of 18J milliona for Ireland in 
1850, the tax not being then extensive to that conntry. 

C. — Aliquot Parts. 



ProfsBioni, t,c. . 



17-1 



17-3 



20 1 
10-3 
«9'0 

100-0 



INCOUB-TAX. 

— I>IBrKIBUTIOII IN ThRKB KlKaDOHS. 





1 




t. 












is«a. 


im. 


im. 


ISM. 


mo. 


'- 


Eaglud . . . 
Inlmnd 
Uidted Kiogdom . 


282 

80 
23 


87B 
*0 
28 


m 

GS 
SO 


10 

1 


£17 
12 
G 


£19 
16 
7 


S35 


ta 


678 


£11 


li 1 17 ] 



E.— Betdbns foe 1860 a»d 1880. 








HaU<u*£. 


bgtatld. 


aeouud. 


irtbBd. 


U. Kingdom. 1 


MM. 


ISM. 


ItM. 


lg». 


IBM. 

3 
9 

1 
10 


IBM. 

3 
10 

1 
22 


IBM. 

81 

G8 
IE 
201 


112 

69 
81 
368 


EOOMI. . . . 

Lud> .... 

fSr^ ■ : : 


G2 

12 

17E 


08 
61 
28 
Sll 


8 
6 
2 

16 


11 

8 
i 
33 


ToUl . 


282 


488 1 30 


56 


23 


38 


33E 


678 



F. — BsLATivB Increase since 1830. 



RailwajB 
ProlewionB 
Tool . 

G. — Relative Value op the Three Kikodoms. 

Englud . , 860 81-1 8G-2 6f2 

Scotland . 8-1 90 90 V^ 

IreUnd 88 8« G'8 8-3 

Uoited Eingdam 100-0 1000 100-0 1DO-0 

H. — Clarsifigatioh op IscouEa is 1877. 

iDOnnia. Englud. aotlimd. Inland. V. Rinadi 

O*er£G0,000 . . 71 IG 1 90 

£10,000 to £50,000 901 132 31 1,067 

£1,000 to £10,000. 18,622 2,191 878 21,6m 

£160to£l,000. . 276,733 27,812 14,173 317,818 



Fot previous years, soe page 28. 



INDIA R UBBBR— INDIA S'S. 
X. — AssiaaMKNTB of Income in Italt, 



£3,116,000 
2,420,000 
8,060,000 
1,240.000 
I,2!0,0D0 
1,210,000 

ie,S85,000 



Over £200 . 
£80ti>£200 
£40to£S0. 



S,l» 
22,300 
4B,S00 
114.S40 
1SS,S00 
911,400 

041,180 



TiiUl . £28,430,000 

Iin)IABUBBEE.~This is mostly obtained from the 
SeringueroB of the AinaEon, who sell it for sixpence a poand 
to the mercliBnta of Para, but its value on reaching England 
or United States is over two sbilUngs a ponnd. The quan- 
tities imported into Great Britain and United States have 
been ae follows : — 



Into 


Too. ImpofMd. 1 


I860. IBTO. 


lao. 


Great brituQ .... 
United SUtea 


2,150 1 7,608 
1,810 1 4,316 


8,479 
7,52S 


ToUl . 


3.760 11,922 


16,008 


Value per ton 


£22* £216 


£277 1 



The best nibber-f uresis in Brazil will ultimately be ex- 
hausted, owing to the reckless mode followed bj the Serin- 
gueros or tappers. The ordinaij product of a tapper's work 
is from 10 to 16 lbs. daily. There are 120 indianibber 
manufacturers in the United States, employing 16,000 
operatives, who produce 260,000 tons of goods, valued at 
52 millions sterling, per annum. 
INDIANS. 

A. — Principal Tribes in Ukited Statis. 

Cherokee^ Choctaw* . . 47,800 [ Crow, Flathewl. , . . 19,400 

EwjuinuHUE, Ac . . . 62.400 Pawnee, Foi .... 18,100 

Sbnehones, Snakei . . 2S,3O0 Apachei, Narajai . . . 20.100 

Dacotah, Siouji . . , 28,100 I OregDo, Arinma, te. , . 111,000 

Total. 

Ea»t o( Rnckj MountaiDi 183,400 

Wert of „ . . . 143,700 

33^100 



INDIANS-^INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS. 



249 



B. — Indians Patino Taxes (United 8tates). 



Stote. 


1870. 


1880. 


IncreMe. 


CalifomiA . 


. 7,241 


16,277 


9,036 


New Mexico 


1,309 


9,772 


8,468 


Michigan . . 


4,926 


7,249 


2,828 


WMhmgtoD Territoiy . 


1,819 


4,405 


8,086 


Arizona 


81 


8^98 


8,462 


Wiaoontin 


1,206 


8,161 


1,955 


Various 


9,699 


22,050 


12,851 



Total 



25,781 



66,407 



40,676 



C. — Industry, Schools, &c., op Indians. 





Civfllsed. 


Balf-arilised. 


SaTnge. 


Total 


Population . 


104,800 


144,800 


83,000 


882,100 


Acres tilled 


278,000 


157,000 




480,000 


Grain, btishels . 


2,780,000 


1,070,000 




8,850,000 


Hay, tons . 


177,000 


48,000 




225,000 


Yegetablei^ tons 


8,500 


9,800 




18,800 


Churches . 


117 


... 




117 


Rriiools 




844 


844 


Pupils 


: 


L8,850 




18,850 


Horses 


801,000 




801,000 


Cows . . . . 


811,000 




811,000 


Sheep 


447,000 




447,000 


Pigs . . . . 


214,000 




214,000 



The number of Indians who vote as American citizens is 
24,600. The Indian race has diminished 60,000 since 1836. 



D. — United States Indians in 1837. 



Eastof MiBsiA 
Cherokees . . 


Bippl. 

. 22,000 


Chippewas . . 


6,500 


Senimoles . . 


5,000 


Winnebagoe . . 


4,500 


Various . . . 


. 11,865 


Total 


. 49,365 



Blackfeet 
Sioux . 
Creeks . 
Apaches 



West of If issiMippi 
. 30,000 Choctaws 
. 21,600 Pawnees . 
. 20,437 EutawB . 
20,280 Crows 



Camanches 19,200 Various 



15,000 

12,500 

19,200 

7,200 

117,710 



Total 



E. — Indians in Canada. 



LocaUtj. 

Ontario 
Quebec 
Manitoba, kc. 



Population. 

16,000 
11,000 
75,400 



ProTpmtj. 

£1,968,000 
363,000 



283,127 



Average, 
per Head. 
£128 
88 



Total . . 102,400 

INBIJSTBIAL S0H00L8.^8ee Ee/ormatanea. 



ISO INDUSTRIES— INFANTS. 

HTSUBTBIES. 







VJu 


taMtUlo 


■»£. 




,s. 


*sr- 


[»tD^ 


Com- 


Tnm- 
port. 


Total. 




266 


81 B 


670 


188 


1,840 


£53 


Fnnee . 


1*1 


484 


S40 


90 


1,3«8 


16 


Qennui; 




456 


44B 


815 


110 


1,830 


30 


RlMB> 




eoB 


2S8 


120 


83 


930 


13 


Anatrw 




322 


210 


128 


44 


704 


19 


'&: 




. 178 


117 


sa 


18 


40» 


15 




IM 


M 


41 


14 


287 


18 


Fortunl 




31 


20 


13 


3 


67 


le 


Belgium 
HoUand 




IS 


92 


lie 


11 


2St 


48 




IS 


40 


121 


6 


213 


53 






J7 


IS 


19 


3 


75 


38 


8»ed.uidN 

Europe 


or. 71 

. iTbio 


87 


ss 


It 


168 


24 


2,627 


1,91 S 


S62 


7,844 


25 


United SUU 


« . 60* 


1,112 


313 


252 


2,281 


44 


C.n»d» . 


58 


62 


46 


11 


167 


38 


Argent Rep 


ub. 42 


11 


21 


* 


78 


80 


Amtnlu. 


78 


26 


101 


9 
838 


212 
10,382 


71 


Tot, 


1 


. 3,320 


3,828 


2.396 


29 



In the above table numn/actures incliidM mining.' For 
numbera employed see Occupalioru. The table ia nut 
officiaL See Work. 



A. — Ratio of Fofulation dnder 5 Years of Aom. 



EnglAnd . 
SootUnd . 

U. Eingdon 
PnncH 



Oermuiy . 



PnlOO 




PnlOO 








. 13 5 


Aurtria . 


. 13-2 


. 13 


luly . . 


. 13-8 


. Ill 
. 13-3 


iJ^d! 


. 14-2 
. 11-8 




Belgium . 


. 12-1 




DenmArk 


. 12-6 



B. — Death-rate per 1000 dnder 5 Ybabb : per AmtvM. 



Ei>gl».d . . 


61 


AuitdA . 


. 112 






69 


sp.L: : 






Fruoe . . 


78 


. 108 


Modlom 



INQUESTS-INSANITY. 

C— D«1TB-EAT1 OT IhPAKTB CHDBE 12 MOSTHB. 



En^-nd . . 


15 


En«U. . . 


27 


lUly . . 






AoitrU . . 




Hol^d '. 


Inlud . . 






»8 






&. ■ ■ 


ao 


Denmark . 


Fimno . . 




81 


Sweden . 


Pnwik . . 


21 


8l«in . . . 


19 


Norway . 



Th« highest death-iate of infonts in the world is at Liver- 
pool, where 46 of eveiy 100 bom die before reaching 12 
months. The rate at Kew York is 31 per cent. 

D. — Ik?ani Dsaib-bate in Fbance. 

Dfiag under li MimUittif 100 Bon. 

Haka .... 17 I LasHimato . IS i Rnnd .... IS 

Femalea ... IS Butardi . . 30 Urban. ... 18 

Total .... IS I Total ... 16 { Total .... 10 

IirQTJEBTS.— See Coroners. 
JS&ASITI. 

A. — IXBAHB OP ALL COUNTRIES. 





Number. 


PcrlOM 


RMtdof 


AT,i,.i.a 

Doslh- 


i^riudu. 








Per Cut. 


PorCmt. 




EogUnd . . . 


61.600 


S-2 


SO 


10 1 




SeotlMd 




11.600 


32 


42 


Sf 


81 


beliuid 




19,S00 


37 


43 


8) 




France 




93.900 


2-5 


S3 


IS 


110 


Germany 




108.100 


2-4 


31 


B 


130 


Ru**ia 




80,000 


1-1 






74 


Auntria 




3S,000 


1-0 






28 


Italy . 




41,100 


1-a 






33 


Spain and Portugal 


13.000 


07 








B«lt;. and HoUand 


10.400 


1-3 


32 


ii 


68 


Switierland. . . 


3,100 








42 


Scandinaria. . . 
Europe . . . 


18,100 


2-9 






87 


51S,«0 


1-fl 


33 


la 


604 


United Stata . . 


168.940 


S3 


47 


10 




Canada .... 


7,300 


18 








Australia. . . . 


41900 


17 


45 


"i 




Total 




695.600 


1-9 


36 


" 





2S2 



INSANITY. 



B. — Inbanb op Unitbd Kingdom. 







Scotland. 


Inland. 


Unitwl 
Kingdom. 


Pauper insane . . 
Private „ . . 

Totol .... 

Lunatics .... 

Idiots 

Unclassified . . . 

Total .... 


65,400 
16,200 


8,000 
8,600 


12,200 
7,800 


85,600 
27,100 


81,600 


11,600 


19,500 


112,700 


39,600 
29,500 
12,500 


6,800 

4,600 

200 


9,800 
6,700 
8,000 


56,200 
40,800 
15,700 


81,600 


11,600 


19,500 


112,700 



C. — Increasb of Insanitt. 

Paapen Inaana (per mHion lnhal>.)b 



Tears. 

1861-65 
1871-75 
18bO 



England 

and Walea. 

2,080 

2,681 

2,792 

D. — Insanitt in Unitbd States. 



BooCland. 

2,050 
2,290 
2,580 



1 

Tear. 


Lunatics. 


Idiota. 


Total. 


Per 1000 
Inbab. 


Sex Ratio 
(Percentage of Males). 


Lunatica. 


Idiota. 


Total 


1850 
1860 
1870 
1880 


15,610 
24,040 
87,480 
91,990 


15,790 
18,980 
24,580 
76,890 


81,400 

42,970 

61,960 

168,880 


1-86 
1-89 
1-61 
8-80 


51 
49 
47 
46 


60 
58 
60 
60 


55 
53 
58 

51 



R — Ratio op Sex. 

Inmates of Asylcims. 





Male. 


Female. 


Total 


England 


. 47 


53 


100 


Scotland . 


, . 48 


52 


100 


Ireland . . 


, . 52 


48 


100 



Inmates of Asylums. 



Male. FWnale. TotaL 

France . . 48 52 100 

Italy ... 56 44 100 

United SUtes 51 49 ICO 



Even in countries where the number of insane females 
exceeds that of males, it is found that men are more liable 
than women to insanity, but die faster. Thus in France 
there are annually admitted 110 males to 100 females, 
though the existing number of the latter is greater. 



JNSA NITY^INSURA NCE. 



253 



Herediteiy . 



F. — Caubbb 

Per 

Cent 

. 24 

. 14 

. 12 



07 Inbakitt. 



Loss of friends 
Sickness . 
Various . 



Cent 
11 
10 
29 



The above result is the medium average arrived at on 
comparing the returns for England, France, Denmark, and 
United States. 

O.— Inbanb aooobdino to Logalitt (Great Britain). 

Pauper Inmme per 100,000 InhabUanlt, 



Bhetlind . 
Orknej 
Bradford . 
Darham . 
Goniwall . 
Leeds . . 



Tear. 

1886 
1846 
1856 
1866 
1869 
1879 



96 
107 
121 
129 
168 
160 



Edinburgh 

Sheffield 

Newcastle 

Swansea 

Liverpool 

Perth . 



172 
179 
191 
202 
219 
288 



AxgyH ... 259 

Manchester . 270 

Birmingham . . 801 

Oxford ... 812 

Nottingham . . 842 

London . . . 861 



tt^— Insanitt in Francb. 

Per 1000 
InbAh. 

0-80 
1-20 



Namber. 

27,000 
42,400 



59,800 
90,100 
94,800 
98,970 



1*66 
2*88 
2-47 
2-52 



Giiiuedhj 
Driuk (per Cent). 

7 

8 

9i 
14 



Male. 

1871 28,002 
1880 84,809 

INSURANCE. 



L — Insanity in Prussia 

Per 1000 

Inhab. 
2*21 
2-43 



Fenuile. TotaL 

27,041 55.043 
82,086 66,345 



15 
15 



Ratio of males 
(per Cent.X 

51 

51 



A. — LiFB Insurance of 


Nations. 








Polidee 


Amount 


ATerage 
Policy(£). 


Insuranoe to 




^lumaanda). 


(Millions £). 


Pop. (£). 


1870. 
688 


188a 


1870. 


1880. 


1870. 
505 


1880. 


1870. 


1880. 


6. Britain . 


879 


838 


422 


460 


10-5 


121 


France . . 


129 


208 


51 


87 


895 


418 


1-4 


2*4 


Germany . 


456 


797 


64 


127 


142 


159 


17 


2-9 


Austria . . 


90 


170 


20 


40 


220 


230 


07 


1-2 


U. Sutes . 


748 


725 


405 


312 


540 


430 


10-2 


6-1 


Canada . . 
ToUl . 


40 


48 


14 


17 


350 
414 


348 


3-8 


4-0; 


2,151 


2,827 


892 


1,005 


855 


6-0 


5-0 



254 



IXSURAXCn. 



Vi. — ]'>USINh> 


-s Dune 


IN 188 


0. 






Great 
Britain. 


France. 


Germany. 


United 
Sutes. 


Premiom (millions £) . . . 
Rate of premiom .... 
PoUcies pftid (millions £) . 
Avenge number paid . . . 
New policies (millions £) 
Nomber issued during 1880 . 


18-2 
815 

11-2 
27 

20-9 
44,900 


2-8 
816 
1-2 
1-8 
177 
47,800 


8-4 
270 
1-9 
1-5 
18-8 
47,600 


127 
4-00 

• • ■ 

• • • 

87-5 
128,000 



British life companies show assets 130 millions, and total 
revenue 19^ millions sterling : American companies 84 
millions steuing for assets, and 17 millions for revenue. 

C. — Life Insurance in France. 



Tears. 


Annnal ATerage. 


New 
PoUcies. 


]lillioiis£. 


Per Policy. 


Inaurera, 

per MUlioa 

Inbabitanta. 


1861-70 . 
1871-75 . 
1876-79 . 
1880 . 


12,870 
14,900 
82,025 
47,800 


5-1 

7-6 

12-2 

177 


£896 
511 
884 
872 


868 

480 

890 

1,820 



Number of policies 
Amount, millions £ 
Policies paid 
Ratio to insurance 



D. — LiFB Insurance in Germany. 

1S50. 1800. 1870. 1880. 

40,900 129,600 456,200 797,100 

7-4 21-2 64-0 127-3 

£150,000 £350,000 £1,020,000 £1,870,000 

20 17 1-6 1-5 



E — Fire Insurance 


OF Nations. 






Amount Insured. 


Ratio of 
Insurauce. 


Annual Firea. 




MlUionB£. Per luhab. 

i 


IfUDona. 


1 

PerlnbaU 
Shillings. 


United Kingdom . 


2,738 


£78 


0-25 


9-2 


5 


France .... 


4,056 


112 


010 


81 


2 


Germany. . . . 


3,170 


68 


0-20 


6-4 


8 


Russia .... 


180 


2 


0-50 


12-0 


8 


Belgium .... 


400 


72 


010 


0-5 


2 


Scandinavia . . . 


115 


14 


0-27 


1-0 


8 


United SUtes . . 


1,290 


26 


0-90 


230 


9 


Canada .... 
Total .... 


140 82 


110 


8-0 


15 


12,089 £47 


0-27 


58-2 


5 



INSURANCE. 



^SS 



F. — FiRB Inbubanoe 07 United Kingdom. 



TaM*. 


Amount (Millions £). 


Per 
InhAb. 


Ragland. 


Scotland. 




United 
Kingdom. 


1801 . 
1810 . 
1880 . 
1850 . 
1868 . 
1882 . 


220 
825 
482 
680 
921 
2,855 


4 

12 
84 
43 
99 
274 


9 
17 
19 
84 
52 
109 


233 
354 
535 
757 
1,072 
2,738 


£15 
20 
22 
28 
86 
78 



The assets of fire companies in 1881 amounted to 24 
millions stexling. The figures for amount insured in 1882 
are estimates, the last official returns being for 1868. 



Tear. 



G. — FiRB Insurance in France. 



Amount Inenred. 





Mimoni4^ 


Per InhBh, 


1851 . 


. 1,318 


£41 


1856 . 


. 1,810 


54 


1868 . 


. 8.092 


88 


1875 . 


8,190 


90 


1881 . 


4,056 


112 



Preroinm LoesM Paid 

(Tbouaanda jE). (Thousands £> 

1,140 560 

1,666 774 

2,440 1,460 

8,030 2,390 

8,855 2,430 



H. — Fire Insdrance in Germany. 

Amount Injured. 



Year. 


Millions £. 


Per Inhab. 


1850 


. . 815 


£27 


1860 


. . 1,460 


40 


1870 


. . 2,030 


50 


1880 


. . 8,125 


67 



Premium Losses Paid 

(Thtmsaitda £). (Thousands £). 

1,650 1,200 

3,000 2,000 

4,160 2,900 

6,370 4,400 



L — Fire Insurance in United States. 



Tear. 



Amount Insured. 



Premium Losses Paid 





Millions £. 


Per Inhab. 


^JLtlUUBMUUS J^/. 




1856 


. . 175 


£7 


1,440 


880 


1862 


. . 865 


11 


3,100 


1,900 


1876 


. . 1,310 


80 


11,800 


8,800 


1881 


. . 1,290 


26 


11,680 


8,950 



Z^6 INVESTMENTS OP BRITISH CAPITAL. 



Lloyd*8 . 
Bjiabwrg 
Frendi maritime 
Various . 



K. — Marine Insurance. 

Amount 
(MiUioiis£). 

480 

105 

102 

200 



Total 



887 



AT«rag« Premlom 
per Voyag*. 
1-2 
1-2 
1-6 



The loss of sailing vessels averages 4 per cent ; that of 
steamers, 2^ per cent, per annum. 



Im — Hamburg Marine Insurance Compant. 

Premium per 
lilHiii 



Tear. 

1820 
1840 
1860 
1870 
1878 



Amomit 



(MillioDe£>. ^'^g'jS|"«* 

11 84 

20 80 

47 27 

65 24 

105 23 



INVESTMENTS OF BRITISH CAPITAL. 







MUliooe Sterling. 












Rftteof 






CnpiUl. 


luterest. 


Ini crest. 


National Debt . 




. 769 


231 


30 


Railways . 




770 


83-2 


4 3 


Banks. 




270 


16-6 


6-5 


Mines and iron . 




215 


11-8 


5-5 






94 


37 


4K) 


Gas and water 




72 


57 


8-0 


Telegraphs . 




30 


17 


57 


Insurance . 




20 


1-2 


60 


Shipping, kc 




193 


97 


5-0 


British . 




2,433 


1067 


4-4 


Colonial loans . 




148 


7-4 


5-0 


Indian da . 




154 


6-2 


4K) 


Indian and colonial railways 


186 


93 


5-4 


Foreign loans and 


railways 


570 


257 


45 



ToUl . 3,491 155-3 4*4 

In the above table are not included loans on which no 
interest is received, such as Peruvian, &c. Neither are 
counted sums on mortgage lent by British capitalists on 
properties in Australia, Brazil, and other countries. New 
companies in England absorb about 60 millions per annum. 
8ee Joint-stock, 



IROS\ 



2S7 



ntON. 



A. — INCRBA8B 


OF Proe 


AUCTION 8IKCB 1830. 










Thoiuands of Tous. 






1880. 


I860. 


1870. 


1871-80. 


188S. 


GiMi Britoin . . 


682 


2,250 


5,280 


6,620 


8,488 


Untied SUftM . 


165 


560 


1,580 


2,440 


4,023 


GermMiy . . . 


120 


402 


1,310 


2,020 


8,171 


Firnaoe . . . 


105 


408 


1,230 


1,410 


2,083 


Belgium . . 


96 


170 


260 


580 


640 


AurtrU. . . 


80 


140 


280 


440* 


' 550 


RoMi* .... 


115 


220 


860 


390 


505 


Sweden .... 


105 


130 


800 


330 


410 



Total 



1,468 4,280 10,550 14,230 19,820 



B. — Pboduotion 



Compared with Population. 

Pounds of Pig Iron per Inhabitant. 





two 


1850. 


1870. 


188^. 


Greet Britain . 


66 


190 


420 


555 


United SUtee 


28 


54 


90 


196 


Gennany 


9 


26 


82 


140 


France . 


7 


25 


83 


117 


Belgium . 


CO 


85 


115 


250 


Austria . 


7 


11 


17 


SO 


Russia . 


5 


8 


11 


12 


Sweden . 


80 


84 


165 


190 



C. — Consumption op Pig 


Iron. 




« 


Thouaands of Tous. 


Lbs. per luhabitant 


1850. 


1881. 


1S50. 


1881. 


Great Britain 


1,970 


6,416 


170 


420 


United SUtes . 


560 


5,372 


55 


240 


Germany . 


420 


2,520 


27 


126 


France 


450 


2,110 


27 


122 


Belgium 


170 


720 


85 


303 


Austria 


150 


520 


12 


30 


Rusida 


300 


630 


10 


18 


Sweden 
Total . 


45 


180 


30 


90 


4,065 


18,467 

1 


42 


68 



D. — Uses op British Iron (1881). 

Tons. 

Pig iron exported 1,480,000 

Made into steel 1,950,000 

For various manufactures .... 4,896,000 



Total . 



8,826,000 



IRON. 

— Yalub or Iron MAitorAOrDBza 

. £1 I Mads into penk&lTM . £<60 

I „ bDttoni . .S,100 

I „ watch-ipriiigi Sl,300 

Yiaiting cords are now Gometimes made of very thin ilieet 



F. — FBODnonoK im tbe Thbxb KnaDOHS (1881). 

Tou Lbi. Ptoinn 

CHinuuHla). p«r iBbiUiwA 

Engbad ..." "■ 



Wi3m 

Scotland 

Irekud 



917 
1,20« 



-Pbiceb of Piq Iroh fob Ten Ykaro (1870-80). 

BhlUiDgiiMrTaii. 
Gn*t BriUln. CoathHDt. UatUd StaW 



— YlBLD OF iBOtrSTOKS. 

PtrtttUage </ Irait, 
I Unfted States . 43 I Gnu 



Genoany . 
I, — Coal Used in Making Pia Ieok (Gbxat Bbteaih). 



tol Tontrflno. 



],S»8 

G,230 
0,365 

8,32fl 



Netlson'a itiTeiition ii 



4.877 
lfl,2M 
16.700 
18,800 
9 of the bot-blost, 600* Fahren- 



lieit, caused a, saving of 33 p«r cent, in the quantity of coal 



<«1 


mt 


^\ 


«•! 


^! 


<«! 


-^^ 


^1 


^Jl 


«1 




IRON. 



259 



required Cowper's regenerator of 1500*" Fahrenheit^ intro- 
duced in 1857, canded a further saving. Charcoal is some- 
timeB used, the average requisite to produce a ton of iron 
being 15 cwt. in Styria, 16 in Sweden, and 23 in United 
States. The ironworks of the United States consume 
680,000 tons of chaicoal* equal to 60,000 acres of timber, 
per annum. 



E. — Coal and Pig Ibon in 1881. 





TMu (ThoasKids Omitted). 




Fig Iron. 


Gold 
Raisod. 


for Iron. 


Great Britidn 


8,826 


154,800 


18.300 


United States 


4,160 


70,000 


9,100 


Gemuuny 


. 2,790 


69,000 


6,200 


France . 


1,880 


19,000 


4,200 


Belgium 


610 


17.000 


1,800 


Austria . 


520 


16,000 


1,100 


Russia . 


480 


8,600 


1,000 


Other countries 


584 


9,100 


1,800 



Total 



19,300 848,000 



42,500 



Pereentsge 
orCkNdiued 
for Pig Iron. 
12 
18 
11 
22 
8 
7 

28 
14 

12 



L. — Total Coal used in Ibonworkb (Grbat Britain). 



For ptg iron • 
finished iron 
Bessemer steel 
other steel 
tin plates 

boilers, engines, &c 
shipbuilding 
sundries . 



m 

tf 

n 

H 
»» 



Total (1881) 



Tons. 
18,300,000 

8,043,000 
906,000 
776,000 
577,000 

1,000,000 
506,000 

4,655,000 

84,763,000 



M. — Cost op Produoinq Iron (1883). 

Shilling* per Ton. 



England 
France . 


Piglnm. 
50 
73 


Wrougtit Iron. 
122 
182 


SteeU 
160 
224 


Germany 
Belgium 


59 
47 


144 

130 


192 
131 



The above is from a report of French Goyemment to 
Legislature. 



26o 



IRONCLA DS-^IRRJGA TION. 



N. — (ToNsuMBBS OF Britibh Iron. 











Tons. 


Lbs. per lahsWtant. 1 




1878. 


1882. 


1871 


1881 


United States . 


070,000 


1,198,000 


66 


61 


Germany . . , 




812,000 


681,000 


44 


86 










166,000 


247,000 


110 


122 


Australia 








96,000 


801,000 


118 


228 


Russia . 








188,000 


164,000 


4 


6 


France . 








108,000 


206,000 


6 


11 


Belgium 








168,000 


86,000 


72 


41 


Italy . , 








20,000 


118,000 


2 


9 


Spab . . 








24,000 


82,000 


8 


4 


BraaU . . 








21,000 


67,000 


4 


12 


Various 








867,000 
8,888,000 


1,266,000 


• • • 


«•• 


Total. . 


■ 


• 




4,860,000 


• • • 


... 



ntONOLADa See Navy. 

IRBiaATION. 

France, — Only 260,000 acres irrigated, which yield crops 
worth £3 per acre more than ordinary. 

//o/y.— The canals in the Po valley irrigate 1,370,000 
acres, which receive every day in summer 45 million tons of 
water, measured through a great number of little sluice- 
gates : the permanent right to an inch of water is worth 
from £500 to £800. The usual rent of these lands is £6 
per acre per annum. 

Belgium, — Since 1859 an area of 160,000 acres of waste 
lands has been made valuable by irrigation, adjoining state- 
canals. 

Spain, — Land unwatered may be rented at 5 shillings an 
acre, but the irrigated lands of Valencia, where the old 
canals and works of the Moors remain, readily rent at £5 
per acra The total area of irrigated lands is 2} million acrea 

Algeria, — The most important work is the " barrage " at 
Habra, with a basin holding 30 million tons of water, the 
main wall being 110 feet high and 1500 feet long. The 
distributory canals are 310 miles, irrigating a large extent of 
country. 

Egypt, — During his reign of 17 years, from 1863 to 1879, 
Ismael Pacha constructed 112 canals branching from the 
Nile, to irrigate 1,400,000 acres, with an aggregate length 



JVORY— JESUITS. 



261 



of 8,400 miles, the cost amounting to about 12 millions 
sterling. The lands thus newly irrigated produce crops 
worth £10,600,000, or 22 per cent, of the total value of 
Egyptian crops. The actual length of Nile canals is 52,000 
miles, the task of irrigation employing 476 steam-pumps, 
107,000 Persian water-wheels, 150,000 men, and 60,000 
animals, at an annual cost averaging 4 shillings per acre. 

IndicL, — The Ganges canal irrigates 400,000 acres, is 880 
miles long, having 902 bridges and 297 aqueducts, and cost 
£2,400,000. In the Madras Presidency irrigation is also 
carefully studied: there are 53,000 tank-reservoirs, 30,000 
miles of dykes, the whole having cost 16 millions sterling, 
and producing a revenue of £1,500,000 per annum. 

Cyprus. — The canals made by the Venetians had fallen 
to ruin under the Turks, but many of them have been re- 
stored by British engineer officers since 1878. Irrigated lands 
yield three times heavier crops than the rest of the island. 

CkdifornicL — Since 1870 have been constructed 2000 
miles of canals, irrigating more than 10 millions of acres. 

South AmeriecL — The Incas had a perfect network of 
canals irrigating the lands on the western slope of the Andes. 
Near Mendoza, at the Eastern foot of the Andes, still exists 
the Zanjon or canal made by the Cacique Guaymallen, irri- 
gating a tract of 18 miles of country. 

IVOBY. — An ordinary elephant produces 120 lbs., worth 
£60. England consumes 650 tons (of which Sheffield one- 
third), for which it is necessary to kill 12,000 elephants 
yearly. At the Exhibition of 1851 there was a tusk of 
162 lbs., but Gordon Gumming since got one of 173 lbs. 



JESTJIT& 





A. 


—Numbers in 1865. 




Europe 

AUA . 

Africa 


• 
• 
• 


. 6,689 
. 296 
. 213 


America . • 
Australia . • 
Total 


. 475 

. 65 
. 7,728 




B.- 


— Numbers in 1882. 




Italy 

Germany . 

France and Colonies 


1 


. 1,568 
. 2,876 
. 2,789 


Spain and South America 1,933 

G. BriUin and U. SUtes . 1,894 

ToUl .... 11,049 



262 



JEWS. 



JEWS. 



A. — Numbers 


AND InCRKASB. 








Thoosands. 






IMO. 


1880. 


Inoreai 


Russia 


2,025 


2,621 


596 


Austria 


. 1,048 


1,875 


827 


Germany . 


898 


512 


119 


France 


88 


' 49 


*• . 


Holland 


68 


78 


15 


Great Britain 


45 


51 


6 


Italy . 
Turkey, fta 


28 


85 


12 


260 


280 


20 


Europe . 


. 8,945 


5,001 


1,056 


Moroooo 


840 


850 


10 


TripoU 


160 


170 


10 


Algeria 


82 


188 


51 


Egypt 


7 


8 


1 


America 


85 


110 


25 


Asia . 


200 


200 


• • • 



Total 



4,819 



6,972 



1,153 



B. — Vital Statistics (Jbwish and Eubopkan). 

Jews Earopeims 

(Per Cent) (Per Cent) 

. 16 5 

2 6 



Births. 

Excess of male births 
Illegitimate births 



Still-births 



2i 



H 



Age, 


Marrying Age. 


Jews. 


Europeans. 


Mmles. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


Under 20 .... 

20 to 80 

30 to 40 

40 to 50 

Over 60 ... . 

Total .... 


2-2 

66-4 

17-4 

7-4 

6-6 


23-5 

68-5 
9-8 
6-4 
2-8 


1-8 

62-6 

25-3 

6-2 

41 


12-1 

65*6 

16-2 

4-6 

1-5 


100-0 


100-0 


lOOH) 


100-0 



Ratio of Deaths. 



Age at Death. 
Under 12 months 
1 to 5 years 
5 to 15 ,, ', 

Over 15 „ 



Jews. 


Europeai 


861 


28-5 


17-6 


14-3 


6-5 


6-7 


89-8 


50-5 



100-0 



lOOD 



JOINT-STOCK COMPANIES'-JUTB. 



263 



C. — Dbathb of Jews AocoBDma to Sex and Aqe. 



Jews. 



Afro. 


Male. 


Femalaw 


Christlanii 
(BothSexei>X 


Under 1 


. 88-4 


887 


29-3 


lto5 . 


. 18-6 


167 


19-2 


6 to 10 . 


. 47 


4-3 


4-9 


10 to 20 


. 4-3 


4-5 


4*6 


20 to 40 


. 8-6 


12-6 


11-3 


40 to 60 


. 12-0 


18-8 


12-9 


Over 00 


. 18-6 


16-0 


17-8 



100-0 



100-0 



100 



D. — Life-Yalub Compared with Chbi8tian& 



Survival 0/ 1000 Persona Bam, 



Jews 



ChrlstkuM. 



-^^^ (PruMUX PniMla. England. 



5 
10 
15 
20 
80 



598 
535 
514 
482 
482 



689 
620 
610 
(S02 
562 



761 
727 
714 
699 
650 



Chriitlaiii. 

Ao* Jews '^ ■ 

^■** (PrusaiaX Prussia. Eugland. 

40 864 506 587 

50 305 438 506 

60 237 345 898 

70 153 206 253 

80 62 80 108 



jonnr-STOOK companies, gbeat Britain. 



MiUions £. 



Pbrlod. 

1862-65 
1866-70 
1871-75 
1876-81 



New 
Companies. 

2,986 
2,722 
5,584 
6,688 



Capital 

639 
824 
548 
469 



20 yean 
See Investments, 



17,030 1,980 



Annual 

Average. 

160 

65 

110 

78 

99 



Capital 
per 
Company. 
£213,000 
116,000 
98,000 
82,000 

£116,500 



JIJ8TI0E8 OF PEACE. — In England and Wales there 
are 9660, of whom 7770 are for counties, the rest for towns. 

JUTE 

A. — Exports prom India. 

Tear. Tims. Viilne. 

1850 .... 19,500 £89,000 

1860 .... 38,000 290,000 

1870 . . . . 120,000 1,620,000 

1880 .... 305,000 4,880,000 

Jute is manufactured in India at 22 mills, with 6500 
power-looms, which turn out 100 million sacks yearly, 
California taking 20 millions. 



264 



KINGS^KRUPP FACTORY. 



B. — Consumption in Grbat Britain. 



Yew 

1850 
1860 
1865 
1871 
1875 
1881 



Million Lbs. 



Imported. 
42 
90 
234 
388 
883 
553 



Exported. 

« • • 

4 

47 

64 

117 

146 



Coniumed. 

42 

86 
187 
824 
266 
407 



Lb«.per 
InhAb. 

n 

8 

6 
10 

8 
11 



Yalaeof 
M«ia&otiiro 
(ThooMiideX 
£860 
1,980 
4,150 
0,470 
5,880 
8,610 



C. -^Exports of Jutb Manufacturb from Great 

Britain. 



Tear. 

1865 
1870 
1875 
1880 
1881 



Million 
Yards. 

15 
52 

101 
183 
204 



Valno 
CHiouaaoda). 

£812 
790 
1,405 
2,255 
2,363 



Per 
Yaid, 
Penoe. 
4-8 
3-6 
8-8 
8-0 
2-8 



Yam, 

Million 

Urn. 

5 

13 

16 

17 

18 



Total Export 

Value 
(ThovMands). 

£894 

987 

1,681 

2,488 

2,608 



England 
France . 


. 35 
. 84 


23 
24 


Germany 
Russia . 


. 39 
. 60 


21 
16 



No. 
32 


ATernKO 

Reign, 

Yearm. 

26 


89 


21 


53 


15 


35 


17 



KINGS. — In 1883 there are 22 kings, including emperors. 
The number who have ruled in various countries since the 
battle of Hastings, a.d. 1066, has been as follows : — 

Average 
No. Reign, 
Yeiire. 

Spain 
Denmark 
Sweden 
Turkey 

The Turkish dynasty dates only from 1299. The average 
reign of the above 317 monarchs was just 20 years. 

KOUMISS. — Spirit extracted by the Ealmucs from mares' 
milk : 2 gallons of milk give 18 ounces of koumiss wine, or 
6 ounces of koumiss brandy. 

KBXJPP PAOTOEY. — Situate at Essen, near Cologne; 
is one of the greatest in the world. 

Operatives . 15,000 I Iron oonstxmed . 26,000 ton^ 

Steam, horae-power . 18,500 | Steel „ . 130,000 „ 

About 500 tons of steel or iron are daily converted into 
artillery or railway bars. There are 82 steam hammeiBi the 
heaviest weighing 50 tons. 



LA BO URER^LA KES. 



265 



LABOUBES. — Dr. Farr estimates the value of an agri- 
caltmal labourer to the commonwealth as follows : — 



Age. 


Valu6L 


Ag9. 


Yaliie. 


Aga 


Yftlua 


5 


£56 


80 


£241 


55 


£188 


10 


117 


85 


228 


60 


97 


15 


192 


40 


212 


65 


46 


20 


2S4 


45 


198 


70 





25 


246 


50 


168 







At the age of 75 he is a loss of £25, and the loss rises to 
X41 at 80. This is only true of agricidtural labourers, since 
intellectual workers are often of much value after 70 years 
of age, which balances the account See Work. 

LAOE. — This industry employs in Great Britain 9000 
men and 41,000 women, who produce lace annually to the 
value of 6 millions sterling. It is stated that more than 
500,000 women on the Continent make lace, worth 30 millions 
yearly, or £60 each, but this seems a high average. 

LAKE& 





Square 
ItUea. 


Depth, 
Feet 


Area equal to 


Superior 


. 82,100 


688 


Ireland. 


And . 


. 28,800 


781» 


Holland. 


Huxxm 


. 20,400 


600 


vrreece. 


Baikal 


14,800 


580 


Denmark. 


Michigan . 


. 12,900 


690 


Belgium. 


Erie . 


9,600 


84 


Sardinia Island. 


Ontario 


7,650 


510 


«•« • 


Ladoga 


6,250 


• •• 


Wurtembuig. 


Onega 


8,850 


• • • 


Ck>r8ica. 


Wenner 


2,180 


294» 


DeTonahire. 


Wetter 


788 


410 


Oxfordshire. 


Constance . 


180 


1.027* 


Isle of Man. 


Neagh 


153 


42 


Malta. 


Maggiore . 


180 


700 


• • • 


Zurich 


40 


600 


St Helena. 



* Maximum depth. The rest show the arerage depth. 





A,— CCLTIVAnON AND VaLUE. 








AerM(HUlleiMV 


Tiln*. 


birt, 

Uof*. 


nt«d. 


^ 


ToU. 


£ 


inlub- 
lUnt. 




U. KiBgdoTO . 


47 


23 




70 


1,737 


£4S 


£33 


SO 


FiMoe. . . 


67 


49 


116 


2,624 


70 


36 


24 


Gvniiuj . . 


08 


67 


125 


2,060 


46 


25 


18 




IBS 


8»4 


1,089 


1,38S 


18 


S 


2 


Amtrik. . . 


67 


SS 


142 


1,290 


SS 


16 


8 


a : : : 


27 


41 


SS 


810 


28 


22 


11 


22 


m 


112 


6S0 


40 


18 


6 


POTtDglJ . . 


i 


17 


!1 


158 


SS 


SS 


S 


B.lgium . . 
HolUnd . . 


S 


1 


G 


U6 


46 


48 


80 


6 


s 


7 


212 


S3 


42 


SO 


DoDIDU-k . . 


S 


2 


8 


210 


110 


33 


24 


Sweden. . . 


12 


S6 


98 


812 


66 


12 


6 


Nam; . , 


3 


70 


78 


no 


60 


11 


4 


Greece . . . 


t 





11 


lOS 


67 


IS 


12 


520 


1,426 


1,946 


11,819 


40 


20 


8 


United SUto 


170 


1,636 


1,806 


1,923 


87 


7 




C«uul». . . 


IS 


1,902 


1,918 


180 


42 


8 




Aiutndik . . 


11 


1,847 


1,853 


132 


S4 


7 




A^enkBepub. 
ToUl. . . 


i 


773 


777 


122 


45 


4 




721 


7,fi83 


8,304 


14,326 ' 39 


17 





The above values do oot include pabliclamls in th«UDitod 
States, Canada, Australia, or the Argentine Bepublic. 

R — LaND-OWMBRS op UnTED KlNODOH. 
C la. No. AoH. ATsrajra lumm. 

iBt . . 34 S,S11,000 18^,000 

2nd. . 841 8,166,000 3,760 

8rd . . . 179,649 60,912,000 330 



/!_»* > ._« . ■ ^ »t Hmt par 

Owners Acrefc ^j,^ EanUt Acii 

Kngbnd . . 154,774 33,110.000 212 ^£334 £1 U 4 

ScDtlMid . . 8,240 17,780,000 2,150 940 OSS 

IreUod . . . 17,510 19,386,000 1,120 S65 10 3 

U. Kingdom 180,524 70,279,000 SM £387 £0 19 9 



LAND. 



267 



C. — Owners of Land. 





Number 


ATorage Estate. 


Lsnd-owners 




of Ownara 


^m -^ 




to Populaiiou. 




(TboasandsX 


Acres. 


ViUiio. 


per Cent. 


United Kingdom 


180 


890 


£9,600 


0-5 


France 


8,226 


32 


810 


9 


Germaqj . 


2,436 


87 


850 


5 


RoMia 


. 11,836 


75 


120 


14 


Anctria • 


3^432 


41 


370 


9 


Italy 


1,865 


85 


430 


7 


Spain 


680 


150 


970 


4 


Portugal . 


252 


80 


630 


6 


Belgiom . 


835 


18 


735 


6 


Holland . 


154 


45 


1,370 


4 


Denmark 


71 


115 


2,960 


4 


Sweden . 


204 


400 


1,550 


5 


Norway . 


110 


300 


1,000 


6 


Greece 


163 


66 
80 


640 
£490 


9 


Europe 


24,444 


8 


United States . 


4,005 


160 


450 


8 


Canada . 


408 


120 


250 


9 


Australia 


168 


380 


1,090 


6 


Argentine Republic 


390 


850 


310 


13 



Total 



29,415 



96 



£503 



8 



The above table does not include cottiers or persons owning 
less than 5 acres. See Serf-Lands^ page 403. 



D. — Land Tenure in United Kingdom, Cultivatbd Area. 

Number of Holdinsrs (Thousands). 



Acrss. 


Eogland. 


Wales. 


Scotland, i Ireland. 


U. Kingdom. 


Under 50 


. 295 


41 


55 435 


826 


50 to 100 


. 45 


10 


10 56 


121 


Over 100 . 


. 75 


9 


15 32 


131 



Total 



415 



60 



80 



523 



1,078 



Distribution of Area, 

Acres (Thousands Omitted^ 



Area. England. Wales. 

Under 50. 3,500 600 

50 to 100 . 3,200 700 

Over 100 . 18,200 1,400 



Scotland. 
700 
700 
8,400 



Ireland. U. Kingdom. 

7,800 12,600 

4,400 9,000 

3,100 26,100 



Total . 24,900 2,700 4.800 15,300 47,700 



Ratio. 
265 
18-8 
54-7 

100-0 



E. — Land Rbhtai. or Unitkd Kikodom. 



T«»r. 




TboiuudiA. 




Rmtd 


Eniluid. 


Bootlud. 


■ nlud. 


D. Klngdn^ 


SLiiiui 


1760 


. 12,700 


800 


3,100 


16,600 


i^ 


1780 


. 16,900 


1,200 


6,800 


28,400 


7 


1814 


. 87,063 


4.850 


7,100 


40,013 


14 


1843 


. 42.127 


6.687 


8,200 


66,911 


10 


18S0 


. 42,834 


B,686 


8,400 


60,820 


16 


1860 


. 42,094 


8,282 


8,961 


68,W7 


17 


1808 


. 47,7M 


7,186 


8.21 1 


Si,I63 


18 


1884 


. 47,856 


7,605 


6,982 


06,442 


IS 



Woroeiter . 

WMTirick . 



BhUllng. 




BhmiDBi 


tWen. 




pvAcn. 


. 28 


StaSold 


. 21 


. 27 


Kent. 


. 20 


. 24 


Bedford 


. 19 


. 23 


LiDooln 


. 18 


. 22 


Surre; 


■ 17 1 



DsrODihirs . 10 

ComiraU . 15 

Monmoath . 14 

Dnrhun . . 9 

CanUgwi. . 6 



F. — AvERAQB Rent of Parxb in Enoulnd. 



J701-60 . 
1761-80 . 
1781-1800 

1801-20 . 



Vimywd. 




£40 £ 


MeJow . . 


52 


TUbge . . 


86 


The official valuation of lands i 


igh) gave the following summary 


».^L7. 


frhou»Mi(U OmltUd). 


OrchKd. 


1,788 


Vintjmrdt 




5,446 


MMdom 




6,170 


Anble 




41,319 


Putnie, &c 




28,010 


Fonrt 




21.388 


Wute. 




17,616 




France (vrhich appear* 



ToUl . 116,631 



LAND. 



269 



H. — Land Valub in 17th Century (a.d. 1660). 

MiUion £. Per Acre. 



England 

Pnmoe 

HoUand 



Yalue. 

185 

122 

46 



B«Qta]. 

15 
4 



Value. 
£410 
14 
9 



BeutoL 
£0 6 
8 
15 



The above does not include houses (see Colbert's Letter to 
Louis XIY.) . 

L — Land Tenubb in United States. 



Aeree. 


No. of Furmt (TboutendiX 


Ratio. 1 

1 


IMO. 


1870. 


1880. 


18«0. 


1870. 


1880. i 


Under 20 . . 
20 to 50 . . . 
50 to 100 . . 
100 to 500 . . 
Orer 500 .. . 

Total . 


216 
617 
609 
487 
25 


467 

848 

754 

565 

20 


890 

781 

1,088 

1,696 

105 


Ill 
81-6 
81-2 
24-8 
1-8 


17-6 
820 
28-4 
21-8 
07 


9-8 1 
19-5 
257 
42-4 

2-6 


1,954 


2,654 


4,005 


100-0 


100-0 


1000 , 



K. — Land Tenure in Austraua. 





Land- 
owners. 


Bquattem. 


Millions of 
Acres. 


ATtngB FSrm 
(Acres). 


Free- 
hold. 


Sheep- 
Ruue. 


Free- 
hold. 


Squatter. 


New S. Wales . 
Victoria . . . 
New Zealand 
Sonth Australia . 
Queensland . . 
Tasmania . . . 
West Australia . 


39,900 
49,600 
24,100 
81,000 

9,500 
12,000 

1,800 


4,330 
612 
997 

1,472 

6,600 
500 

4,500 


25-5 
14-8 
4-1 
9-2 
4-6 
4-2 
17 


133-2 

14-8 

121 

115-0 

2390 

1-8 

24-0 


634 
821 
167 
296 
478 
853 
950 


80,700 
23,300 
12,050 
78,000 
86,000 
8,500 
5,300 


Total . 


167,900 


19,011 


64 1 ! 539-4 


884 


28,300 



Class. '^ 

Ist . 
2d . 
3d . 

Total 



L —Land-owners in France. 



Number. 

154,000 

686,000 

2,486,000 



8,226,000 



Averai^e 

Acres. 

820 


Area 

(MiUion Acres). 

48 


50 


82 


10 


23 



32 



103 



lyo 



LAND. 



Land-ownkbs in Franob — caniinued. 

Number of Properties. 



Tax. 
Over ^40 
£4 to £40 
Under £4 



^iSS!" 



1881? 



. 16,310 
. 480,000 
. 5,597,630 



1868. 

15,870 14,774 

466,000 600,000 

5,590,150 6,828,809 



Total • 6,093,940 6,072,020 6,942,974 

M. — ^Land-ownbbs in Gbbmant. 





Number. 


Aeree. 


Pmnia 


. 1,088,000, 


48 


Bavaria 


456,000 


25 


Saxony 


64,000 


50 


Wurtemborg 


152,000 


17 


Baden . 


111,000 


15 


Darmstadt . 


140,000 


10 


Goburg 
SmaUStates 


15,000 


88 


475,000 


40 


Total 


. 2,436,000 


87 


K— I 


lAnd-ownebs in 


Russia. 



(MiUlon Acres.) 
49 
11 

2i 
2 



'\ 



19 

88 



CUse. 


Number. 


Millions of Aei 
Arable. Forest,Ae. 


res. 
TotaL 


Aremge 

EaUU 

(Acree). 


Nobles . 
Cossacks 
Civilians 
Peasants 

Total 


103,000 

142,000 

240,000 

10,851,000 


60 

10 

6 

164 


132 

8 

82 

438 


192 
18 
38 

602 


2,000 

130 

160 

55 


11,886,000 


240 


610 


850 


75 



0. — Land-owners in Italy. 





Betatesi 


Acres. 


Area 

(MillioQ 

AcreoX 

19 

16 

21 

16 


Lombardj and Piedmont 
Tnscany and Romagna . 
Naples .... 
SioUy, &a 


1,180,000 
145,000 
120,000 
410,000 


16 
110 
180 

40 



Total . . . 1,865,000 39 72 

Almost one-half of Italy is farmed by the owners of the 
soil, as shown by the tenure, viz. : — 

1,140,000 proprietors farm 38,000,000 

1,248,000 meUyers „ 18,000,000 

310,000 tenanta „ 20,000,000 

The "metayer" system is adverse to improvement 



tt 



t* 



LAND. 



271 



P« — ^LAND-OWmSBS IN AUBTRUL 

Ettitaa. 



Aoftiia 
Bobemk 
GalitiiA 
Styria 

Tyrol 
GMiiitliift» fto. 

HoDgMry • 

Total 

Nobles 
PoMante . 

Total 



169,000 
190,000 
496,000 
184,000 
98,000 
118,000 
277,000 

1,506,000 
1,925,000 

8,481,000 

11,800 
8,420|000 

8,481,800 



ATerage 
Aerea. 

42 
65 
40 
40 
56 
68 
54 

50 
85 

41 

5,200 
28 

41 



(MiUion 
AeraaX 
8 

13 
20 

a 

7 

15 

74 
68 

142 

62 
80 

142 



Q. — ^Land Tenure in Belgium. 



Claaa. 

Small tenante . 
Small freeholda 
Middle aixe ditto 
Large estates . 

Total . 



ATaraga 

Acrea. 

10 

8 

40 

160 

15 



Holdinga. 

63,000 

270,000 

61,700 

4,000 

898,700 



(AcraaX 
640,000 

2,200,000 

2,500,000 

650,000 

5,990,000 



R — ^Land Tenure in Denmark. 



Holdan. 


Number. 


ATaraga 
Acras. 


Area 
(AcraaX 


Kobles . 


550 


2,500 


1,880,000 


Farmers 


1,180 


800 


860,000 


Bondsmen 


69,100 


60 


4,200,000 


Hunsmen 


. 187,000 


4 


560,000 



Total. 



207,830 



81 



6,500,000 



S. — Land Tenure in Sweden. 

Number. 



Kobles . 
Freeholders 
Tenants . 



2,650 

191,000 

40,000 



ATcraga 
Acrea. 

14,000 
200 
400 



(Million 
AcreiiX 

38 

88 

16 



Total 



238,650 



396 



92 



272 



LA ND-A CTS-'LA ND-O WNERS. 



LANDAOTS (IRELAND). 

let in 1850. Encumbered Estaiea In 30 yean ending 
December 1880 the Land Court sold 3,600,000 acres for 
£52,700,000, nearly £15 per acre. 

2nd in 1870. During 10 years down to 1880 the tenants 
bought 49,300 acres for £838,000, say £17 per acre. 

3id in 1881. The working during the first 12 months to 
August 1882, was as follows : — 



Old rent 

New ftdjudicfttkm 



£580,000 
£464,000 



ftdiudicated 25,849 

Acres affected . 710,000 

Griffith*! valuation . £421,000 

Tenants' interests have acquired an average value of £4 
per acre. 

LAND^&ANTS (UNITED STATES). 

From the year 1800 till 188rthe United States Govern- 
ment ceded 192 million acres of public lands to railways, 
77 million to schools, 62 million to military, and 30 million 
for other purposes, besides 248 million acres in sales to set- 
tlers (see page 273), this last item including 67 million 
granted in homestead lots at twopence per acre. 

LAND-OWNEBS IN UNITED KINQDOU 

A.— Over 150,000 Acres. 



Argyll, Duke . 175,000 

Atbol, Duke . . . 195,000 

Baillie,Evan . 166,000 

Berridge, Richaixl . 170,000 

Breadalbane, Marquis . 488,000 

Buccleuch, Duke . . 460,000 

Conjrngham, BdarquiR . 173,000 

Devonshire, Duke . 193,000 

Fife, Earl . . . 258,000 

HamUton, Duke . . 157,000 



Lovat, Lord . 
Mackenzie 
Matheson 
Middleton, Lord . 
Northumberland, Duke 
Portland, Duke 
Richmond, Duke . 
Ross, C AV. • . . 
Seafield, Earl 
Sutherland, Duke . 



B. — Rbntam Over £100,000 per Annum. 



Anglesea, Marquis . £107,000 

Bedford, Duke . . 142,000 

Buccleuch, Duke . . 231,000 

Bute, Marauis . . 232,000 

Calthorpe, Lord . . 123,000 

Derby, Earl . . . 170,000 

Devonshire, Duke 170,000 

Downshire, Marquis 100,000 

Dudley, Earl . . 123,000 



FiUwUliam, Earl 
Haldon, Lord 
Hamilton, Duke . 
Norfolk, Duke 
Northumberland, Duke 
Portland, Duke . 
Ramsden, L 
Sutherland, Duke 
Tredegar, Lord . 



162,000 
165,000 
627,000 

i,ooe,ooo 

18^,000 
162,000 
286.000 
167,000 
80e,000 
1,858,000 



£186,000 
109,000 
141,000 
270,000 
176,000 
140,000 
175,000 
142.000 
125,000 



LAND SALES. 



V3 



LAUD SALES. 

A. — ^Australian Crown 



New SoQtli Wales 
Victoria 
Kew ZeaUuid 
Boaih Anstralift 
Qneenslaiid 

WeftAustnOla 

ToUl . 



Acres Sold. 

14,802,000 

1,803,000 

2,360,000 

2,580,000 

2,820,000 

210,000 

151,000 

24,216,000 



Lands (1876-80). 

Annual Avenge. Aoret Unsold. 



2,800,000 
860,000 
470,000 
516,000 
564,000 
42,000 
80,000 



164,600,000 
44,090,000 
52,000,000 

570,000,000 

422,700,000 
12,640,000 

622,800,000 



4,782,000 1,888,830,000 



R— Other Colondw (1876-80). 

Acres Sold. Anntisl ATsnige. 

Gape of Good Hope . 7,530,000 1,560,000 

Ceylon .... 144,000 29,000 

Trinidad 38,000 7,000 

Katol .... 180,000 25,000 



Total 



7,837,000 



1,621,000 



C. — United States: Acres Sold. 



Sale of PMic Landi during 



DakoU 



Nebraska 

Minnesota 

Califomia 

Wisconsin 

Oregon 

Washington 

Michigan 

Arlcansas 

Alabama 

Colorada 

Florida 

Other SUtes 



187a-7«. 

1,478,000 

4,545,000 

3,258,000 

2,442,000 

3,334,000 

1,811,000 

1,016,000 

539,000 

2,054,000 

1,142,000 

796,000 

860,000 

570,000 

2,663,000 



10 Yean ending 

1877-81. 
8,190,000 
8,022,000 
4,220,000 
4,208,000 
2,602,000 

880,000 
1,001,000 
1,424,000 
1,107,000 
1,638,000 
1,280,000 

807,000 

718,000 
3,452,000 



Acres Unsold. 

56,900,000 

12,160,000 

790,000 

8,900,000 

78,750,000 



1881. 

10 Tears. 
9,668,000 
12,667,000 
7,473,000 
6,660,000 
5,836,000 
2,691,000 
2,017,000 
1,963,000 
3,161,000 
2,680,000 
2,075,000 
1,667,000 
1,283,000 
6,116,000 



Total . . 26,502,000 39,344,000 65,846,000 
Summary of United States Lands sold since 1800. 

Acres Sold. »^"?"i' ^"A**** ^!.«?P 

o«M*. ReceiTod, of Acres Sold. 

1800-20 . . 13,060,000 ^4,080,000 650,000 

1821-40 . . 72,430,000 16.882,000 8,620,000 

1841-60 . . 68,520,000 12,726,000 3,426,000 

1861-80 . 94,110,000 9,523,000 4,710,000 



80 yean 



248,120,000 



43,211,000 



3,100,000 
8 



174 LANGUAGES. 

tAlTOUAGES. 

A. — Spoken in 1801 (THOOBAtriM Oxittbd). 





BVlUh. 


1 


™^ 


•fulik. 


J2i" 


.^ 


U.Kli^on. . 


u.m 


30 


10 


fi 


j" 








16 


26,700 


1.180 


10 


2 






Gernuuv 




30 


aoo 


20.380 


2 






"30 


Ruttu 




2 


40 


430 


8 






29.600 


AtutrU 




1 


20 


<.3O0 


280 






1,100 


lUIy 






480 


8 


11,440 








Bp^ 






40 


1 


1 


10,230 


"20 




Portugal 






B 


1 


1 


SO 


3,030 




Holkad 




a 


80 


200 










Belgium 




3 


1,800 


100 










Scuidin.vi>. . 




10 


20 








"io 


SwiturUnd . . 

Europe . . 


1 


400 


1,400 


T2O 








HM8 


80.156 


30.004 


14,841 


10,286 


3,050 


80,730 


V. SUte* . . 


6.260 


230 


280 


6 


5 






Britiib colouiea 


680 


310 


20 


2 


2 






French „ . 


io 


460 


2 


2 


2 






SpuUhAniBHcii 


2 


10 


1 


3 


16,430 


"20 




BniU. . . . 


1 


a 


1 


1 


120 


4,180 




TheEut. . , 
The World . 


140 


290 


10 


220 


370 


250 


'*'*0 


20,621 


81,448^30,318 16,074 26.]94 


),4S0 130,770 


B.— Spo 


KN IS 1883 (TBOL-BANDa Oim 


irm). 




S5,a00l 100 ; 100, 40 10 


... 1 ... 


Prmii» . . . 


ISO :88.400 1 800 , 250 


20 




Oennuiy 




120 fl00!43.300; 10 


... 


:;: 


80 


En»d. 




10 200 1 3,700 10 


S 




83;200 






6 100 


11,800 1 4G0 


2 




3,230 


pr: 




10 640 


3 27.380 


1 


z 






4 60 


1 




18,890 


20 




Portunl 




2 10 


1 




30 


4,220 








B 20 


400 










Belsiimi 




15 3.820 


240 










&»ndiii>vii>. . 


3l 40 60 


'.'.'. 






s 


SwiWerland . , 
Europe . . 


5 1 808 ! 2,031 


182 








35,559 42.798 '62.488 


28,353 18,456 


4,240 tM.4»1 


V. SUUs . . 


60.300; 840 6.130 


180 1 370 


10 


30 


Britiih colonic* 


11,880,1,220, 80 


401 40 






French „ . 


30 2,360 1 10 


B0| SO 






Sptmiih America 


80 - 160 40 


880 !2a,!00 


'90 




Bruil. . . . 


2 20 80 


70 480 


8.130 




TbaEart. . . 


2.200 1 430 60 420 1 1.180 


870 


240 


Tb«W<i 


rid . 


BS,8« 47.818 (8,828 29,873 ;40.B3B 


H8I0;«.725| 



LANGUAGES. 

C — C0¥PAIUB0N BSTWSBH 1801 AND 1 





Bpokan hj UlUlaiu. 


Aliquot [VrU. 1 


1801. 


ua. 


1»1. 


ISM. 


f& ■ ■ 

CknnH ' 
ItoUu . . 

Total . . 


21 
82 
80 
16 
20 
8 
81 


100 
18 
69 
30 
41 
IS 
87 


12-g 

19'S 
18 '4 
9-3 

60 

18-9 


27-1 
lS-0 
18-8 

81 
11-4 

8-6 
lS-8 


183 


S6S 


100-0 


100-0 



— Lkrehb Emploted in LASQCAaBS (Prosx). 

EmlUh. Pranch. IttlluL epanlgh. I^ln. 0«n 



Total . 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000 

Where bluika occur it shows eitlier that the letter is not 

osed, 01 that the use does not teach 1 in 1000, such as "z" 

in English, or " x " in Spanish. The Spanish K, of which 55 

•re oaed, includes three " n," equivalent to " nj " in English. 



ijG LATITUDE AKD LONGITUDE. 

LATITUDE AXO LOHaXTUDB. 





IMtai*. 


WT 




Utltode. 




Al?i«ri. . 


36*8 N. 


Ure*^ . 


63-24 N. 


258W. 




51-2] „ 


4-68 „ 


LoDdoli . 


Sl-31 „ 


0-6 „ 


Antwerp . 


61-18 „ 


4-2S „ 


Madelr* . 


88-0 „ 


18fl „ 


AicbMig«l. 


6510 „ 


<3-0 „ 


Madiu . 


1812 „ 


80^1 E. 


AioniB. . 


asfl „ 


26-0 W. 


Madrid . 


40-28 „ 


8*0 W. 




33-20 „ 


44-24 E. 


UalU . . 


36-64 „ 


14-27 E. 


3B-15 .. 


76-30 W. 




G8-29 „ 


a-14 W. 


B«Uut. . 


64!« „ 


B-66 „ 


MMiIlla . 


14-86 H 


180-ME. 


BttHn 


62-83 „ 


13-26 „ 




«S'18 „ 


G-C8 „ 


Bomte* . 


19-2 N. 


7260B. 


Manrithu. 


20-16 S. 


67-0 „ 




45-0 „ 


0-20 W. 




87-62 „ 


]45'0 „ 


Borton . . 


*2a) „ 


71-9 „ 


MezlM. . 


1S80N. 


BS-9 W. 


BniBMla . 


GO'52 „ 


3-21 K 


Milan . . 


U-40 „ 


S'lOB. 




«-28 „ 


26-9 „ 


MontiMl . 


46-80 „ 


78-80 W. 


Buda-Pmth 


iT-31 „ 


lB-1 „ 


ttowow . 


66-40 „ 


87-28 E. 


B. Ayra, . 


81 39 S. 


68-22 W. 


Munich . 


487 „ 


11-36 „ 


C»ili« . . 


88-32 N. 


6-18 „ 


N^ilea. . 


40-52 „ 


1416 „ 


CWro . . 


30 5 „ 


31-45 E. 


N. Orteani 


30-7 „ 


eo-0 w. 


CaloutU . 


22-40 .. 


88-26 „ 


New York 


40-40 „ 


740 „ 


Canton- . 


2310 „ 


113-9 „ 




38-6 „ 


13-23 E. 


Cape Town 


31-30S. 


18-0 „ 


Faru . . 


48-52 „ 


2-21 „ 


Cuacu 


10-30 N. 


67-10 W. 


Fekin . . 


40-0 „ 


118-23 , 


CWcgo . 


42-0 „ 


8381 „ 


PhUadelplua 39-52 „ 


77-30 W. 


CindDuti 

Coiutuiti- 


89-0 „ 

iit 


84-1S „ 

28-58 E. 


cX'. '■ 


50-5 „ 
46-50 „ 


14-25 K 
72-0 \V. 


Dople . 


411 ,. 




0-7 a. 


7849 „ 




65-42 „ 


12-34 „ 


Rio Janeiro 


23fl ,. 


43-20 , 


Dsmetsn. 


6 -30 „ 


68-20 W. 


Rome . . 


41 53 N. 


12 28 E. 


Dmdeu . 


61-8 „ 


13-36 K 




61-55 „ 


4^ ., 


I>UfaliD . . 


63 21 „ 


6-17 W. 


HtLouii . 


3840 „ 


9012 W. 


F.lkI»iiJli 


65-57 „ 
61-30 S. 


3-12 „ 
68-0 „ 


St Peter.- 
burg. . 


69 40 „ 


81-0 E. 


Faroe h . 


62-0 N. 


7-0 „ 




87-6B „ 


121 59 W. 


Florence . 


43-45 „ 


11-16 E. 


Sierra Leon 


8-46 .. 


1310 „ 


Fnuibftrt . 


60 -8 „ 




?;sc:r.- 


1-27 „ 


103 48 E. 


Geneva. . 


482 „ 


B-9 „ 


69-20 „ 


18-0 „ 


Genoa . . 


44-30 „ 


e-0 „ 


K^. : 


84-0 S. 


151 13 E, 


GibrmlUr . 


88 8 „ 


6-20 W. 


28-30 N. 


17-0 W. 


Gla^aw . 


66-62 „ 


4-8 „ 


Toronto 


43-17 „ 


79-25 .. 


Guatemala 


14-0 „ 


88-0 „ 


Trinidad . 


10-60 „ 


61-16 „ 


Halifax 


44-30 „ 


6355 ., 


Tunii . . 


36-44 „ 


10-6 E. 




53-34 ., 


10-3 E. 


Turin . . 


45-5 „ 


7 44 , 


Havana . 


237 „ 


82-28 W. 


Valpani* 


83-02 a 


71-45 W. 


Hobart. . 


42-54 S. 


147-27 E. 


V«ioo. . 


45-27 N. 


12-26 K 


Jemj . . 


4B-16 N. 


2S W. 


TeraCrai 


19-80 „ 


M40W. 


Jer«;Lleni. 


81-48 „ 


85-10 E. 


Vtenna. . 


48 9 „ 


10-24 K 


Uma . . 


12-0 8. 


77* W. 


Warnw . 


6S'I6 „ 


21-0 „ 


Li.baB. . 


88-44 N. 


9-6 „ 


W.diingt«n 


u-u . 


77* W. 



LEAD—LEATHER. 



PBomKmoK OF Ubtaluo Lead (Tonb). 



GreittBrit^ 


48,000 


65,000 


&I,000 


£860,000 


Fnuoe 


1,100 


7.000 


32,000 


660,000 


G«in»7 . 


B,E0O 


16,000 






ISIt: : 


8,000 


12,000 










82,300 


1.660,000 




7,000 










ta 4,000 


6,600 


14,400 


260,000 


Europe , 


100,800 


lS4,fiO0 


290,200 


£6,280,000 


United Stitca 


8,700 


88,000 


88,000 


1,680,000 



Total . 104,300 170,600 370,200 £6,880,000 

Good lead oio gives 70 pet cent of lead, and in smelting 
it takes 2 tona of coal to produce 3 toua of lead The Cor- 
doba mines in Spain are said to be the richest in the world. 
The Missouti lead-field, near Chicago, ia 1^ miles in length, 
the ore giving 70 pet cent. lead. Ttie importation of lend 
into the United States fell from 42,000 tons in 1870 to 4,000 
in 1880 









MUIlow Lb*. LMUtw. 


llm..fKtui«lVmlM(Th«l»ud»>| 


Taw. 


ss 


teS" 


r^ 


Boiu. 


Eiport. 


ToUl. 


1805 . 


27 




27 


£8,000 


£15 


£6,015 


1820 






36 


12 


48 


9,000 


40 


9.040 


1S30 






40 


30 




12,600 


80 


12.680 


1810 






45 


37 


82 


14,200 


170 


14.370 


1850 






SO 


70 


120 


19,700 


610 


20,310 


1860 






56 


87 


142 


22.800 


2,130 


24,430 


1870 






60 


132 


192 


28,600 


2,040 


31,240 


1881 






65 


144 


20S 


30,100 


3,8!0 


34,080 



A cow-hide gives 35 lbs., a horse's 18 lbs. leathct. See Hidea, 



378 LEGACY RETURNS. 

LEaAOT RETUBVa 













MIIUouiB. 


1811-20 . 


. 26* 


S,40O 


18iI-60 . 


43-9 


4,420 


18Bl-;0 . 


. 73B 


6.870 


1880 


. 1187 


8,440 



The above does not inclode BQCceauon property, vhicli 
atDonnte to ftboat one-third of the former. 



B. — ^Leoaot ANT) SncoBSSioit Pbopebtt, Aim Dkatbs. 





wSE^i. 


tSSX 


s:ssts£ 


IMA 


ItTT. 


IHO. 


IJ7T. 


iM. [im. 


EngUiid 
Sootlud 
IraUnd 

United Kingdom . 


47-1 
81 
4-5 


107-9 

ie-1 

7-3 


360 
G4 
172 


601 
74 
64 


£131 ' £218 
66 1 217 
S6 78 


G47 


lSI-3 


GS6 


069 I £93 |£I97 1 



The returns for Scotland in 1840 did not include mort- 
gages, and if these were added, the averages wonld be 2i 
per cent higher, saj ;C70 per inhabitant instead of X6& 

C. — NviiBER OP Estates Pbovkd in 1877. 



OTer £20,000 


946 


126 


G9 


1.129 


£6,000 to 20,000 


2.784 


369 


169 


3,339 


1,000 „ S,000 


7,626 


1.282 


800 


9,687 


800 „ 1,000 


10,387 


1.645 


1,070 


13.002 


100 „ 300 


11,526 


1.022 


1,201 


13.749 



The number of persons who left property at their death, 
compared with the general deaths of the population in 1877, 
shows a ratio of 66 per 1000 in England, 68 in Scotland, 
and only 36 per 1000 in Ireland, or a general average of 
61 pet 1000 for the United Kingdom. 



LEGACY RETURNS. 
J). — Amounts Proved in 1877. 



BMtM. 










BooUiDd. 1 Inlud. 


U. Kingdom. 




Orer £20,000 

£5,000 to 20,000 

1,000 „ 5,000 

SOO , 1,000 

Under 800 

Total 


66-3 
27-4 

17-a 

60 
21 


8-8 1 a-9 
8-6 1-9 
S-8 1-7 
0-9 0-6 
0'2 1 0'2 


687 
82-8 

ai7 

7-6 
2-B 


107-9 1 lfl-0 7-3 


131-2 



I from the above tliat on^-Iialf of the wealth of 
the United Kingdom ia held by persona who leave at least 
£20,000 at death, and anlj ooe-tenth hj those whose estates 
are proved under £1000. The persons in eaaj circumstances, 
betveen £1000 and £20,000, represent 40 per cent of the 
wealth of the nation. 

E. — Ratio of Inhxritancbs akd SuccmetoHs. 



.^^ 




EDgUxL 


BcoUiod. 


i™u.d. 


V. Klugdoni. 


Orer £30,000 

£20.000 to 80,000 

10,000 „ 20,000 

6.000 „ 10,000 

1.000 „ 6,000 

600 ., 1.OO0 

800 „ 600 

JOO „ 300 

Total 


116 
73 
2-20 
S-36 
IS'26 
7-98 
127B 
23-06 


lis 

0'6G 
t'03 
288 
1705 
8-41 
12-47 
1S81 


0-37 
0-26 

0-81 
1-29 
S-18 
4*7 
6-87 
12 73 


104 
064 

1-97 
8-01 
lt'45 
7-61 
11 '8S 
20-62 


6662 


58-28 I 35-27 


61-03 



F. — EsTATsa IN Enolani) over £250,000. 
The aggregate of wiUa proved over J million sterling ii 
the post 10 years shows thus : — 



187S 


. £12.700 


1874 


6,600 


1876 . 


7,800 






1877 . 


7,400 



LEGACY RBTURtfS. 
Q. — Lbqaot BvrDBNS in France. 

PmUYbm 





ABienBtPnTCd, 


P<rD«tho( 




UilUoniA. 




8S0 . 


68 


£78 


840 . 


04 


76 


860 . 


81 


9» 


860 . 


. 109 


1» 


870 . 


. 186 


128 


880 . 


. SIO 


247 



H. — Fbance and Qrbat BBiTAni CovpABsa 

Amoont or PntKta, B>tla per DMth 

HUUoiuA. arPapakUoB, 

'iseo. iSS" 18«. ^^im£ 

FnuM . . .109 210 £130 £3*7 

Great Britain . 89 145 181 213 

XTnited Kingdotn . 95 164 160 2SD 

Keal ostate is in Fisuce only 49 per cent, whereas in 
Great Britain it forms 62 per cent, of the public riches. 

From the above table it would appear that the wealth of 
France is (greater than that of Great Britain, but this is not 
true. In the first place, the French include properties under 
£100, which we do not ; and in the second place, their death- 
rate being 15 per cent, hi^er than onrs, the transfet of 
property is 15 per cent, more rapid than in Great Britain. 

L — TMTAMENTiUtY EBTATBS IN HOLLAND. 

v„. Tilua, E*UniU«l Publk Per InhaU. 

**"■ MUUoiuije. WaaUi. MiUmoit. tuL 

1850 ... 13 380 £113 



From this it would appear that wealth has grown mor» 
rapidly in Holland than in the United Kingdom. See 
Table A. 

The components of Dutch testamentary estates in 18S0 

were as follows : — 



HooKi »iid Iftoils . 
Furnitnre uid bullion 
Shftrei, bontU, tcrip, Ac . 



i:n,«oo,ooo 

2,800,000 
15,80(^000 



LEGUMINOUS PLANTS'-LETTERS, 



281 



LBaUMINOXrS PLANTa 



Kurope • • • 


184 


South America 


605 


Levant . . . 


250 


Meditemoflm . 


468 


AnstralU . . 


229 


North Africa 


108 


United SUtet . 


183 


China . . . 


77 


Central Africa . 


130 


Merioo • • . 


152 


East Indies 


452 


South Africa 


895 


Wertlndiet. . 


221 


Siberia . . . 


129 


IsUnda . . . 


42 



LEMONS. — Italy has 4,800,000 treea, which produce 
1260 million lemons per annum. 

USPSOST.— There are in Norway 2180 lepers. The 
numbers in Spain and Italy are considerable. In the 
Sandwich Islands the disease is so prevalent that the island 
of Molokai is set apart for lepers, who are und^r the direction 
of a French priest In the Seychelles Islands leprosy is also 
common. 

In Cyprus a leper-farm was established in 1830, one mile 
from Nicosia: area 100 acres, tillage 11 acres; house of 26 
rooms occupied by — 



Greeks. 

Turks . 

Total 



44 

2 

46 



Males • 
Females 

Total 



83 

13 

46 



Death-rate, 16 per cent, per annum; new patients, 14 in 
the year (1879). All very clean. Five married couples; 
two have children quite healthy, but rest are childless. All 
the lepers have lost fingers. One woman of 80 has been 
there 50 years. 



countries is shown as follows : — 







Number 


Ooontry. 


Millions. 


per 
Inhsb. 


England • 


1,220 


44 


Scotland . 


127 


83 


Ireland 


91 


18 


United Kingdom 


1,438 


40 


United SUtes . 


1,155 


22 


Franoe 


595 


15 


Germany . 


721 


16 


Swed. and Nor. . 


46 


7 


I>enmark . 


25 


13 


Portugal . 


16 


* 



rculation in 


I the principal 






Number 


Coontry. 


Millions. 


per 
Inhsb. 


Russia . 


110 


H 


Austria . 


483 


13 


l"^?' ' 


106 


7 


Spam . 
Holland 


71 
71 


4 

18 


Belgium 


91 


17 


Switzerland . 


65 


24 


Canada . 


57 


13 


Australia 


36 


12 


Japan . 


48 


2 



A. — PuBUO Ti-T""-"""* or ALL CoxntTBos. 





Lttrulot 


TolM. (TbooMHll). 


StfflSl 






W». 


IBM. 


.m 


im 


1»M. 


IMSl 


United Kingdom 


28 


202 


],H3 


8,770 


8 


11 


TiMce .... 








7.2*8 


11 


IB 


OtnD»iLj . . . 




6H 


8,068 


4.070 




9 










960 


1 


1 


Anrtri*. . . . 


il 


677 


2,19s 




7 


U 


SpuQ a^ Port. '. 


iS 


IBS 


2,27* 


4,342 


11 


16 


21 


SO 


ses 






8 




13 




406 


1,319 


22 


U 




10 
10 


lOS 
220 


400 
S30 


SIO 

800 


S 
11 


11 
20 


Europe . . . 


IS 


B4 


ses 


1.260 


18 


17 


SfiS 


*,879 


18,614 


81,592 


7 


10 


Total . . . 








2.2S3 


2 


4 


*08 


*,738 


17.2U 


33,855 


• 


S 



The above does nut include any libraries with leas than 
10,000 volumes (except possibly Uiose of SwitzetUnd), nor 
school libraries, of which there ace 23,000 in the United 
States, with 45 million books. 



S — Principal Libbarieb of the World. 



Copenhagea . 
Gottliuceu 
Oifonf . . 



Aator, New York . 100 

The Lbrary of the British Museum has 32 miles of shelves 
filled with books, and is visited by 91,000 readera yearly. 
The Bibliotheque Impeciole of Paris has 18 milea of books 
and 37,000 readers yearly. 



BdtI.hUu»um 


Imperial, Pvia 


Si. Fetenburs 




Uauich. 






Vieona . 






Iiraden 






Vrtiowi. 









VoU. 




,120 


41 


2,078 


86 




84 


740 


15 


810 


24 


420 


21 


GOO 


4 


840 


82 



fi 



A. — Exnaiaion at Vahiods Aocs, ih Years. 

nwlwHL O.SUta*. Bdcfan. BdOmd. Suwt. 8w 
JV-3 487 44-S <S-5 47-0 4 



B. — EznotATiON AGCoaDiNO TO Sex: Years to Live. 



C— IUPBOVED EXPBCTATIOH 


IN ESOLAND (HoitPHIlBTfl). 




P«. 


on*. 


Ibla. 


nm.].. 1 






























wsa-M. 


tBT«-SO. 


1S38-M. 

39-91 




19S8-M. 


18T8-80. 




40SS 


43-56 


41-92 


4185 


46-2G 


6 „ 








5002 


52-66 


4971 




60-33 












47 SS 




47-06 


4S-16 


47-67 


60-32 










43'54 




43-lB 


43-94 


43-90 


4616 


20 „ 








3»'88 


40-98 


39-48 


39-88 


40-29 


4210 


25 „ 








86-67 


87-21 


36-12 


3606 


37-04 


38 36 


35 „ 










30^1 


29-40 


28-88 


30-59 


31-12 


45 „ 








23*1 


23 2S 


2279 


22-34 


24-06 


24 21 


55 „ 








1694 


1676 


16 45 


]6'09 


17-43 


17-37 


65 „ 








1117 


1119 


10-82 


10-78 


11-51 


1156 


7S « 








672 


6-81 


6-4B 


8 52 


6-93 


7-04 


Dpwwd* . { 


8-87 


400 


3-73 


378 


3-98 


416 



284 



LIFE. 



D. — Expectation according to Condition. 

Tatts to LIt6. 



^ge. 


Gontry. 


Fiarm 
Ltbourem 


20 


. 88 


48 


80 


. 81 


41 


40 . 


• 24 


88 


50 


• 18 


25 


60 


. 12 


18 



Sober. 


Int«mper«t». 


40 


14 


84 


18 


27 


10 


20 


8 


14 


6 



E. — ^EXFSCTATION ACCORDING TO PROFESSION (EnGLAND). 

WUl Jteaeh 70 Yean of Agt, 





Per 




Per 




Fer 




Cent 




Cent 




Ccnu 


Fbytieiaiui . 


. . 24 


ClerkB . . , 


. . 29 




. 33 


Teachers . 


. . 27 


. . 82 


Fftrmers . . 


. 40 


Artiflts . . 


. . 28 


Soldiers . . 


. . 82 


Clergy. . . 


. 42 



F. — American Life-Average for Professions (Boston). 



Shopmen . 
Waggoners 
Labourers. 
Seamen . 



41-8 


Mechanics 


. 47-8 


48-6 


Merchants 


. 48*4 


44-6 


Lawyers . 


. 52^ 


461 


Farmers • 


. e41i 



G. — Improved Survivals in England (Humphreys). 





Persona. 


Males. 


Femalesk 


■Ages. 
















1838-^54 


1876-80. 


18S8-M. 


187»-«). 


1838-^ 


1876-«>. 


No. bom 


10000 


1000-0 


1000-0 


1000-0 


1000*0 


1000*0 


5 years. 


736-8 


750-9 


723-7 


786-4 


750*6 


766-0 


10 . 






702-6 


726-8 


689-9 


7121 


715-8 


742 


16 , 






684-6 


714-6 


672-8 


7001 


696*9 


729*3 


20 , 






662-8 


6991 


651-9 


684-9 


6741 


718*8 


25 , 






634-0 


677-5 


624-2 


668*8 


644*3 


691*7 


85 , 






572-0 


6281 


664-4 


608-1 


579*9 


6387 


45 , 






502-9 


650-6 


495-8 


630-8 


610*4 


671H> 


55 , 






4211 


462-1 


409-5 


4363 


433-8 


489*9 


65 , 






309-0 


833*4 


294-6 


803 9 


824-2 


368*9 


75 , 






1611 


178-1 


1481 


151-5 


174*8 


195*5 


85 , 






38 6 


421 


83-0 


33-9 


444 


607 


95 , 






2-2 


2-6 


1-6 


17 


2*7 


8*5 



LIFE-ANNUITIES^LIPE-INSURANCE, 



285 



II. — Tai3le of Survivals of 1000 Persons Born. 





Age 10. 


Age 80. 


Age 60. 


Age 70. 


M«l«. 


Female. 


Male. 


Female. 


Male. Female 


Male. 


Female. 


England 
France . 
Belgium 
Prmia. 
Spain . 
Norway 


864 
884 
342 
813 
272 
886 


862 
847 
850 
826 
288 
394 


305 
287 
283 
274 
224 
839 


299 

297 
288 
288 
239 
852 


288 
233 

202 
213 

188 
278 


231 
240 
208 
225 
199 
292 


114 
120 
90 
97 
104 
163 


124 
129 
110 
109 
121 
186 



L — Kaco'er's Table of Rich akd Poos. 

Bwnival of 1000 Bom, 



Agtt. 
5 
10 
20 



Rich. 

948 

938 

886 



Poor. 
655 
598 
566 



Age. 
40 
60 
70 



Ricfa. 


Poor. 


695 


896 


398 


172 


235 


65 



LUE-AdKjn uiTISS. — Thia system of iiuBurance is common 
in Fnmce, where the annuity-fund in 1881 amounted to 
16 millions sterling, and the new annuities purchased yearly 
avenge a capital value of J&900,000. The annuities now 
running ayeiage as follows : — 





Per 




Par 




Annum. 




Annum. 


liilitary officers. 


. £95 


Physicians 


. £56 


Naval do. . 


. 90 


Farmers . 


. 40 


Men of property 


. 62 


Workmen 


. 36 


CiTil ■ervice 


60 


Servants . 


. 26 


See Insurance. 









LIFEBOATS.— There are 272 in the United Kingdom, 
maintained hy voluntary donations amounting to £43,000 
per annum. They are manned hy 12,000 voluntary seamen, 
the coxswain alone heing paid, to mind the hoat Since their 
estahlishment in 1824 these hoats have saved 29,608 lives, 
and in 1882 they saved 23 vessels and 884 lives. 

Lifehoats were established in France by the Empress 
Eugenie in 1866, and are now in use at 37 exposed points 
of coast 



LIFE-INSU£ANC£ See Inmrance 



386 



LIGHT— LIGHTNING. 



LIQHT. — It requins 50 lbs. of tallow candles to produce 
as nmcb light as 1000 cubic feet of gas. Dr. Frankland'a 
table (1866) of the cost of light was as follows : — 

Qxtfar 



Ona gallon puaffin oil . 
BqnirBlmit anaant of giu 
SS toUow oandlM . 
10 puaffia „ 



orUcU. 



^e electric light has been found at the Kensington 
Museum to cost much less than gas. See EUctrie. 

LIOHTHOmES. — The number has quadrupled sines 
1830, viz. :— 

iool itta. itTO. iML 
United Kingdom 

Germuij . 

lUly 

Spain and Portugml . 

Belginm and HoUand 

ScandiDarift 

Greece and Tarke; . 

Europe . 
United SUt« . 
Canada 

Spanish America 
Wert Indiea 
Africa 
Auatralia , 



UOHTNINa, KILLED B7. 

YeiTlj Vt< 




uxnof. 

A. — LiNEir MAirnFAcroBB op all Natioks. 





8pi>»U.h 


Pow«. 


r^'' 


tTnitod EitisdMn 


i,*a6 


46 


m 


Vnooa 7 . 


782 


SS 


66 




827 


8 


86 


IUi-1. . . 


14S 


2 


40 


Aortri. . . 


416 


a 


80 




ei 


1 


10 


Bolginm uid HolkiMl 


3se 


8 


80 


UnitadBUtM . 


IS 


7 


80 



2-6 
ToUi . SfiOfI 97 868 43-1 

B. — Link:) Kakupactubi in Irkland. 

FaniM Vila* of 

TiliM, wr Kuulkitun 

Tud. p«r iBbab. 

£208,000 6 26 pcnoe 

1,080,000 14-5' 9S „ 

2,220,000 122 102 „ 

2,831,000 0-1 76 „ 

5,688,000 7-0 SS8 „ 

a "bounties," ia 1833, was folloneii 
hj a gT«at increase of production, and the introduction of 
atesTn-power bj Uessra. Mulholland had a farther happy 
efTect. The number of powei-looma has lisea from 30 ia 
1867 to 19,200 in 1883. 



Tor. 






1720. 


4i 


1786 . 




1806 . 


44 


1838. 


. 71 


1880. 


. 160 


The abo 


ition of th 



c. 



LmsN Indubtbt op United Einqdom. 
uoiw. v^ "till™ 



ll^S^U WiWonTd^ 'ilSr 



Ull^uT' , 



1808 . 


48 


74 


8 




£3,820,000 


1820 . 


87 


131 


40 




6,880,000 


1830 . 


138 


206 


62 




7.816,000 


1840 . 


210 


286 


87 


13 


10,790,000 


1850 . 


248 


841 


120 


18 


12,624,000 


1860 . 


828 


290 


144 


31 


11.418,000 


1870 . 


291 


413 


226 


13 


16,190,000 


1881 . 


227 


SIO 


174 


18 


11,706,000 


D.— Links 


Factories 


OF United Kingdom 


(1879). 




No. of 


Spladlu. 


Power- 




EnglMid . . 


. 101 


101.000 


4,100 


16,000 


SootUnd . 


. 166 


266,000 


16,800 


87,000 


IitUnd . 


. 144 


809,000 


19,600 


68,000 


ViOUi 


Eingdom. 400 


1,285,000 


40,500 


108,000 



LIQVOR DUTIES— LIVING. 



UQUOB DUTIES. 



EngUDd . 


lB,Md 






IreUnd . 




U. Kingdoro 


2e,SG( 




16,712 


GenoMiy . 


6,723 




27,808 


Aiutrift . 


i.m 



TbDiuniid*^ PirlnhA 



Ho^d 


1.116 


1.827 


Bd«lnQ> 






813 


Norw.j 


sie 




204 




1,196 




17,700 



B. — LiQnoB Dus in Ukitbd Eimodoh. 



877 



Splriu. 

8,i7S 
8,162 
2,691 



United KingJom . 6,767 14,228 6,869 2B.654 

The liquor trade in the TTnited Kingdom employs 646,000 
persona, and a capital of 117 millions sterling. 

LIVINO, COST OP. 



A. — Dajli Expbnditdrk. 




B. — Gbntlbuan'b Family in London. 



8emnU(2) . 
CMhing 
BRkd . 
Mnt 

Wiaei . 

Daii7 

Coal and Ught 

WaaUog 

SnndHM 

IVttal . jUOS £565 £6S0 
Familj of 5 persona, besides 2 servants. 

C. — Tradxbman'b Familt (Bristol). 



Clothing ... 10 12 12 16 

Bn*d ... SO HI ' 20 10 

Mmt ... 10 14 20 28 

Grocorie* ... 10 15 20 22 

Suudriai ... 10 13 15 19 

Tat*J £70 £90 £1U5 £120 

D- — EsflLigH Labourkr and Mechanic. 





Laboiirsr. 


Hocbwilc. 


17M. 


laaa. 


im. 


£ia 
i 

3 
17 

£42 


IBM. 1 IBS). 

£20 £22 
8 8 
4 6 
22 24 

£52 £60 


Bread, meat, Ac 

Rent .'.'.'. 
Clothing, kc . 

Total . 


£1S 

2 

? 

£27 


£17 
S 
3 


£20 
6 

t 
8 


£31 


£37 



E.— Eblativb Class F^xPEUDnuiiK (1880). 






1 


Mlddlo. 


62 
23 

15 


REch. 


Ulddla. 

53 
23 

24 


WorklLJ.; Rich. 


Food .... 
RcDt .... 

Sundrita . . . 

Total . 


41 

15 


67 
30 
13 


42 

10 
48 


68 
IS 
24 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 



F.— CoBi OF Workmkn's Food (1860). 



SblUlnea par Wuk. 



Gn«tBriUin . 




W 




14 


4S 




Vnnea 






21 




12 


a 




OeimuiT 






Ifl 




10 


63 




Belgimn' . 






20 




12 


M 




luly . 






IS 







SO 




t^JUdStot 


M . 




IB 




10 
16 


63 
S3 










40 




11 


29 




G.— Ant 


■ban's Family 


IN 


PARia 


(1882). 






Totkl; 








Bread 


to Ok. 




BO 


penM 


£19 10° 





Meat, fish . 


10 » 




63 




18 





Cbeae 


2 .. 




IB 




8 8 





Milk . . 


7piut> 




21 




4 





WiM . . 


7 „ 




85 




7 a 







Hlb*. 




SI 




4 10 





Cuff« 


lib. 




1* 




S 





Sugar and ult 






7 




1 10 





Fuel and light 






10 




2 3 





Clothing . 






S4 




S t 





Rent,2toom> 








30 




10 






Total . ... XI 7 8 £71 17 

An artisan and wife earn usually ;CT8 per annum. 
H.— Cost of Living in Fbakce and in Paris. ^ 





Per A 


»u». 


lutto. 1 


















Tract. 


iwto. 


1789 . 


£16 


£29 


100 




1826 . 


IS 








1840 . 


19 


48 


100 


SGI 


1880 . 




111 


too 


280 


1880 . 


61 


135 


100 


265 



I. — KUESIAN FlfiHERUAK's FaHILT. 

(RoubleB = 3m. etch.) 



Game, 200 Iba, 



Kji, ] Ion 
Taxes . 

Clotliing 



LLAMAS-SLOANS. 



391 



K — French Noble Familt (1679). 

HOUM 



Meftt . 

Bread . 
Wine • 
Btittar. 
SimdrUa 



Total 



£44 
20 
20 
86 

120 

£240 





Par 




Annum. 


Food, &a 


. £240 


Rent . 


40 


Wages. 


40 


Operai ke, . 


. 120 


urem, ke, • 


. 160 



Total 



£600 



Family comprised the Count, Conntcss, 7 male and 3 
female eeryants; and Mme. de Maintenon writes to the 
CountesBi " My dear sister, you can liye like a princess on 
£600 a year." 

TiTiAMAR — There are 4 millions in Peru, mostly em- 
ployed as beasts of burden. The skin weighs 6 lb&, gives 
18 feet of leather, and is worth 20 shillings. 

LLOTira. — See Insurance, 

LOANS. — The total of foreign loans quoted on the Lon- 
don Stock Exchange in 1825 amounted to no more than 
105 millions sterling. They have increased 22-fold. 



A. — Loans Quoted in 1881. 



Anstralia . 






. 94 


Austria 






. 237 


Belgium 






. 27 


Brazil . . 






. 22 


Canada . 






. 28 


Ceylon . 






1 


Chili . . 






7 


China . . 






2 


Colombia , 






. 10 


CoitaKica 




8 


Denmark 


• < 




1 



Egypt . 
Franca . 
Germany 
Greece . 
Holland . 
H<»iduras 
India . . 
Italy . . 
Japan 
Meiioo . 
Norway . 



84 

801 

30 

11 

80 

8 

83 

290 

2 

28 

4 



Paraguay . 


. . 8 


Peru , . , 


. . 82 


Portugal . . 


. . 88 


Russia . . . 


. 145 


River Plate . 


. . 24 


Roumania 


. . 1 


Spain . . . 


. . 176 


Sweden • 


. . 8 


South Africa 


. . 12 


Turkey . 


. . 144 


United SUtet 


. 804 



The above amounts do not represent in all cases the 
^vhole of the external debt, much less the entire public debt 
of the various countries, for which see Debt, 

Tlie total of British capital in foreign loans and railways 
is estimated to be 1058 millions sterling. See Invfstments. 



B.— British War Loams (1756-1816). 



1768-63. . 
17T6-M. . 
178S-IS1S . 



00,670,000 
111,687,000 
618,401,000 

7»3,761,000 



G9,GO0,000 
»3,70O,00O 
iSS,000,000 



8,316,000 
6,01S.OOO 
83,»87,000 

80,711,000 



The fiist aeries, ending 1763, wu for the conquest of 
Canada, the average interest being 3-9. The second, ending 
1784, was for the war in the United States, and the thiid 
iDoetly for the wars against Buonaparte, the interest in both 
Guses averaging 64 on the net amount 



C, — Loans Goabastebd bi British Goverhkent. 





OriglDil Sum. 


B,l.n« in 1881. 


RasaUQ Dutch . 


£2,000,000 


£650,000 


Ctnada 


6,300,000 


6,300,000 


New ZeJ»nd . 


2,000,000 


2,000,000 


Turkey . 


6,000,000 


3,800,000 


Grmce . . 


800,000 




We*t ladlM 


886,000 


359,000 


Irish Church 


10,700,000 


7,100,000 


Bwud of Worlt) 


7,830,000 


1.388,000 


ToUl 


£35,618,000 


£21,807,000 



Pull 

Dewimi 
BelgioiD 



D.— French Loan of 1872. 

Saiuribid StiUiant £. 

. 610 ' England . 
156 I Qennuij' . 
. 360 lUl; Bad Switierlud 



The Bubscriptiona amounted to twelve times the requited 
sum. 



LOCOMOTIVES^LODGINGS IN PARIS. 



293 



LOOOMOnV£& 



Annual Traffic per LooomotlTOi 





Number 
in 1880. 


Passengers, 


Goods, Tons 


United Kingdom 


18,480 


97,800 


81,500 


United States . 


. 17,790 


22,200 


23,600 


GermAny . 


9,400 


48,000 


80,100 


Frmnce • 


6,220 


61,600 


21,200 


AoBtriA • 


8,600 


18,800 


25,800 


Ruflsift 


8,560 


20,500 


16,500 


Italy 


1,900 


85,200 


9,700 


Other oonntries 


7,460 


85,400 


14,700 



Total 



63,320 



48,030 



25,400 



For passenger trains a locomotive bums one ton of coke 
per 80 miles, and for goods trains per 40 miles. The con- 
sumption in the United Kingdom is equal to 6 million tons 
of coal per annum, and the railways of the world bum 25 
million tons, although wood is used in some countries. An 
ordinary locomotive, say 300 horse-power, will cost X2000, 
and during its life run about 200,000 miles, say 13,000 
miles per annum for 15 years. One house at Berlin, that of 
Mr. Borsig, has tumed out 4000 locomotives since 1840, in 
which year Mr. Borsig began with a capital of £1500, lent 
him by a friend : he employs 10,000 workmen. 

The most powerful locomotives in the world are on the 
Chicago railway : 50 tons weight, 61 feet long, tender 3000 
gallons, cylinder 18 x 24 inches, with 6 feet driving- wheeL 

LOCUSTS. — In Russia 600 soldiers can sweep one ton of 
locusts into ditches per day, and destroy them. In Cypms 
the peasants destroy annually 60 tons of locust eggs, equal 
to 680 million locusts, at a cost of £2400, say £40 per ton. 

LOCUST-TREE. — ^The carob or algarroba covers 19,000 
aci*es in Cyprus, averaging 30 trees per acre. Average crop 
25,000 tons, worth £75,000, most of which goes to Scotland 
to be made into whiskey. 

LODOXNGS IN PARIS. 

Ordinary Rent per Annum. * 







Unfumiahed. 




1 


room. 


suburbs . 


. £8 


2 


rooms, „ . 


12 


2 


)» 


Passy 


16 


2 


»i 


Madeleine 


20 


2 


n 


R. Kivoli . 


30 


8 


n 


ft • 


50 



Furnished (BouleTmrds). 
3 room^ 5th flat . . £160 



3 
3 
3 
4 
5 



it 
If 
II 



II 



II 



II 
II 



4th 
3d 

2d „ . 

R. Rivoli 

i» • 



200 
250 
800 
400 
600 



294 



LONDON. 



LONDON. 



A. — Growth op London. 



Yaar. 


ThouMndfl. 


Miles of 
Streets. 


Yalue id Houae Pnqwrtjr. 


Population. 


Hoiuea. 


MiUionti^ 


PerHooee. Per lahabi 

1 


1801 . 
1811 . 
1821 . 
1881 . 
1841 . 
1851 . 
1861 . 
1871 . 
1881 . 


959 
1,139 
1,379 
1,655 
1,948 
2,362 
2,804 
8,254 
8,815 


180 
155 
170 
197 
256 
801 
869 
445 
520 


470 

560 

610 

700 

905 

1,050 

1,290 

1.550 

1,740 


67 
82 
96 
124 
174 
229 
806 
484 
601 


£513 
528 
567 
630 
677 
762 
828 
975 

1,156 


£70 

72 

70 

76 

89 

97 

110 

133 

158 



B. — Comparison of London and Paris. 



Year. 


Population, 
Tuousands. 


Increase per Annum, 
Thousands. 


Ratio to Population 
cif Nation. 


London. 


Paris. 


London. 


Paria, 


London. Pi«ria. 


1801 . . 
1821 . . 
1841 . . 
1851 . . 
1861 . . 
1871 . . 
1881 . . 


959 
1,879 
1,948 
2,362 
2,804 
3,254 
3,815 


553 
724 
935 
1,053 
1,696 
1,761 
2,226 


• • ■ 

21 
29 
41 
44 
45 
56 


• • • 

8 
11 
12 
61 

7 
46 


611 
6-60 
7*21 
8-60 
9-67 
10-30 
10-90 


2-01 
2-40 
2-78 
8-01 
4 67 
4-75 
5-87 



London has 11,040 police, 11,260 cabs, and 1620 omni- 
buses: the cabs and busses carry 73 million passengers 
yearly. The meat consumption includes 330,000 oxen, 
2,100,000 sheep, and amounts altogether to 210,000 tons per 
annum. There are 220 deaths and 360 births daily, being 
a natural increase of 140 persons, but the increase of popu- 
lation averages 200 daily, the difference being caused by 
immigration. Of all deaths 21 per cent occur in hospital, 
and cdmost 4 per cent (3*7) are violent deaths, say 10 daily. 
There are 5550 coroners' inquests yearly, and 3580 persons 
killed or wounded by cabs. About 120 adults are missing 
every year, and 50 dead bodies are not identified. The num- 
ber of stray dogs taken up is 29,500 per annum. The com- 
merce of London in 1882 was a little over 200 million ster- 
ling — that is, imports and exports. (gT 

For municipal expenditure, &a, see Finaneet^ Tablo K. 



LORDS— L UXURIES. 



295 



LORDS. — The House of Lords comprises 4 princes, 23 
dukes, 19 marquises, 139 carls, 32 viscounts, 26 bishops, 
and 272 barons; in all 515 members. 

L0TTERIE8. — ^The Spanish lottery gave a net profit of 
£403,000 in 1882. 

The Italian and Austrian lotteries produced as follows : — 



Italy. 



Austria. 



1868. 1877. 1868. 1877. 

Receipts . £2,420,000 £2,705,000 £1,880,000 £2,172,000 
Ezpemes . 1,670,000 1,713,000 850,000 1,160,000 



Profit 



£750,000 £992,000 £530,000 £1,012,000 



LUXURIES. 

A. — Consumption in the United Kingdom. 





Qua 


ntity, MillloQs. 


Value, MilUona £. 


1860. 


1870. 


18S0. 


18G0. 


1870. 


1880. 


Wine, gallons . 
Tea, Ibfli. . 
Coffee, „ . . 
Sugar, „ . . 
Tobacco, „ . . 

Total . . . 


7 

78 

36 

957 

36 


15 

120 

31 

1,740 

41 


16 

161 

32 

2,239 

49 


2-2 
5-9 
1-2 
12-4 
11 


4-1 
9 
0-8 
17-6 
1-6 


60 
8-8 
1-3 
22-2 
20 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


22-8 


331 


40-3 



B. — Ratio per iNHABrrANT. 







Quantity. 




Value, Pence. 


I860. 


1870. 


1880. 


1860. 


1870. 


1880. 

46 
67 
10 
155 
15 


Wine, gallons . 
Tea, lbs. . . 
Coffee, „ . . 
Sugar, „ . . 
Tobacco, oz. . . 


0-25 
2-70 
1-25 
83-0 
20-0 


0-48 
3-80 
1-0 
55-0 
21-0 


0-45 
4 55 
0-92 
64-0 
23-0 


18 

48 

10 

105 

9 


82 

70 

6 

135 

12 


190 


255 


293 



296 



MA CHINERY^MAIZB. 



M 
MAOHINEBY. 

1. A sewing-machine does the work of 12 women. The 
United States export 105,000 of these machines yearly. 

2. A Boston "bootmaker" will enable a workman to 
make 300 pairs of boots daily. In 1880 there were 3100 
of these machines working in yariotis countries, turning out 
150 million pairs of boots yearly. 

3. Glenn's California reaper will cut, thresh, winnow, and 
put in bags the wheat of 60 acres in 24 hours. 

4. The Hercules ditcher, Michigan, removes 750 cubic 
yards or 700 tons of clay per hour. 

5. The Darlington borer enables 1 man to do the work 
of 7 in making a tunnel, and reduces the cost to one-third 
of work done by hand; it also permits a week's work to 
be done in 2 days. See Tunnels, 

MADDER — The best is grown near Avignon, on irrigate<l 
lands, for which the tenants pay £b an acre rent. Average 
crop, 2 tons per acre, worth £50, leaving small profit to the 
cultivator. 



IWrATT^R, 


A. 


United SUtes . 

Austria 

lUly. 

Spain and Portugal . 

Canada 

Australia . 


Acres. 

. 62,550,000 

5,400,000 

. 4,200,000 

2,000,000 

700,000 

200,000 



Total 



75,050,000 



Million 
Biialiels. 

1,470 

84 

85 

50 

20 

6 

1,715 



Per Acre. 

16 
20 
25 
80 
80 

23 



No crop suffers less from drought, or gives better returns 
in a suitable climate. The yield in Paraguay and Brazil 
often reaches 300 for 1. 



Tear. 

1850 
1860 



B. — Maize Crop op UNrrED States. 

Million 
BuAhela 
. 592 

... Ou9 



Ti 

1870 
1880 



Million 



761 
1,756 



It is mostly used for fattening pigs. 



MALT—UANUFACTURES. 



A. — COKSDXFTIOK IN ENGLAND, FEIt AkKUU. 



1700-20 . 

1720-EO . 

17S0-80 . 
1790-1800 

] SI 0-20 . 

1S30-G0 . 

1850-70 . 



B. — CoNacHPTioN IN United Kinodoil 





UiUlou Biuhtli. 


Bu>hgI>|»Tlnl.>blUDt.' 


IMO. 


IWt. 


1881. 


18Ml 


1801. 1 isei. 


EDgUod . . . 
Scotland. . . 
Inlud . . . 

V. Kingdom . 


882 

I'D 
1-2 


88-7 
22 
27 


at 

2-7 

2-8 


1-S7 
0-3* 
0-18 


1-8* 

071 
0-49 


1-71 
073 
O'M 


301 


ise 


19-9 


110 


1-45 


rj3 



HAinTFAOTUKES. 

A. — Textiles and llARDWAnB. 





T>l>»,Hmiolu£. 


lUw V^erltl, 
Lbi. p« iDbab. 


viioBorl 

Hinnfw- 


TciHlM. 


Hirdwm. 


Tot.L 


Flbn. 

71 
28 
22 

61 
19 


420 
122 
123 
18 
80 
8 
15 
303 
92 
65 


U. Kingdom . 
Fnnce . . . 

SST': : 

Anrtrik . . . 
Itd;^ . . . . 

Hofiud . . . 

Europ. . . . 
UnlWdSUM . 

Total. . . 


195 
111 
70 
H 
41 
20 
20 
21 
6 
13 


127 
12 
51 
13 
U 
3 
4 
15 
3 
S 


322 
153 
121 

e? 

62 
23 
21 

36 
8 
19 


X9-1 
4-0 
2-7 
0-8 
1-6 
0-8 
1-6 
7fl 
2-0 
1-5 


.150 
122 


276 

63 


825 
205 


I', 


80 
211 


27 
4-0 


672 


358 1 1,030 ■ 20 


101 


29 1 



298 



MANUFACTURES. 



T>. — Textilb Mandpactdres. 



1 
1 






MimoQsA. 




1 
1 


1 


Cottons. 


Woollens. 
46 


Linens, 
Ac. 


BUks. 


Sun- 
dries. 


T«>tsl. 


n. Kingdom 


95 


21 


7 


26 


195 


France . . . 


20 


43 


9 


27 


12 


111 


Grermany . . . 


24 


26 


5 


7 


8 


70 


Russia. . . . 


18 


23 


5 


2 


6 


54 


Austria . . . 


13 


11 


8 


4 


5 


41 


Italy .... 


8 


5 


1 


3 


8 


20 


Spain .... 


9 


8 


• • • 


1 


2 


20 


United SUtes . 


54 


43 


4 


6 


15 


122 


Other countries 
The World . 


13 


10 


7 


4 


5 


39 


254 


215 


60 


61 


82 


672 



C. — R18E OF British Manufactures. 







Value in MUlioiiB £. 


1 

1 




1830. 

31 
23 

9 

8 

7 


1850. 


1800. 


1870. 1881. ! 

• 


Cottons .... 
Woollens. . . . 
Linen, &c. . . . 

Silks 

Sundries .... 


43 

29 

17 
10 
10 


78 
38 
17 
18 

17 


94 
55 
28 
16 
22 


95 
46 
21 
7 
26 


Textiles . . . 
Hardware . . . 


78 
31 


109 
42 


1G8 
65 


215 
82 


195 
127 


Total . . 


109 


151 


233 


297 322 



D. — Consumption of 


Fibre (United Kingdom). 






Millionii of Lbs. 








Year. 








Jute. 


Tota'. 


Lbs. cer 
Iniiah. 


Cotton. 
54 


Wool 


Flax. 


Hemp. 


1801 . . . 


77 


48 


82 


261 


16 


1810 . . . 


114 


83 


60 


107 




364 


20 


1820 . . . 


123 


85 


87 


85 




380 


18 


1830 . . . 


246 


110 


138 


59 




553 


23 


1840 . . . 


448 


129 


210 


67 




854 


92 


1850 . . . 


565 


158 


249 


122 


42 


1,136 


41 


1860 . . . 


1,140 


224 


228 


78 


86 


1,756 


61 


1870 . . . 


1,101 


309 


291 


160 


324 


2,185 


68 


1880 . . . 


1,404 


338 


227 


165 


404 


2,538 


70 


1882 .. . 


1,519 


334 


236 


181 


512 


2,780 


78 



MANUFACTURES. 299 

R — ^Baw Matsrial and Manufactures (U. Kingdom). 



Tatf. 


Value in MiIIioiu£. 


RelaUre 

Coot of 

Raw 

Material 

(percent) 


Raw Mutorial. 


Manuractures. 


Cotton. 


WooL 

8 

9 
10 
12 
15 
18 
19 


Both. 


Cottons. 


Woollens. 


Both. 


1820. . 

1880. • 
1840. . 
1860. • 
1860. . 
1870. . 

1881. . 


7 
7 
11 
17 
81 
46 
89 


15 
16 
21 
29 
46 
64 
58 


27 
82 
38 
42 
79 
93 
95 


20 
23 
27 
30 
37 
55 
46 


47 

55 

65 

72 

116 

148 

141 


32 
30 
82 
40 
39 
44 
41 



F. — British Manufacturbs in 1881. 





Value. MilUfmi £. 


SbilUngt per Inhabitant 


Prodiio* 

tiOD. 


Conanmp- Exporta> 
tlon. tlon. 


Produc- 
tion. 


Consump- 
tion. 


Exporta- 
tion. 


Cottons . . 
Woollens . . 
Linen, kc 
Silks . . . 
Sundries . . 

Teztfles . 
Hmrdware 

Total . . 


95 
46 
21 
7 
26 


25 
26 
11 

4 
16 

82 
78 

160 


70 
20 
10 
3 
10 


54 
26 
12 
4 
15 


14 

15 

6 

2 

9 


40 

11 

6 

2 

6 


195 
127 


113 
49 

162 


111 
73 


46 
45 


65 
28 


322 


184 


91 93 



G. — Forkion Customers for British Manufactures. 

Percentage according to Vnlue. 



Exported to 


I860. 


1870. 


1880. 


1882. 


British colonies 


. 32 


26 


34 


35 


United SUtes 


. 16 


14 


14 


13 


European continent 


. 34 


38 


35 


36 


Other countries 


. 18 


22 


17 


16 



100 



100 



100 



Total . . . .100 
For particulars see Commerce, 

H. — Three Epochs of British Textile Manufactures. 

TbounaiidB. 



1885 
1850 
1880 



OperatiTea. 

. 853 
. 596 
. 976 



P<mer- 
Looma. 

116 

302 

725 



Raw Fibre, 
MiUionLba. 

633 
1,136 
2,528 



Vahie of 

Miinufacture, 

Milliona£. 

86 

109 

195 



300 



MANUFACTURES, 



L — British Manufactures 


IN 1782 AND 1882 






Value (Thousands 
Omitted). 


Ratio. 


Shillings per 
InhabitanL 


1782. 


1883. 


1782. 


188S. 


1782. 


1882. 


Cotton goods . . 


£960 


£95,200 


1-7 


11-6 


2 


54 


Woollen „ . . 


16,800 


46,400 


29-6 


5-5 


84 


26 


Linen „ . . 


1,750 


11,770 


8 1 


1-4 


8 


7 


Silk „ . . 


3,350 


7,230 


6*9 


0-9 


r 


4 


Leather. . . . 


10,500 


34,030 


18-4 


4-2 


21 


19 


Iron and steel . . 


12,100 


127.000 


21*4 


15-4 


24 


73 


Sundries . . . 
Total . 


11,200 


496,670 


20 


61-0 


28 


282 


£56,660 


£818,300 


100-0 100*0 


114 


465 



MTherson's table for 1782 did not include Ireland. 
K — Manufactures in United States, Valuk 



Year. 


Millions £. Ter Inhab. 


Year. 


Millions £. Perlnhab. 


1830 . 


. . 22 


£1-8 


1860 . 


. . 377 


£12-2 


1840 . 


. . 97 


5-7 


1870 . 


. . 846 


21-2 


1850 . 


. . 211 


9-1 


1880 . 


. . 1,112 


22-0 






Millions 1 


itcrling. 
w Material. 


Protiuct. 


OperatiTes, 




Capital 


Wages. Ka 


Thouunds 


1850 . 


. no 


49 116 


212 


957 


1860 . 


. 208 


80 214 


394 


1,311 


1870 . 


. 441 


161 510 


846 


2,054 


1880 . 


. 581 


198 


708 


1,112 


2,739 



The above includes not only textiles and hardware, but flour- 
mills, saw-mills, and other industries not counted in Europe. 

J J, — Principal American Manufactures. 









Value, Millions £. | 


Per Inhabitant. 




1860 


1870. 
95 


1880. 


1860. 


1870. 


ISSO. 


Flour 


52 


118 


£1-6 


£2-5 


£23 


Leather and boots 




33 


56 


73 


11 


1-5 


1-4 


Lumber . 




22 


77 


56 


0-7 


2-0 


11 


Carpentry 






18 


48 


54 


0-6 


1-2 


11 


Ck>tton8 . 






24 


41 


54 


0-8 


11 


1-0 


Woollens 






13 


26 


43 


0-4 


0-7 


08 


Clothing . 






23 


45 


56 


0-8 


1-2 


11 


Machinery 






12 


24 


52 


0-4 


0-7 


11) 


Liquor . 






35 


48 


29 


11 


1-2 


06 


Sundries . 






16-i 


386 


577 


5-2 


9-9 


11-6 


Total 


394 


, 846 


1,112 


£127 


£22-0 


£22^ 

1 



MANUFACTURES, 301 

"bL — Thirty Years of American Manufactures. 





OperatiTM, Thoutanda. 


Wages, MilUona £. 


otaM. 










1 1 






1860. 


180OL 


1870. 


1880. 


1850. 


1800. 


1870. 


1880. 
41-4 


New York . 


199 


280 


861 


601 


10-2 


18-6 


29-5 




147 


222 


819 


887 


7-7 


12-6 


26-6 


278 


MMMdiuwUs 


178 


217 


279 


352 


8*8 


11-8 


24*6 


26-6 


Ohio . . . 


61 


78 


138 


184 


2-7 


4-6 


10-2 


12-9 


niinoit. . . 


12 


23 


83 


145 


0-6 


1-6 


64 


11-8 


New Jene J . 


88 


66 


76 


126 


1-9 


8-3 


6-8 


9*6 


ConnectieQt . 


61 


64 


90 


113 


2-5 


3-9 


81 


91 


Other SUtes. 
ToUl . . 


281 
957 


423 


719 


931 


14-6 


28-8 


48*8 


68*8 


1,311 


2,054 


2,739 


490 


800 


1610 


1980 







MUliom £ Sterling, 










Capital. 


Product 


State. 




















1850. 
21 


1800. 


1870. 


1880. 


1850. 


1860. 


1870. 


1880. 


New York 


85 


77 


107 


60 


79 


157 


224 


Peniuylvania 


20 


39 


85 


99 


82 


60 


143 


155 


Maaaachusettfl 


18 


28 


48 


64 


83 


53 


111 


131 


Ohio . . . 


6 


12 


29 


40 


13 


25 


54 


73 


Illinois . . . 


1 


6 


20 


29 


3 


12 


41 


86 


New Jeney . 


6 


8 


16 


22 


8 


15 


34 


53 


Connecticut . 


5 


9 


20 


25 


10 


17 


82 


39 


Missouri . . 


2 


4 


16 


15 


5 


9 


41 


34 


Michigan . . 


1 


5 


15 


19 


2 


7 


24 


81. 


California . . 


1 


4 


8 


12 


8 


14 


13 


24 


Other SUtes . 


' 80 


58 


107 


149 


53 


103 
394 


196 


262 


Total . . 


110 


208 


441 


581 


212 


846 


1,112 







Ratio Tper 


Operative. 










Wages, £. 


Product, £. 


Strtte. 


















• 


1850. 
51 


1860. 


1870. 


1880. 


1850. 


1860. 


1870. 


1880. 


New York . 


59 


82 


83 


250 


340 


440 


448 


Pennsylvania 


52 


56 


83 


72 


220 


267 


444 


400 


Maraachusetts 


49 


54 


88 


76 


180 


240 


400 


870 


Ohio . . . 


54 


61 


74 


70 


255 


334 


880 


395 


Illinois . . . 


50 


70 


77 


80 


250 


500 


490 


593 


New Jersey . 


50 


59 


90 


76 


210 


270 


450 


420 


Connecticut . 


49 


61 


90 


81 


196 


270 


350 


344 


Other States . 
Gen. average . 


52 
61 


68 


68 


63 


225 
! 220 


316 


382 


874 


61 


79 


72 


300 


415 


403 



MANUFACTURES— MAHURB. 



N. — AWERIGAII Ma»DPACTDIU» IK GbOUPB or STATm 



BtaM. 




W«<^MilU«>S. 


ISSD. 


ISGO. 


1870. 


ISM. 


ISM 


IMO. 


UTO. 




New BiwlMid . 
Middls 
Southern . 
Wertein 

Pacific 

Total 


313 
418 

104 
lOS 

u 

9S7 


3S0 

126 
184 

es 

1,811 


B2fl 

801 

1S7 
4S9 

41 


645 
1,10-2 

069 
95 

3,T8B 


16 
!U 

4 
6 

4e 


It 

31 
7 
IS 

S 




48 
U 

11 

• 


2,054 


ao 


101 [ IH 



JfjBioM £ ibrlii^ 



..„. 


CpiUL 1 


Product. 1 


1850.. IMO 


1870. IBSO.I ISM. 


93 
166 
39 
71 
20 

394 


ino UM. 

201 230 
354 ICO 

il 70 
217 320 

17 26 

816 1,118 


New EnglMd . 

Middle 

Southern 

Weitera 

Puilio 

ToUl 


34 

4S 
13 
13 

I 

Tio' 


54 
89 
23 
36 
1 

soa 


102 130 
187 2J3 

291 40 
109 1 150 

14 1 IS 

441 5St 


58 
93 
20 
30 

6 

S13 







Satio pa- Operatiie. 










W,4,..-. 1 


Pr« 


OO. 
















1850. IWO. 1970, I8S0. 16M, 




1970. 


1880. 


New EpgUnd . 


iSl '^58 £31 £7S 1 £190 


£252 


£390 


£360 


Middle 




57 1 84 73 


230 




440 


420 


Smithern 


41) 


55 13 43 


1B2 




30S 


810 


WMitera . 






275 


S90 


434 


ISO 


Pacific 


I4ll 


lan rs 63 


S60 


290 


420 




UiiiDn. 


51 


61 79 72 


230 


300 


41S 


*oa 



— AUKUAL pRODDCnON PER ANIMAIk 



MANURE'-'MARRIAGES. 



303 



kfUlion 
Tons. 


Tons per 
Arable Acre, 


103 


2-2 


112 


17 


182 


2-0 


273 


1-4 


116 


21 


81 


11 


42 


1-9 


7 


1-8 


11 


2*2 


10 


2-0 


11 


1-9 


24 


1-6 



BL — Pboduction in Countries. 

United Kingdom 

France 

Gennany 

Bnnia 

Austria 

Ital^ 

Spain 

Portugal 

Holland 

Belgium 

Denmark 

Sweden and Norway . 

Europe . 872 1*8 

The above forms the chief ingredient in farm-yard manure, 
being mixed with straw, &c. The quantity of farm-yard 
manure used per acre is 13 tons in Great Britain, 45 in 
Belgium, 14 on the estates of Russian nobles, and 7 on the 
lands of Moujiks or peasant-farmers in Russia. In France 
fish is often used. In Norfolk likewise the farmers buy fisli 
at 16 shillings per ton, mix it with mould as 1 to 40, and 
obtain heavy crops of turnips. 

MABBLR — Is worth about £4 per ton, Italy exporting 
annually 105,000 tons, valued at £400,000. It is 7 per 
cent heavier than stone, and 5 per cent, lighter than granite. 
One cubic foot weighs 160 lbs., that is, 14 cubic feet per ton. 

MABIIALADE. — Dundee consumes 6000 chests of bitter 
oranges yearly, and exports 3 million pounds of marmalade. 

liASRIAGES. 

A. — Number per 1000 Inhabitants per Annum. 





1861-70. 


18n-80. 


20yr8. 


1861-70. 


18n-80. 


aOyra. 


TJ. Kingdom 


7-66 


7-60 


7-63 


Austria . . 8*65 


8-55 


8-60 


France . . 


7-95 


7-95 


7-96 


Hungary . 10*50 


10-30 


10-40 


Germany 


8-85 


8-85 


8-85 


Switzerland 7 65 


7-65 


765 


Holland . . 


816 


8-06 


810 


Italy. . . 7-56 


7-66 


7-60 


Belgium . . 


7-40 


7-20 


7-30 


Spain . . 7*55 


7-55 


7-65 


Denmark . 


7-60 


7-80 


7-70 


Australia . 800 


700 


7-50 


Sweden . . 


6-80 


6-80 


6-80 









The ratio of persons marrying will be of course double the 
al>ove, each marriage being here counted singly. Wherever 
no rates exist previous to 1870 the same is supposed as in 
the ensuing decade. 



3<H 



MARRIAGES. 



R — Conditions of Persons Mabrtino, in RATia 







Husband. 


wife. 1 




Bachelor. 


Widower. 


ToUL 


Spinster. 


Widow. 


TMaL 


England . 
France. . 
Plrassia . 
Russia . . 
Austria 
Italy . 
Spain . . 
Belgium . 
Holland 
Denmark , 
Sweden 
Norway , 
Greece . . 

Roumania 

1 




861 

881 
847 
808 
819 
863 
851 
878 
848 
865 
883 
883 
899 
880 


189 
119 
153 
192 
181 
137 
149 
122 
152 
135 
117 
117 
101 
120 • 


1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 


902 
922 
902 
864 
886 
924 
912 
913 
898 
914 
940 
941 
926 
912 


98 

78 

98 

186 

114 

76 

88 

87 

102 

86 

60 

59 

74 

88 


1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 



C. — Classification op 1000 Marriages, and Birth-Ratk 





Bachelor with 


Widower with 


Total. 


Children 












per 




Spinster. 


Widow. 


Spinster. 


Widow. 




Marriage. 


England . . . 


816 


45 


86 


53 


1000" 


416 


France 






' 840 


41 


82 


87 


1000 


2-98 


Prussia 






1 794 


53 


108 


45 


1000 


4.12 


Russia 






. : 762 


46 


102 


90 


1000 


4 85 


Austria 






755 


64 


131 


50 


1000 


4-04 


Italy . . 
Spam . 






■ 825 


38 


99 


88 


1000 


4-49 






1 811 


40 


101 


48 


1000 


4-66 


Belgium 






. 1 827 


51 


86 


36 


1000 


4*21 


Holland 






: 794 


54 


104 


48 


1000 


4*84 


Denmark 








818 


52 


101 


84 


1000 


8-55 


Sweden 








847 


36 


93 


24 


1000 


4-01 


Norway . 








845 


38 


96 


21 


1000 


3*85 


Greece 








858 


41 


68 


83 


1000 


• • • 


Roumania 






850 


SO 


62 


58 


1000 


• • • 



D. — Ratio of Second Marriages. 





Per 




Cent 


England . . 


. 12 


Ireland . . . 


9 


France . . . 


10 


Germany . . . 


11 


Russia . . . 


16 





Per 




Per 




Cent. 




CenU 


Austria 


. 18 


Holland . . 


12 


Italy . . 


. 10 


I>enmark . . 


10 


Spain . . 


9 


Swed. & Nor. 


9 


Switzerland 


. 13 


ijrrceoe ... 


9 


Belgium . 


. 10 


Roumania. . 


11 



MARRIAGES. 



305 



E. — Marrying Agb, 1000 Men. 



England 

Scotland 

Ireland 

France . 

Italy . 

PruMia 

Russia . 

Norway 

Sweden 

Belgium 

Holland 

Jews 



Uiuler 90. 



90-30. 



149 

I 134 

I 137 

204 

171 

111 

I 673 

I 93 

1 ^^ 
I 63 

' 99 

235 



England . 
Scotland . 


36 
32 


731 
684 


Ireland 


26 


600 


France. . 


23 


607 


Italy . . 
Prottia 


11 
8 


623 
663 


Roasia 


878 


428 


Norway . 
Sweden 


8 

1 


672 
674 


Belgium . 
HoUaod . 


9 
23 


648 
662 


Jews . . 


22 


664 



80-40. 



144 
189 
269 
262 
269 
231 
122 
291 
299 
307 
281 
174 



40-50. 



62 
62 

67 
65 
68 
64 
66 
88 
81 
91 
87 
74 



Over 50. 



Women. 



88 
33 
38 
43 
89 
34 
21 
46 
46 
45 
47 
66 



TotttL 



1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 
1000 



Medium 

Age, 

Tears. 



680 


111 


41 


19 


1000 


686 


134 


37 


9 


1000 


713 


111 


27 


12 


1000 


693 


145 


40 


18 


1000 


657 


125 


84 


13 


1000 


686 


152 


41 


10 


1000 


384 


64 


23 


6 


1000 


667 


185 


63 


12 


1000 


643 


232 


69 


15 


1000 


625 


222 


66 


24 


1000 


607 


212 


61 


21 


1000 


685 


98 


64 


28 


1000 



27-7 
28-6 
29-9 
30-2 
30-2 
29-2 
25-2 
311 
311 
31-8 
30-9 
301 



25-6 
25-7 
25-2 
24*9 
25-4 
260 
21-5 
271 
283 
28-6 
280 
26-2 



F. — Married and Unmarried Population, Ratio. 





Unmarried. 


Married. 


Widowed. 


TotAl. 


England 


602 


346 


63 


1000 


France . 


511 


405 


84 


1000 


Prussia . 


606 


336 


68 


1000 


Wurtemburg . 


623 


319 


68 


1000 


Austria . 


605 


342 


63 


1000 


Hungary 


632 


407 


61 


1000 


lUly . 


682 


352 


66 


1000 


Switzerland . 


609 


319 


72 


1000 


Si>ain . 


672 


360 


68 


1000 


Portugal 


628 


310 


62 


1000 


Holland 


611 


828 


61 


1000 


Belgium 


629 


315 


66 


1000 


Scandinavia . 


618 


330 


62 


1000 


ChUe . 


688 


260 


62 


1000 



u 



jo6 MARRIAGES. 

G. — Women of Child-bbarino Aos (15 to 45) in 1875. 





ThoMMndi. 


Bfttio. 1 


Married. 


Unmarried. 


TotaL 


Married. 


Unmarried. 


TbIaL 


England . . 


2,685 


2,724 


5,409 


496 


504 


1000 


Scotland . . 


840 


427 


767 


444 


556 


1000 


Ireland . . 


470 


703 


1,178 


401 


599 


1000 


France . . . 


4,359 


8,846 


8,205 


531 


469 


1000 


Germany . . 


4,380 


5,082 


9,462 


468 


587 


1000 


Switzerland . 


266 


367 


633 


421 


579 


1000 


Italy . . . 


8,224 


2,977 


6,201 


520 


480 


1000 


Belgium . . 


474 


684 


1,158 


409 


591 


1000 


HoUand . . 


869 


472 


841 


439 


561 


1000 


Denmark . . 


188 


228 


416 


450 


550 


1000 


Sweden . • 


405 


659 


964 


420 


580 


1000 


Norway . , 


176 


226 


401 


437 


568 


1000 



H. — Marriages in United Kingdom. 





Marriages, 
Tliousanda. 


Annual Ratio per 




1861-70. 


1871-80. 1861-70. \ 1871-80. 


England .... 
Scotland .... 
Ireland .... 


1,770 

224 
290 


1,960 
253 
251 


8-43 

712 
5-14 


817 
7-23 
4-74 


United Kingdom 


2,284 


2,464 1 7-66 


7-60 



See note to Table A, page 303. 

I. — Consanguineous Marriages. 

France . • li per cent England 2 per cent 



London 



H 



ti 



English nobility 4| 



n 



The nature of these marriacjes in France is as follows : — 
Cousins, 75 ; brother-in-law, 20 ; uncle and niece, 4 ; aunt 
anil nephew, 1 per cent 

In all countries about 5 per cent of marriages prove barren, 
the tendency being greatest among consanguineous marriages. 
Among the English nobility, for example, 19 per cent, are 
childless. Married women live 2 years longer than singio 
ones, although 1 in 70 dies in childbirth, since 3 births in 
1000 cost the mother's life. 



England . 
France . . 
Gkrmany . 



K. — Duration of Marriage. 

. 30 Holland . 

24 Belgium . 

. 23 Jews . . 



Years. 

27 ' Russia . 

26 Norway . 

26 Sweden . 



23 
23 
25 



UARRIAGES. 



307 



In England, if the motiier die first, tbe father aurriTea 9} 
years; but if tiie father die first, the mother surrives 111 
yeaia. In the Censns of 1871 the muried people living had 
an aTeiage age of 41} years, and had been married Ifi years. 

L. — Batio op Mabbisd PaRSOiia ni Unitbd Kinqdom (1871). 



bduA 


Scotlud. 


Mud. 1 o-n. 


■dom. 


lUlL 


tt-mi^ 


lUlii, 
307 ' 

eao 
3-3 

100-0 


FBxda 


ItabL nnn.]^' 1UI.. 


32-8 
B9-4 
8-0 


MkTried . . 1 39'! 

Widowed . 1 3'6 

Totol . . 1000 


3S-9 

68-8 
7-6 

1«H) 


28'8 
8-* 
100-0 


29-6 28* 1 838 
86-8 62-1 i 62-8 
3-7 9-6 8-6 

1000 lOO-O 100-0 


lOOD 



M. — Vabiatioitb of CoNDirroit m England. 





>bl« 


V-m^m. 1 


1861. 


IMl. 


ICTl. 


18S1. 


IKI. 


IBTl. 


Mwricd . . . 
UnmMTied . . 
Widowed . . 

Totol . . . 


337 
62-8 

3-7 


86-0 
61-3 
37 


35-1 

61-3 
3-8 


32-9 

69-8 
7-3 


33-9 
68-8 
7-3 


33-0 

5S'S 
7-5 


lOO-O 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 



N, — Vamations i» Scotland. 





H..1«. 


-"" _ 


I8S1. 


IMl. 13T1. 




IWl. 


I»7L 


ftUrried . . . 

Widowed . . 

TotAl . . . 


29-9 
eS'8 
33 


30-9 
85 8 
8-3 


307 
GS'O 
3-3 


27-8 
63-8 
8-4 


28'S 
63-0 
8-* 


23-8 

62-8 
8-4 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


1000 


lOO'O 


1000 



0. — Vabiatiohs is Ireland. 





HidM. 1 Fciaila. 


im. 


I8tl. 


isn. 


IMl. 


MarrioJ .... 
Unmained . 
Widowed 

Total 


29-5 
66 '8 
3-7 


27-8 
68-6 
3-9 


28-4 
62-1 
9-5 


27-0 
63-4 
9-6 


100-0 


100-0 


1000 


100-0 



3c8 



MA RRIA GES—MEA T. 



P.— Vi 


LRIATIO 


NS IN 


France since 


1806 


• 


Fw 1000 Inhab. 


Peru 
Uumarri( 


KK) InhaK 


Unmarried. Harried. 


kL Harried. 


1806 . . ( 


S41 859 


1861 . 


611 


889 


1821 . . 1 


S30 870 


1861 . 


600 


400 


1841 . . 1 


822 878 


1876 . 


696 


405 


In this table widowed persons 


I are included among unmarried. 


Q. — Marriages in Months and Seasons. 


Scotland. France. 




Scotland. France. 


January . • 


160 126 


July . , . 


. 124 


89 


February . . 


70 126 


August. . 


. 78 


91 


March . . . 


71 65 


September. 


. 74 


91 


.^ril . . . 
May . . . 


78 127 


October 


. 74 


98 


49 91 


November . 


. 114 


120 


June . . . ; 


L74 112 


December . 


. 139 


75 


i year ( 


S02 636 


i year 


. 698 


664 


Quarter ending 


England. 


Scotland. Ireland. 


France. 


March . 


246 


301 


432 


806 


June 


302 


301 


247 


830 


September 


294 


271 


252 


271 


December 


358 


82 


7 269 
[) 1,200 


293 


Total 


. 1,200 


1,201 


1,200 


MEAT 










A. 


Production . 


iND CONSUMPI 


PION. 


^- 




ProductioE 


1, Thousands of Toi 


IB. 


Coiisump- 1 












tion. Tons. 




Beef. 


Mutton. 


Pork. 


Fowl, Ac. 


' Total. 

I 


Thousands. 


United Kingdom 


666 


346 


145 


38 


1,195 


1,640 . 


France . . . 


550 


210 


240 


60 


1,060 


1,210 


Germany . . . 


785 


230 


285 


45 


1,345 


1,405 


Russia. . . . 


1,050 


420 


445 


50 


1,965 


1,920 


Austria . . . 


655 


180 


275 40 


1,150 


1,090 


lUljr .... 
Spain and Port . 


165 


70 


55 


25 


315 


295 


170 


180 


130 


10 


490 


460 


Belgium . . . 


82 


6 


24 


6 


118 


190 


Holland . . . 


95 


9 


12 


5 


121 


98 


Denmark . . . 


80 


18 


16 


2 


116 


76 


Swed. and Nor. . 


150 


27 


18 


6 


201 


196 


Greece .... 


12 


15 


1 


1 


29 


31 


Roomania, kc. . 
Europe . . , 


160 


50 


60 


10 


280 


300 


4,620 


1,761 


1,706 


298 


8,886 


8,911 


United States . 


1,750 


340 


1,420 


60 


8,570 


3,060 


Canada . . . 
Total . . 


185 


36 


45 


6 


221 


198 


6,505 


2,137 


3,171 1 363 


12.176 


12,169 ■ 



MEAT. 



309 



The flocks and heids of the River Plate and Australia are 
capable of yielding a large meat crop, but at present the 
sheep are grown only for wool, and cattle are in some seasons 
slaughtered for their hides. If the available supply be 
taken at 67 per cent of what the same number would give 
in Europe, the meat crop annually of those countries would 
be : — 

RiTor Plato. AtintralU. Total. 

Beef, toiu. . 650,000 310,000 960,000 

Mutton,, . . 520,000 450,000 970,000 

Pork „ . . 11,000 24,000 35,000 



Total 



1,181,000 



784,000 



1,965,000 



B. — Meat Consumption per Inhabitant. 





Per Annum, Lba. 


Beef. 


Mutton. 


Pork. 


Fowl, te. 


Total 


United Kingdom . 


52 


24 


26 


8 


105 


France .... 


40 


12 


19 


3 


74 


Germany. 


40 


12 


15 


2 


69 


Russia .... 


24 


11 


11 


2 


48 


Austria .... 


37 


10 


15 


2 


64 


Italy .... 


12 


5 


4 


2 


23 


Spain and Portugal . 


16 


18 


14 


1 


49 


Belgium .... 


44 


3 


27 


2 


76 


Holland .... 


42 


5 


7 


2 


56 


Denmark. 


31 


19 


17 


2 


69 


Sweden and Norway 


48 


9 


6 


2 


65 


Europe .... 


32 


12 


11 


2 


57 


United SUtes . 


62 


14 


41 


3 


120 


Canada .... 


52 


17 


21 


3 


93 



C. — Meat-Supply of the United Kingdom. 



Years. 


Anniml BLiughter, 
Thou»aD(u. 


Meat Crop, 

Thuiis:inas 

Ttus. 


Consumption. 


Cows. 


Sheep. 


Pigs. 


Thousands 
Tons. 


Lbs. per 
iDhaU 


1835-40 . . 
1841-50 . . 
1851-60 . . 
1861-70 . . 
1871-80 . . 
1881-82 . . 


1,328 
1,418 
1.572 
1,790 
1,948 
1,994 


8,670 
10,780 
12,430 
13,672 
12,968 
12,466 


1,552 
1,595 
1,880 
2,043 
2,062 
2,080 


778 

880 

990 

1,106 

1.160 

1,195 


778 
880 
1,034 
1,237 
1,448 
1,640 


66 
72 
81 
91 
96 
105 



3IO 



MEAT. 



D. — ExPBIfDITURB FOR MbAT IN UNITED KiNODOlL 



Tears. 


milloui A sterliaff. 


ReUtiTe 

Exttenditure 

for Meat 


London 

Price 

perSLbe. 


Meat 

Ezpenditnre 
perlnhabb 


NaUonal 
Earning*. 


Meat 
Value. 


1835-40 . . 
1841-50 . . 
1861-60 . . 
1861-70 . . 
1871-80 . . 
1881-82 . . 


480 
550 
690 
880 
1,123 
. 1.230 


43 
45 
58 
76 
112 
139 


Per Cei.t 
9 
8 

:t 

10 

114 


Pence. 
51 
48 
62 
66 
68 
72 


ShOUnga. 
83 
83 
41 
50 
66 
78 



The total meat-crop of nations, at an average of £55 per 
ton, represents a value of 660 millions sterling, or 36 shillings 
for each consumer, big and little, per annum. The average 
in the United Kingdom, as shown above, is more than double. 

E. — Meat Imports into United Kingdom. 





ToDB, Thotiaandfl. 


Lba. per Inhabitant 




1861. 


1871. 


1881. 


18(51. 

2 

h 
3 

h 


187L 


1881. 

15 
6 
6i 

n 


Bacon 
Beef 

Cattle 
Pork 


26 

8 

35 

7 


55 
30 
85 
15 


231 
91 

104 
19 


4 
2 
6 
1 


Total 


76 


185 


445 


6 


1 18 


29 



Imported cattle are taken at 560 lbs. for beasts and 56 
lbs. for sheep. 



F. — Meat Exports of United States. 



Bacon 
Beef . 

Cattle 
Pork. 



ToUl . 40,400 82,100 

See note at foot of preceding table. 





Tons. 




1861. 


1871. 


1881. 


22,400 


32,300 


836,400 


6»400 


19,800 


68,100 


3,300 


11,900 


56,200 


8,300 


18,100 


49,500 



610,200 



a— 



, MERCURY'-METALS. 
Meat Consumption in Francs. 



3n 



» 


Tons. 


Per Inhabitant, Lbs. 


1840. 1860. 


1880. 


1840. 


1800. 


1880. 


•n — M 

^JV^B • • • 

Mnitoii 
Pork . . . 

Total . 


299,000 

82,000 

290,000 


450,000 
114,000 
878,000 


640,000 
210,000 
805,000 


19 

5 

19 


27 

7 

23 


40 
12 
19 


671,000 942,000 


1,155,000 


43 


67 


71 



100 lbs. 
100 „ 
100 



t* 



H. 
tteef : 



If 

miitton: 



-Loss OF Meat in Cooking. 

67 lbs. roast 

74 „ boUed 

75 ,, roast 



100 lbs. 


raw 


fowl 


100 


n 


• 


) 


100 


ti 


raw 


fish 



MES0X7BY. 

CalifomiA 
Spain 
Austria 
Other oonntries 

Total 



Tkma, 

Produo- 

tion. 

1,880 

1,090 

275 

595 

8,340 



Great Britahi . 
United SUtes . 
China 
Other countries 



80 roast 
87 boiled 
94 boQed 

Tons, 
Consump- 
tion. 
1,550 
570 
500 
720 



Total 



8,340 



Mercuiy is worth about £220 per ton. 
METALS. A. 





Conductors of 




Condncton of 




Heat Electricity. 


neat Electricity. 


Gold . 


. 100 94 


Iron 


. 37 16 


Platinnm 


98 16 


Zinc 


. 36 29 


Silver . 


97 74 


Tin 


. 30 15 


Copper 


90 100 


Lead . 


. 18 8 



B. — Tenacity. 

A wire, 0*64 of a line in diameter, will sustain tke follow- 
ing weights : — 



Lead 
Tin . 
Zinc . 
Gk>ld. 



Zinc 
Iron 
Tin 



28 lbs. 

85 „ 
110 „ 
160,, 


Silver 
Platinum 
Copper 
Lron . 


C. — Fluid DENsrry. 


6-48 

6-88 
7-08 


Copper 

SUver 

Lead. 



1871bfl. 
274 „ 
802 „ 
649,, 



8-22 

9*51 

10-37 



For general statistics, see Mining ; for particular, see each 
metal under its own title. 



312 



METEOROLOGY. 



METEOROLOGY. 

A. — Tempbraturb op Various Places (Fahr.) 

Those places marked with an asterisk show highest and lowest Quarierit. 
instfod of highest and lowest Months, 

Month. 

66-8 

75-6 



Aberdeen 

Adelaide 

'Alaska . 

•Albany . , 

Algiers 

Amsterdam 

*Antigua 

Archangel 

'Arizona . 

'Arkansas 

'Aspinwall 

Astrakan 

Auckland 

Azores . . 

Bagdad . . 

'Bahamas 

Baltimore 

Barbadoed . 

Barcelona 

Batavia . . 

Belfast . . 

Berlin . . 

Bermudas . 

Bogota . . 

Bombay . . 

Bordeaux 

Boston . . 

Boulogne 

Bremen . . 

Breslau . . 

Bristol . . 

Brussels . . 

Bucharest 

Buda-Pesth . 

•Buenos Avres 

♦Buffalo .' . 

Cadiz . . . 

Cairo . . . 

Calcutta . . 

Canton . . 

Cape Town . 

Caracas . . 

Carlsbad . . 

Chambery . 

'Charleston . 

Cheltenham . 



MuDth. 

60-6 

84-4 

631 

70-4 

76-6 

65-3 

81-7 

60-8 

85*5 

81-6 

79-7 

77-6 

700 

70-0 

941 

84-5 

75-2 

80-6 

78-8 

80-0 

64-2 

65-8 

76-8 

61-9 

85-9 

73-2 

720 

691 

64-6 

65-3 

67 

64-4 

68-2 

66-6 

73-4 

67-7 

72-9 

85-8 

90-4 

83 

760 

73-3 

64-0 

68-7 

79-6 

66-3 



Lowart Yrar'a 
Maoth. Atraiags. 

37-8 



54-2 
818 
25-3 
53-0 
83*2 
77-4 
6-6 
46*9 
44*2 
78-7 
12-6 
61-0 
556 
44*6 
747 
30-9 
761 
48-7 
750 
400 
27-7 
56-8 
57-6 
76-3 
410 
26-6 
371 
29-6 
27-9 
360 
35-3 
20-3 
251 
62-6 
26 6 
51-4 
561 
69-3 
525 
57-6 
68 
26-3 
30-9 
51-5 
38-3 



49-2 

68-4 

421 

47-9 

64 3 

49-9 

79 4 

385 

67*4 

62-1 

791 

50-1 

60-0 

62-4 

737 

79-6 

54-9 

78-4 

63 

78-3 

52-1 

48-2 

67-4 

597 

813 

57 

48-5 

54-4 

48-1 

467 

517 

507 

46-4 

47-5 

62-8 

46-9 

621 

72-2 

82-4 

69-9 

66-5 

711 

46-0 

51-5 

65-5 

51-5 



'Chicago 
Cincinnati 
Coblenz . 
Colombo 
'Colorado 
'Concord 
Constant*ople 74*1 
Copenhagen 64-3 
'CortaRica 717 



68-4 
84-8 
64*4 
67-5 



Cracow . . 
Christiania . 
'Dakota 
•Delaware . 
Demerara . 
'Detroit . 
Dresden . . 
Drontheim . 
Dublin . . 
'Dubuque . 
Edinburgh . 
Falkland I. 
Falmouth . 
Faroe I. 
Florence 
'Florida . 
Frankfort . 
•Galveston. 
Geneva . . 
Genoa . . 
Ghent . . 
Gibraltar . 
Glasgow 
•Greenland 
•Guadeloupe 
Guatemala . 
Halifax . . 
Hamburg . 
Hammerfest 
•Hartford . 
Havanna 
Hobart . 
•Honduras . 
Honolulu . 
Iceland . . 
'Idaho . . 
•Indiana 



67-0 

61-8 

74*6 

75-2 

83-0 

681 

67-5 

650 

61-5 

717 

587 

56 

58 9 

55-9 

76-9 

83-4 

66-1 

837 

718 

77-4 

67*6 

79-5 

61-3 

40 6 

81-3 

71'8 

70K) 

64-6 

53-0 

69-8 

83-9 

631 

83-2 

78-8 

56-2 

75-0 

76*4 



MonUL 

24-8 

81*6 

827 

77-9 

20-6 

22-8 

89-2 

29*8 

67-9 

23-9 

20*8 
7-9 

84-2 

76-6 

26-6 

29-2 

19-6 

393 

22-6 

37-4 

87*4 

40-5 

86-9 

41-2 

54-4 

81-5 

53-5 

81-1 

467 

83-8 

57 6 

88-2 

141 

76-3 

63-8 

18-0 

80-0 

22-0 

29-9 

71-4 

40-2 

760 

70-5 

28 3 

29-8 

287 



45*9 

547 

51*5 

80-8 

42-9 

457 

565 

46*6 

69*3 

47*1 

41*5 

486 

547 

807 

472 

491 

401 

50-1 

477 

47-1 

47 2 

50-3 

45-4 

592 

71-0 

49*6 

69*4 

527 

611 

50-9 

67-4 

49 8 

268 

791 

66-6 

401 

48-0 

87-0 

49-8 

77-2 

524 

80-0 

74^ 

89-4 

525 

53*1 








METEOROLOGY. 






313 




MrTBOBOLuo Y — CO nlinued. 










■ttIM 








Ilt«1wt 


IHM 


Tmy, 












kSblT 


HmllL 




•low* . . . 


TSfi 


22-1 


iST 


'Omaha . . 


74-8 


23'4 


*«T 


Iikutak. . . 


«■» 


1-2 


83 6 


•Oregon . . 


877 


39-4 


61-6 


IdeofbUn . 


803 


40 6 


49'8 


Palenuo . . 


76-4 


61-8 


63-1 


Iile of Wight. 


es-o 


37 


60-4 


Parie. . . 


86-7 


S6'4 


61-3 


J»m««" . 


817 


767 


78-8 


Pekin. . . 


78-3 


247 


63-3 


Jeney . . . 


ea-s 


417 


61-9 




6a-i 


42-8 


Bl-8 


Jern^m. . 


77-3 


47-4 


626 


Philadelphia 


73-9 


29-4 


62-1 


■Euiua . . 


76-8 


287 


627 


•PortlH.d,U.a887 


217 


430 


E>un . . . 


018 


8-6 


86-B 


•Porto Rico. 


88-9 


78-1 


81-4 


•Kentucky . 


76-6 


82-1 


64-1 


•I^^Ed.l' 


698 


27-a 


60-2 


•Key Wert . 


8S* 


70-4 


771 


85-8 


233 


43-9 


Lei,ii=. . . 


621 


297 


48-4 


•ProFidenoe 


68-0 


27-4 


471" 


Luna . . . 


80-1 


682 


73-3 


Qnebeo . . 


78-4 


127 


40-0 


Li*boD . . . 


721 


61-4 


61-4 


Quito .. . 


63-6 


68-2 


60-6 


LiTerpool . . 


82-0 


39-9 


60-8 


•Raleigh. . 


77-2 


401 


68-5 


]>Dd0D. . 


64-1 


87-3 


60-8 




77-6 


837 


66-2 


Madein . 


78-9 


83-1 


67-e 


Rio Janeiro . 


82-4 


67-2 


77-2 


Madna. . 


88-2 


75-a 


81-9 


Rome. . . 


78-0 


46-0 


80-5 


Madrid. . 


79-0 


42-4 


68-2 


Rotterdam . 


68-2 


867 


61-0 


Malta . . 


78-0 


67-1 


87-6 


St Bernard, M. 44-2 


16-4 


80-2 




608 


387 


48-8 


•St. John'. . 


67-6 


261 


41-2 


Manilla . . 


87-0 


68-0 


78-4 


St. Louii . . 


78 1 


32-9 


65 


Marwilles. . 


76-fl 


43-2 


683 




147 


39-6 


•Matamorw . 


84 '9 


64-8 


76-6 


St ThoDiaa . 


837 


78-2 


81-2 


MauriUuj . . 


82-5 


726 


77-1 




880 


77 


81-3 


Mqlbourne 


66-8 


47-9 


67 


•.Siitiyrnnci-. 


.58-1 


601 


66-2 


•iIeiopbi.,T«ii 


1.7S-5 


421 


607 


Savannah 


82-2 


60-6 


867 


Me»[>.a . . 


74-7 


54 '2 


65 7 


9ebutopol . 


712 


34-3 


63-0 


Mexico. . 


68-2 


621 


60-6 


Sierra Leone 


81-6 


77 


79-3 


Mil»n . . . 


71-7 


33-2 


65 1 


Singapore . 


82-2 


78-5 


807 


•fctilwaotee 


670 


24 


458 


Stockholm . 


63-5 


24-3 


423 


•Mi>i»»>t> 


711 


12-9 


428 


Stra»bnrg . 


65-8 


31-0 


497 


R[in..n« . . 


79-2 


63-3 


847 


Stuttgart. . 


66-a 


300 


495 


•Mobile . . 


79 


62'4 


88-1 


Sydney . . 


66-3 


S5-8 


66-8 


•Montana. . 


703 


19-2 


44-8 


Teneriffe. . 


78-0 


63-8 


71-2 


Montevideo . 


80-0 


6S'0 


88-8 


•Tex at . . 


837 


51-2 


e8'S 




78-4 


421 


695 


Toronto , . 


667 


237 


44-8 


Montreal . . 


73-6 


140 


44-6 


Trierta . . 


72-8 


38-3 


65 3 


M0M»« . . 


66-4 


13-3 


40 


Trinidad . . 


79'5 


76-5 


73-0 


Mtioicli . . 


61-7 


29 6 


48-1 


Tunis . . . 


86-5 


63-1 


68-8 


Nancy . . . 


6:i-5 


33-3 


49'6 


Turin . . . 


73 2 


30-9 


631 


Kapl«> . . . 


78-3 


46-3 


60-3 


•Utah. . . 


73'8 


80 4 


61-9 


•NaahriUo . 


783 


397 


68-3 


Venice . . 


751 


85-3 


66-4 


NaUl . . . 


7r8 


65-2 


617 


VeraC™. . 


83-4 


700 


77-0 


•Nevada . 


75-2 


34-6 


64-1 


•Vermont . 


672 


21-0 


43'S 


•Newark, N.J. 


70 4 


30-8 


605 


Vienna . . 


70 8 


29-3 


El'O 


•N. Brunswick 


67 -8 


21-1 


40-1 




9i-9 


223 


44-2 


•New Mejtioo 


80-1 


30-3 


654 


WMhlngtoD. 


786 


861 


E6-3 


New Orlean. . 


82-2 


52-3 


89a 


Wisconsin . 


704 


18-6 


453 


New York . 


731 


31-6 


61-8 


Wyoming . 


72-6 


20-8 


45-4 


Nice. . . . 


73 9 


41-5 


68-9 


York . . 


63-6 


33-4 


49-2 



3'4 



MILITARY PAY-^MILITIA. 



B. — Tbmfbratubb of Great Britain. 

Oreonwich. 



Months. 


1771-1841. 


1842-70. 


Bisa. 


ScoOsBd, 
18&S-6*. 


January 


. 86-6 


887 


8-3 


87-a 


February 


. 88*8 


89-4 


11 


87-4 


March . 


. tO'8 


41*6 


0-8 


89-8 


April 
May . 


. 46-6 


47-2 


17 


44-1 


. 52-4 


62-7 


0-8 


49-5 


Jane . 


. 67 8 


69-0 


1-2 


66-6 


July . 


. 61-8 


62-2 


0-9 


67-6 


August. 


. 60-6 


61-6 


09 


67-S 


September 


. C6-2 


671 


0-9 


62*8 


October 


. 49-8 


60-2 


0-9 


47-a 


Noyemb«r 


. 41-6 


43-6 


1-9 


40-2 


December 


. 886 


40*0 


1-4 


88-6 


Annual mc 


lan . 48-1 


49-4 


1-8 


467 



This rise of temperature in England has been coincident 
with a diminution of frost in Canada and Labrador. See 
Frosty Cold, Heaty Rainfall^ Barometer^ &c. 



C. — Extraordinary Readings, in Fahrenheit. 



London, July 16th, 1881 
ParTs, „ „ 
Naples ,, 25th, 



ft 

If 



96-6 
99-8 
96-2 



Bombay, July, 1883 • 
Adelaide^ Jan. 1880 . 
See Appendix. 



96-8 
114^ 



MILITABY PAY. 

A. — Middle Ages, Daily Pay. 





Old Money, 


Present 


Old Money, 




GroAts. 


Value. 


QroaU. 


Count . 


. . 40 


£2 2 


Man-at-arma 8 


Baron . . 


. 20 


1 1 


Cross-bowman 1 


Knight 


. . 12 


18 


Archer . . ( 



Value. 
£0 8 
10 
6 



B. — Pay in European Armies, per Annum. 



English. French. Italian. 

General . ... £660 £600 

Colonel .£1,000 280 280 

Lieut Ool 820 220 210 

Major 292 180 170 

CapUin . 212 120 120 



English. Frsnoh. 
Lieut . . £118 £80 
Ensign. . 100 62 

Sergeant . 86 15 

Private . 18 6 



£90 



MILITLA — That of the United Kingdom nnmben 
118,000 men. Death rate, 3*3 per 1000. In the year 
1880 there were 7949 drafted into the army, 13,665 dis- 
charged or invalided, 985 expelled, and 9299 who deserted. 



MILK^MILLIONA IRES. 



315 



HI 11 iTv. 

A. — Supply and Consumption, per Annum. 



. 


Mileh Cowa. 


Milk, Million QaUona. 


Value, 
MUlions 


Per 

lohab., 

Bhilliiig*. 


Number, 
Tbou- 
■and*. 


Per 100 
lubab. 


Used 

Milk. 


Butter, 
tc. 


TotaL 


U.S[ing;doin 
U. States . 
Canada . . 
Holland. . 
France . . 
Gftrmany . 


8,750 

12,440 

970 

540 

4,300 

5,900 


11 
24 
22 
14 
12 
18 


700 
2,800 
180 
50 
850 
840 


800 
2,500 
270 
280 
600 
1,170 


1,500 
4,800 
400 
830 
1,450 
2,010 


40 
78 
7 
9 
28 
82 


22 
29 
81 
44 

12 
14 



B. — Components op Milk. 





Water. Pat 


Caseine. 1 


SnsTAr. Total. 


Woman . 


. 89-8 2-5 


8-4 


4-8 100-0 


Cow 


. 86-0 4-0 


72 


2-8 100-0 


Ass 


. 90.9 11 


1-9 


61 1000 


Goat 


. 86-8 8-3 


4-0 


6-9 100-0 


Ewe 


. 85*6 4*2 


4-5 


5-7 1000 


MILLIONAIBES, PAST AND PRESENT. 


Name. 


Reftidence. 


Supposed 
Fortune. 


Profession. 


Seneca 


. Rome . 


£3,400,000 


Philosopher. 


Lentulos • 


. „ • < 


2,600,000 


Astrologer. 


Lucullus . 


* „ • • 


1,600,000 


Gentleman. 


Sir F. Goldnnid 


[ . London. 


10,000,000 


Banker. 


John Jacob Astor . New York 


6,000,000 


Furrier. 


Patrick Milmo 


. Mexico . 


2,000,000 


Grazier. 


A. T. Stewart 


. New York 


. 16,000,000 


Haberda.sher. 


M. Mackay 


. . California 


18,000,000 


Miner. 


Thomas Brasse j . London . 


5,500,000 


Engineer. 


Baron Rothschild „ 


3,000,000 


Banker. 


Louis Philippe 


Paris 


2,600,000 


King. 


Jay Gould 


. New York 


. 20,800,000 


Broker. 


W. Vanderbnt 


„ 


36,400,000 


Railway director. 


Heinrich Drasche . Vienna . 


2,100,000 


Potter. 


Thomas Holloway . London . 


2,200,000 


Druggist. 


Joseph Love 


. Durham 


2,300,000 


Collier. 


F. Borsig . 


. Berlin . 


3,100,000 


Engine-builder. 


W. Wythes 


. London . 


3,600,000 


Contractor. 


H. Krupp. 


. Essen . 


2,700,000 


Ironmaster. 


John Fair 


. California 


3,200,000 


Miner. 


W. Barron 


. Mexico . 


1,500,000 


Merchant. 


J. Lambert 


. Chile . 


2,600,000 


Miner. 


John Jackson . 


. Montevideo . 


1,200,000 


Shepherd. 



3i6 



MINERAL SPRINGS^MINING. 



MINERAL SPRINGS. 



BUin . 
St Didier 
Mallow 
Bristol. 
Yverdtm 
Box ton 
Kreuznach 
Patras . 
WUdbad 
Pfeffen 
Alicante 
Pisa . 



A. — Tbmpbbature, Fahrenheit. 



. 66 
. 70 
. 72 
. 74 
. 76 
. 82 
. 86 
. 97 
. 98 
. 101 
. 104 
. 106 



Thermopyls 
Vichy . , 
Bath . . 


e . 118 , 
. . 113 
. 116 


Gasteln. . 


. . 117 


Bigorre . , 
ToepUtz 
Lucca . , 


. . 119 
. . 121 
. . 124 


Gautereta , 


. . 130 


Ems . . , 


. . 131 


Aachen . . 


. . 135 


Gaimaraene 


1 . 138 


Luchon . 


. . 140 



IschU ... 140 

Ofen .... 144 

Aries. ... 145 

Baden-Baden . 147 

Plombi^res . . 147 

Visen. . . . 153 

WiBbaden . . 158 

Balkan ... 163 

Acqui. ... 167 

Garlsbad. . . 167 

Ghaudes Aigoes 174 

Baths of Nero . 188 



B. — Result op French Mineral Waters. 



Gored . 
Improved 
No effect 
Worse . 

Total 

MINING. 



Bar^s. Amelle. 

12 9 

52 45 

33 36 

3 10 



Vichy. Bourbcnne. ^Jj^J 

22 16 15 

61 62 55 

14 17 25 

3 5 5 



100 



100 



100 



100 



lOO 









A.- 


-Value op 


Minerals. 








MUUons £, 


No. of 
Miuera, 


RMItIt 






1 






TUousmDds 




Gold. 

> ■ ■ • 


SUver. 


Coal. 
67 


Sundries. 


Total 


Omitted. 


U. Elingdom 


• • • 


12 


79 


538 


£146 


France . . 


1 • • • 


• • • 


11 


3 


H 


206 


70 


Germany . 






■ • ■ 


1 


14 


4 


19 


231 


82 


Russia 






6 


• • • 


3 


1 


10 


207 


4S 


Austria 






• • • 


h 


H 


3 


8 


92 


86 


Italy . 






t ■ • • 


• • • 


• • • 


2 


2 


86 


52 


Spain . 






■ • • • 


• • • 


• • • 


6 


6 


70 


86 


Belgium . 






k • • • 


• • « 


6 


h 


6i 


105 


02 


Sweden . 






6 


• • • 


• • • 

105^ 


1 
32|^ 


1 


29 


85 


Europe . . 


u 


145i 


1,514 


96 


United SUtes 


7 


8 


28 


34 


77 


560 


140 


Span. America 


1 


5 


i 


3i 


10 


150 


66 


Australia . . 


5 


• • « 


1 


2 


8 


95 


84 


Other Gountriet 


> 1 
. 20 


i 


1 

136 


1 


34 


70 


50 


The Wori 


d 


• 


15 


72 


244 


2,389 


102 



B. — Deepest Mines m 'Workiko. 



81 Andra. 
KoMbridgs. 
DoldiiGeU. 



XlnximL 
CoiJ. 
SIlrsT. 
CoaL 



Ansbslia. 
Spain. 



C. — Deaths or Minbrb in Great Britain. 



Depth, FmL 

S,190 

S,!80 

a.M7 

2,683 
2.S10 
2,418 
1,9m 

1,S7« 



1851-eO . 


. 10,018 


1861-70 . 


. 10,828 


1871-*! . 


. 11,348 


1881 . . 


. 1,008 



KUIed. 
S7,000 
104,000 

140,000 

170,000 



D. — Proohess of British Mis'inq. 



1800 . 


IO,8M,000 


£8,100.000 


1810 . 


13,000,000 


7.800,000 


1820 . 


1B,700,000 


10,400,000 


1830 . 


20,300,000 


13,700,000 


1840 . 


34,600,000 


16,200.000 


1850 . 


65,600,000 


23,100,000 


1860 . 


98,000,000 


32.600,000 


1870 . 


127.000.000 


40,800,000 


1882 . 


178,000,000 


79.400,000 



Miners' wages in England areraged 30 shillings a week in 
the 10 years ending 1880: they reached 61 shillings in 
1873, and fell to 20 shillings in 1878. 

See Coal, Copper, Iron, Lead, &c. 

E. — Cost op Prodootion per Ton. 

Shill liigiL 

CnL Pl« Iron. Obnmtton, 

France . . 10 73 The French 

Ftuuw . . 6 fi9 GoTemnieDt \» 

EngUnd . . 8 GO naponnble for 

Bdgiuni . . 8 47 thu table. 
Anitnlia 7 



3>8 
F. — Bbitibh MiHiNa m 1 



Thoiui 



VbIuv, 

I. Tliouundi 
Coal . . . 161,200 £65,530 
Iroiubiiia . 16,800 10,»00 
Skit ... %100 1,300 

Lead & copper 70 190 

Ho, fto. . . iO 600 

ToUl . 176,210 £7S,7SO 



. 52,100 £13,100 
. 13,000 1,600 

. 8,200 1,000 



Total . 74,780 £18,430 



A.- 


-AllOCNT 01 


Bbitibh Mcmbt Comsn 




Bdgti. 


Gold. 


BilTK. 


ToUL 


Per 
Anaiim. 


Henry IIL 




£3,898 


• £3,898 




EdwirdL 




38.603 


38.803 


£1,100 


EdwKdn. 




15,751 


45.761 


a.300 


Edward III. 


£11,S11 


85,703 


1 97,047 


l.»60 


Richard IX 


8,1>S8 


2,228 


6.218 


300 


Henry IV. 


396 


316 


711 




Henry V. 


19,718 


6,921 


26.670 


8.000 


Henry VI. 


318,111 


579,226 


897.669 


23.000 


EdwMd IV. 


10.218 


17,813 


158,091 


2,700 


Henry VII. 


B,399 


116,100 


1^1,199 


5,000 


Henry VIIL 


675,100 


61'A8I0 


1,318.210 


84.500 


M>ry'. . 




8.500 


8,500 




Elizabeth . 


785,135 


4,836,802 


6,631.937 


I 15. 000 




3.666,400 


1,807.800 


6,173.700 


218.000 


Chftclei I. 


3.31A700 


8,776.515 


12,096,215 


602.000 


CromweU . 


161,512 


1,000.000 


1,161,612 


115.000 


Ch«rle<i IL 


*,177,261 


3,722,180 


7,899,184 


S30.000 


Juatt II. 


2,113,639 


2,115.800 


4.229,239 


1,410,000 


WiUi«n IIL 


3,118,080 


7,091.080 


10.512,140 


820.000 


Anns . . 


2,185,100 


618.a00 


3,103,300 


255.000 


Geo^I. . 


8,192.900 


223,060 


8,715.960 


670,000 


Geo^II. 


11,662,200 


301.860 


11,966,560 


360,000 


George III. 


75,147,489 


6.827,800 


82,275.289 


1.370.000 


George IV. 


36,395,100 


2,218.188 


38,611.388 


3,860.000 


William IV. 


10,920,033 


1.122.100 


12,01%135 


l,73C^0OO 




189,588,200 


17.839,100 


8 207.125,600 ) 






67,352.000 


.„ 


II 57,352,000} 


9.100,000 


T.>l:J , 


1,950,000 


156,800.000 


1 168.250.000 ) 




£112,983,689 


£216.379.485 


£629.383,174 


£950.000 



* At Oantnbnrj. { At London, 

t At Tork ud CalkU || At MdbounM 

t At BriitoL 1 In Indlk, 

All tbe rest were coined at E/>ndon. 



B. — CoiNXD tmici 1850. 









Amotmt 










Populuion. 


Gold. 


8U™. 


Gold. 


sQ'er. 


ToUJ. 


U. EiDgdom. . 


1.101 


l.«2 


153 


13 


toe 


£5 7 






















637 


8.262 


89 


KB 


145 


3 13 












20 


135 


1 15 


AmtrU . 




87 


iMi 


U 


88 


62 


1 10 


lUIj . . 






2,202 




20 


30 




Si»in . . 






1,100 


17 


10 


27 




PortOgBl . 






80 


13 


1 


14 


3 16 


Seldom . 
HoIlMid . 






2,008 


23 


18 


41 


8 2 




M 


3.288 


S 


30 


3S 


10 S 


Einope. 




3S 


211 


6 


2 


7 


1 1 


6,837 


23,(M2 


744 


253 


007 


3 10 S 


U. 8UW.. 




1,628 


6.081 


213 


46 


259 


3 9 






isa 




S3 




63 


35 


iBdi. . . 




16 


21,780 


2 


196 


198 


1 


ToUl . . . 


7.333 


64.903 


1.022 


495 


1,017 


f3 1 



C — Amounts Minted in 1881. 





Gold.*. 


8U«r,£. 


Total, £. 


P.rlDh.b 


GrertBtiUio . 


30,000 


580.000 


610.000 


£0 4 


Fnoee . . . 


990,000 




990,000 


6 


Oermuiy 




700,000 




700,000 


i 














Aurtri* 




290,000 


6,190,000 


6,450.000 


8 


lUly . 




190,000 




190.000 


3 






870,000 


6,970.000 


6,840,000 


8 






400,000 


600.000 


1,000,000 


8 8 










600,000 


2 6 


Otbei GOODtriet 
Europe. . . 






270,000 




26,110,000 


18,920.000 


44,030,000 


3 


United SUt« . 


11,220,000 


5,660.000 


16,880,000 


6 8 




790,000 


2,390,000 


8,180.000 


4 


Spui. Ainerics. 


%610,000 


6,030,000 


7,640,000 


6 6 


ToU. 


, . 


39.6SO,000 


32,000,000 


71,630,000 


2 8 



In Tablo B, tho amounts coined include much that haa 
been re-minted^ such as Nnpoleons converted in Gcrraany. 



;20 



MONEY. 



The Latin Union (France, Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, 
and Greece), coined between 1795 and 1879 as follows : — 



Gold 
Silver 



. £348,600,000 
. 220,600,000 



Balance now 
exIaUng O^SIX 
£193,000,000 

124,000,000 



Total . . £569,100,000 £317,000,000 

It appears, therefore, that almost all the coin has been 



twice minted. 
MONEY. 



A. — Amount in Millions £. 





Gold. 


SUver. 


Paper. 


Total 


Per Inhabitant 
















42 


185 


Gold. 




All Money. 


U. Kingdom . 


124 


19 


£8 10 





£5 6 


France . . . 


191 


110 


100 


401 


6 





10 10 


Germany 




76 


83 


42 


150 


1 17 





8 4 


Russia . 




22 


12 


118 


152 


5 





1 15 


Austria 




8 


12 


62 


82 


4 





2 3 


Italy . . 




30 


15 


60 


105 


1 2 





3 16 


Spain . 




28 


13 


12 


53 


1 15 





3 3 


Portugal . 




10 


4 


1 


15 


2 7 





3 10 


Belgium . 




16 


13 


13 


42 


3 





7 12 


Holland . 




5 


12 


16 


33 


1 5 





8 5 


Denmark . 




2 


1 


4 


7 


1 





3 10 


Swed. & Nor. 


4 


1 


7 


12 


17 





2 


Switzerland . 


4 


3 


4 


11 


1 10 





4 


Greece, &c. . 


8 


3 


4 
485 


10 
1,258 


6 






1 


Europe . . 


522 


251 


1 13 


.400 


United SUtes 


115 


42 


144 


301 


2 5 





5 15 


Canada . . 


2 


• ■ • 


10 


12 


9 





2 15 


Span. America 


13 


16 


65 


93 


9 





8 


India . . . 


10 


170 


12 


192 


1 





1 


Japan . . . 


15 


10 


26 


61 


10 





1 12 


Australia . . 


13 


1 


6 


19 


4 10 





6 6 


Cape Colony . 


6 


1 


1 


8 


6 





8 


Algeria . . 


2 


1 


3 


6 


13 

1 2 






2 


The Woi 


rid 


698 


491 


751 


1,940 


6 



The volume of paper-money is increasing more rapidly 
than specie: since 1848, for example, paper-money has 
multiplied fourfold, specie less than threefold. In 1848 
paper-money was about 20 per cent, of all the currency in 
use : in 1880 it was 38 per cent. 



HI 


^1 


H| 


-•1 




--i 


--I 


^1 


-*i 


^1 


^1 


Hi 


-^i 


-^1 ^ 


-t^i 


-^il 


-^h 


■5 


-=^1| 


-11 


<aq!| 


— !i 


i -=^C 


n 1 

1 i 1- 
' "1 


-^si 


T 


il |. 


ss^^i ^ 


z 


^a 1 


■«^^£ g 


S 





MONEY. 



321 



B. — Money, Banking, and Commsrcb. 





Millions £ Sterling. 


A.liquot Parts. 


Money. 

185 

401 

150 

152 

82 

105 

68 

75 

19 


Banking 
Power. 


Com- 
merce. 


Money. 


Banking. 


Com- 
merce. 


United Kingdom . 
France .... 
Germany . . . 
Bonia .... 
Austria .... 

Italy 

Snam and Port . 
Belg. andHoll . 
Scandinavia . . 

Europe . . . 
United SUtes . . 
Canada .... 
Australia . . . 

Total . . 


840 

205 

285 

155 

166 

91 

22 

53 

35 


570 

340 

330 

120 

128 

96 

53 

210 

55 


11-8 
25-6 
9-5 
97 
5-2 
67 
4-3 
4-8 
1-2 


88-6 
8*2 

11-4 
6-2 
6-6 
3-6 
0-9 
21 
1-4 


24-4 
14-6 
141 
51 
5-4 
4-1 
28 
90 
2-4 


1,237 

301 

12 

19 


1,852 

531 

35 

85 


1,902 

310 

35 

90 


78-8 

19-2 

0-8 

1-2 


74-0 

21-2 

1-4 

3-4 


81-4 

13-3 

1-5 

3-8 


1,569 


2,503 


2,837 


100-0 


1000 


1000 



C. — Hard Money at Various Epochs. 



Year. 


Amount in Millions £. 


Ratio of 


Uuited Kiugdom. 


The World. 


United 
Kingdom, 
per Cetiu 


Gold. 


Silver. 


Total. 


Gold. 


Silver. 


TotaL 


1600 . . . 
1700 . . . 
1800 . . . 
1848 . . . 
1880 . . . 


1 

12 

37 

55 

124 


2 

4 

8 

11 

19 


3 

16 

45 

66 

143 


28 

72 

120 
150 
700 


102 
225 
260 
280 
490 


130 
297 
880 
430 
1,190 


2i 

12 
15 
12 



1), — Uncovered Paper Money. 

Amount in Millions £. 





^1850. 


I860. 


1870. 


1880. 


United Kingdom 


. 15 


16 


12 


10 


France . 


3 


10 


8 


13 


Germany 


2 


8 


22 


20 


Russia . 


. 31 


52 


91 


88 


Austria 


. 18 


39 


58 


48 


Italy . 


1 • • • ■ 


• • • 


36 


59 


Other countries , 


2 


8 


16 


26 


Europe 


. 71 


133 


243 


264 


United SUtes 


. 15 


25 


130 


81 


Spanish America, 


ic . 6 


22 


55 


85 


The World 


. 92 


180 


428 


430 
X 



322 



MONEY-ORDERS— MORTGAGES. 



MONEY-OBDEBS. — The amount transmitted from the 
United States in 1882 was £1,288,000, of which £640,000 
to the United Kingdom. The amount received in United 
States from Europe was £1,660,000. 

MONTS-DE-PIETR— Government pawn-oflBces, of which 
there are 42 in France, yielding a net profit of £48,000 per 
annum, which goes to municipal hospitals. Similar institu- 
tions exist in Spain and Italy. 

No. of PlediTM. Amount. A^vnifB. 

France . . 2,970,000 £2,800,000 £0 15 « 

Spain . . . 235,000 985,000 4 4 

MORTAR — In England a proper mixture requires one- 
third lime. In March 1882, some houses were ordered to 
be pulled down at West Brighton as unsafe, the mixture 
having only one-sixth lime. 

MOBTGAGEa 





MUllons £. 






Ratio per Inhab. 








Mortgage 

Ratio to 

Value, 

per Cent 


Average 

Rate of 

Intereat, 

per Cent. 






Approx. 
amount of 
Mortg.tgcs. 


Vahie of 

IloMSCfl 

and Land. 


Mort- 
gage. 


Real 
EaUte. 


U. Kingdom . 


1,600 


3,920 


41 


4i 


£45 


£111 


France . . . 


770 


4,460 


17 


5 


20 


120 


Germany . . 


1,700 


3,450 


49 


6i 


88 


80 


Russia . . . 


450 


2,240 


20 


7 


6 


30 


Austria . . 


300 


2,040 


15 


6 


8 


55 


Italy . . . 


^35 


1,440 


37 


9 


19 


50 


Spain and Port. 


260 


1,230 


21 


11 


13 


61 


Holland . . 


55 


320 


18 


4i 


14 


80 


Belgium . . 


75 


380 


20 


5 


14 


70 


Scandinavia . 


100 


760 


13 


5i 


16 


118 


Australia . . 
Total . . 


120 


860 


83 


6 


40 


120 


t 5,965 


20,600 


29 


6 


£20 


£70 



In England, according to Ix)rd Reay, the landed prop>ertie3 
are mortgaged for 58 per cent, of their value ; in 1866 the 
estimate was only 33 per cent. In Franco the mortgages 
rose from 505 millions sterling in 1840 to 771 millions in 
1877. In Prussia the land mortgagee in 1869 were 51 per 
cent, of the value of the lands, and the house property of 
Berlin was mortgaged for 68 per cent. The mortgages held 
by the Imperial Bank of Russia reach 148 millions sterling. 
In Austria new mortgages average £11,000,000 per annum. 



MO UNTA /iVS—Af UNIFICENCB. 



323 



In Italy the mortgages rose from 353 millions sterling in 
1862 to 535 millions in 1870. In Holland the latest return 
of mortgages (1869) showed 251,000 estates mortgaged foi 
37^ millions sterling. In Spain the registry of mortgages 
averages 8^ millions sterling, and £172 per estate mortgaged. 
In New Zealand new mortgages average 9 millions sterling 
per annom, and £810 per estate mortgaged ; releases average 
3 millions sterling. In Egypt the new mortgages registered 
from 1878 to 1883 amounted to 6^ millions £. 

M0UKTAIN8. — Height in feet over sea-level : — 



Dawalagiri . . 


26,862 


Ararat . . . 


17,266 


Lebanon . 


. . 9,520 


Sorata . . . 


25,260 


Mount Blano . 


15,781 


Sinai . . , 


. . 7,500 


mimani . . . 


24,450 


Bighorn . . 


14,430 


Olympoa . , 


. . 6,500 


Chimborazo 


21,440 


Teneriflfe . . 


12,036 


Puy-Dome 


. . 4,750 


Hindoo Koosh 


20,800 


Egmont 


11,433 


Ben Nevis , 


. . 4,858 


Cotopaxi . . 


19,600 


St Bernard . 


11,006 


Vesuvius . . 


. . 8,978 


Kaa-Mowna . 


18,400 


Etna . . . 


10,963 


Snowdon . 


. . 8,571 


Orizaba . 


17,371 


Pic Blanc . . 


10,205 


Gibraltar . , 


. . 1,432 



The greatest height attained by Humboldt was 19,510 
feet, in the Andes, but Mr. Whymper, in 1880, ascended 
Cotopaxi to 19,620 feet, and Chimborazo to 20,545 feet. 



MUNIFIOENCE. 



Donor. 
Pcabody 
Baird 
Jeejeebhoy 
Mason 
HoIIoway 
Gardner 
Guy . 
Ross . 
Lick . 
Cooper 
Guinness 
Stewart 
Rowe . 
Aston . 
Galignani 
Day . 
Firth . 
Salt . 
Rossini 
Crossley 



Amount. 
£500,000 
500,000 
500,000 
430,000 
350,000 
300,000 
240,000 
200,000 
200,000 
160,000 
150,000 
150,000 
120,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100,000 
100.000 
100,000 
100,000 



Locality. 
London . 
Aberdeen 
Bombay 
Birmingham . 
Loudon . 



i» 



•» 



Glasgow 
California 
New York . 
Dublin . 
New York . 
Dublin . 
New York . 
Paris 
London . 
Sheffield 
Yorkshire 
Paris 
Halifax (£ng.) 



Object. 
Lodging-houses. 
Church endowment. 
Hospital, schools. 
Orphanages. 
Hospital and school. 
Blind asylum. 
Hospital. 
Hospitals. 
Observatory. 
Schools. 
Church. 
Hospitals. 
Church. 
Library. 

Anylum for aged. 
Blind asylum. 
Schools and asylum. 
Hospital, &.C. 
Aged musicians. 
Orphanage. 



324 



MURDER^ NAMES. 



MUBDEB. 





/kf^iiti^l 


Anniud 


Murders 

— - - « jh jM^a 




Ifurdera. 


Deathe. 


par 10.000 
Deatba. 


EnglAnd 
Izelkiid . 


877 
91 


531,000 
103,000 


71 
8-8 


Fnnoo . 


662 


885,000 


8-0 


Germany 


995 


1,148,000 


6-4 


Bnstia . 


2,000 


2,474,000 


8-0 


Austria . 


600 


680,000 


8-8 


Italy . 


. 2,470 


840,000 


29-4 


Spain 


. 1,200 


505,000 


28-8 


Scandinavia . 


110 


150,000 


7-4 


Switzerland 


88 


64,000 


18-8 


United States 


. 2,057 


980,000 


21-5 


Australia 


63 


87,000 


17*0 



Some countries indade infanticide and manslaughter, 
others do not, for which reason a true comparison is im- 
possible. 

B. — Homicide in England. 





Number of Victimi. 


Wilful murder . 
Manslaughter . 
Infanticide 


Male. Female. TotaL 
43 54 97 
. 115 58 173 
48 56 104 



Total ... 206 168 

liUSEUMa— United Kingdom, 1881. 



374 





Visitors. 
Thousands 




Viffitoni. 
numsanda 




Omitted. 




Omitted. 


British Museum 


790 


National Gallery 


958 


South Kensington 


. 1,017 


Kew Gardens . 


612 


Bethnal Green . 


451 


Edinburgh 


850 


Patent Office . 


266 


Dublin 


192 



N 

KAMES.— The tatio in England per 1000 shows : — 



Mary. . 


. . 68 


George . 


. . 36 


Henry 


William . 


. . 66 


Sarah 


. . 36 


Alice 


John . . 


. . 62 


Anne 


. . 83 


Joseph 


Eliza . . 


. . 61 


James 


. . 31 


Jane . 


Thomas . 


. . 89 


Charles . 


. . 23 


Ellen. 



21 
19 
18 
17 
16 



\ 



NATURAL HISTORY— NAVIES. 



325 



NATURAL mSTOEY.— According to Prof. PhiUips— 



TcrroBtriAl 
Fresh-water 
Marine . 



Total 



i^nimals. 


Plants. 


115,500 


59,000 


8,560 


100 


11,760 


1,000 



130,810 



60,100 



The above classification was made in 1836. 
NAVIB& 







A.— 


Strength 


IN 1882 


. 






Ships. 


Men. 


Guns. 


Cost, 

Thousands. 


Annual 
Co8t,Penos 
perlnhab. 


TJ. Kingdom 


210 


58,000 


1,481 


£10,700 


72 


France 


856 


43,000 


2,834 


6,800 


44 


Germany 




81 


16,000 


570 


2,000 


11 


Russia 




389 


26,000 


836 


8,000 


9 


Austria 




65 


10,000 


320 


900 


6 


Italj . 




67 


16,000 


480 


1,800 


16 


Spain. 




121 


14,000 


625 


1,300 


19 


Portugal 




41 


3,000 


178 


300 


16 


HoUand 




120 


8,000 


660 


1,000 


60 


Denmark . 




58 


1,000 


245 


300 


36 


Sweden and Kor. 


264 
1,772 


9,000 


672 
8,701 


500 


19 


Europe . 


203,000 


28,600 


24 


U. SUtes . 


138 


8,000 


1,055 


8,100 


14 


Brazil 


41 


4,000 


166 


1,200 


82 


Japan 


27 


6,000 


149 


600 


5 


Argent Republic 


27 


2,000 


88 


200 


24 


Chili . 


23 
2,028 


3,000 
226,000 


55 
10.214 


200 


21 


The World . 


£33.900 


22 



R— Navies op 1840. 









Ratio of 




Ships. 


Guns. 


Fighting 
Power. 


Great Britain . 


892 


16,310 


40 


France . . . . 


146 


7,620 


19 


Russia . 


83 


6,460 


14 


United SUtes . 


60 


3,250 


8 


Turkey . 


33 


2,440 


6 


Holland . 


30 


1,640 


4 


Spain 


26 


610 


14 


Other countries 


57 


2,779 


7i 


The Worid 


827 


40.109 


100 



NA VIES. 
C— Iros-clad Flebts is 1882. 











Plaliiig. 








VCHCU. 


TOB.. 




In^h^ 


Oom 














U.I. 




GuDI. 


VaxJ 


Grot Brituu 


61 


375,000 


7,400 


24 


470 


7,030 


138 


fruiM . . . 


CS 


309,000 


6,200 


21 


404 


6,685 


101 




24 


87.000 


tfiiO 


10 


14fl 


2.066 


86 


Ru»i- . : : 


se 


92.000 


3.170 


IS 


102 


2,424 


84 


AnrtrU . . 


u 


68,000 


4,160 


13 


133 


1.420 


101 


J^::: 


IS 


81.000 


4,450 


3fl 


133 


2,195 


122 


10 


33,000 


3.S00 


6 


195 


810 


81 


Turltey . . 


16 


61,000 


4,070 


12 


134 


1,335 


89 


aolltnd . . 


19 


3<,00D 


1.800 


8 


67 


622 


33 


Denmult . . 


7 


23,000 


3,300 


10 


63 


611 


73 


Swed-andNor 


18 


10,000 


650 




■:e 


104 


6 


Portugal . . 


3 


*,000 


1,300 


i'o 


31 


86 


S9 


2fir 


1,177,000 


1.400 


86 


2,013 


24,657 


Ba 


United SUt« 


£4 


21,000 


B90 




74 






BruU . . . 


9 


11,000 


1,200 




45 






Arg«nt[ne. . 


3 


6,000 


1,700 




15 






Cbilina . . 


3 


*,000 


1,300 


"a 


22 


225 


T6 


The World 


* 


11,000 


2,S00 


a 


19 


244 


61 


310 


1,232,000 


3,970 


3fl 


2,!SS 


25,026 81 1 



" in 30 years has been : 
war, 4-iiich plates, per- 



The progress o£ " iron-clad eci 
1854. Gunboals buUt for Crii 
fcctly shot-proot, 

18C2. Mciriniacs and Jlonitors used in American war. 

1873. English rifio caunon send 200 lb. shots, 9-ton guns, 
through 8-inch plates. 

1874. Plates of 10 inches pierced in like manner. 

1876. Armstrong 100-ton gima broke 22-inch Crensot 
steel plates. 

1879. Shot from 9-inch gun, 75 lbs. powder, unable to 
pierce a 12-inch plate of iron and steel alternate layers 

1880. Eesult of Knipp's experiments : — 



Krapp 

Britisb 



»1 



343 



IS-1 

17-a 



12,360 

Krupp'a shot penetrated 1 8-inch plates, the British did not 
1882. Italian ironclad, "Lepanto," has plat«s 36 inches 
thick. 




NA VIES. 
J). — Principal Ibonclads Afloat. 



.^ 


FUg. 


,^. 




Flitu, 
Incb... 


'o-r' 


Lepmto . 


Italiui . . 


■ 14.800 


18,000 


36 


4S0 


DuUio. . . . 




10,650 


7,600 


22 


400 


InBeiible. . . 


British . . 


11,170 


8,000 


24 


324 


ColoHIU . . . 




9,160 


6,000 


IB 


172 


liKudin . . . 


FrcDth . . 


Il.liO 


7,000 




300 






8,700 


6,000 


fl 


172 


Kon. Wah«!n) . 




MOO 




9 


300 


Mi^diji . . 


TurkUh. . 




5,r.00 




235 


Petet tho Great 


RuSMftO. . 




2,200 




140 


Te««thoff. . . 


Aoitrian 


7,JO0 


S,000 




160 




Spuiiib. . 


7,!00 


6,000 


6 


160 




l>utch . . 


3,500 


2,200 


8 


140 


UeUffoIaud . . 


Daniflh . . 


6,500 


3,700 


10 


B8 






3,700 


3,500 





75 


CochrWiB. . . 


Chili . . . 


2. -200 


2,510 





75 


hlOWD . . . 


Argentine . 


1,700 


1.500 


9 


75 



The average cost of building ironclads has been, per ton, 
British X48, French £55, Italian £57, German £60. In- 
cluding gunB and equipment, an ordinary ironclad now costs 
£80 per ton. The new Italian vessel, "Leponto," is the 
greatest war-vessel ever built, nnd cost £1,100,000, fully 
ciiuipped ; she was 6 years building, and is 402 feet keel. 
E. — BniTiae and TitKNcn Ikonclads Compahbd. 



cl™. 


v«. 


.:!* 


Gu«.T«p.. 


Gu-^Ton, 


^perehlp. 


Dritiah. 


FnEch, 


BAtiMb. 


FrcDcb. 


Brdtl^ 


F„ucL. 


Irt . . 
2nd . . 
3rd . . 

TotAl . 


27 
15 


17 
31 


1,826 
4.097 
1,107 


2,084 
2,490 
1.301 


203 
151 


190 
146 
45 


51 


69 


7,030 


5,966 


138 


,.> 



P.— British DocKYABPa (1806-SO). 



BuUtbf 


Tom DuUl, Tli.1 


™,d.. 


C«t,Tb™«nd.£. 1 


Iron. 


Wooden 


ToUl. 


Itou. 


Woulcn. 


Toul. 1 


ToUl . . 


123 

56 


85 
41 


1 208 
1 96 


5.466 
2,709 


3.964 
2.321 


9,430 
6,030 


178 


126 


|304 


3,175 


6,285 ,14,460 1 



328 NAVIES^NEGROES IN UNITED STATES. 

The cost of coDfitructiou per ton of displacement was less 
in Government^ but per ton of hull less in contractois' yards, 
viz. : — 

I)t>cky«rd. ContiftcttirK. 

Per ton displaoement . £45 7 £52 8 

„ of hnU . id 8 41 12 

The cost of French ironclads built in State dockyards has 
been 30 per cent more than those built by contractors. 



G. — Rise of British Navy. 



Year. 


VeweU. 


Tom. 


Ouaa. 


Men. 


Goetper An. 


1608 .... 


42 


17,000 


• •• 


■ • • 


£180,000 


1685 .... 


179 


104,000 


6,980 


10,000 


890,000 


1760 .... 


825 


821,000 


10,600 


51,000 


5.611,000 


1808 .... 


450 


461,000 


24,800 


180,000 


12,087,000 


1850 .... 


585 


570,000 


17,200 


48,000 6,488,000 


1882 .... 


210 


680,000 


1,480 


58,000 10,700,000 



II. — Age op Men in British Navy. 



Under 25 . 
25 to 35 . 
85 to 45 . 
Over 45 

ToUl 



53 per cent. 
33 
12 
2 



I* 



*t 



>t 



100 



The death-rate during the past 10 years averaged 10'4 per 
1000, against 19*6 in the British mercantile marine. 

I. — British Navy Expenditure (1882). 

Nutnlier. Coat. 

Seamen .... 58,100 £8,718,000 

Workmen . . 16,000 1,446,000 

PenBionn ... ... 2,063,000 

Stores 2,406,000 

Sundriei 1,098,000 



Total . 

NEOBOES m UNITED STATEa 



£10,726,000 



Year. 

1800 
1820 
1840 



Number, 
Tboua^mdi. 

1,002 
1,772 
2,874 



Ratio to I 
PoPm per 
Cent. 

19 

19 

17 



Year. 

1860 
1870 
1880 



Number, 
Tkouaande. 

4,442 
4,880 
6,581 



Ratio to 

Pop., per 

OaoL 

14 

18 

18 




KERVOUS SYSTEM— OATS. 



NERVOUS SYSTEM. 



1-0 0-9 



ToUl . 100-0 100-0 100-0 100-0 100-0 

NSWS. — In 1811 the uews published in the Paris papers 
had taken the following number of days to reach Paris : — 

Fraa '*^*'l 'i™* I>OT>-| From Da;*. 

StiuboTg ... 6 Brest . . . . fl Roma .... 11 

LyoDB .... 6 I Antwerp ... 7 I MailrJd ... 21 

The average speed was 70 miles a day. For uevapapers 

see Prege. 

NIOOTIKE.— OrRla found in 

HftTiDHkh tobacco .... 2 pei cent 
Freoch „ .... 6 „ 

Vir^ia 7 „ 

The proportion in Brazilian is still higher. 
MlTit£. — Atacama(Chile) exports 350,000 tons per annum. 
The nitre is about 2 feet below the surface ; one bed coven 
5000 acres, 4 feet in thickness, sey 25 million tons, worth 300 
millions sterling. 



OAK. See page 447. 
OATS. 

Uniteil Kingdom 

Germuij . 
Itunift 

lUly and SpkiD , 
Belgian) and Holland . 
Scandinairia 

United State* . 
Canada 



2,000 
81,910 



llilllona. par Acra. 



33^ 



OBESITY -OBSER VA TORIES. 



OBESITY. See Corjmlence. 






OBELISKS. 








Name. 
Wellington 
Monument 


Locality. 
Dublin 
London 


Height, Ft 
205 
202 


Weight, T 
1,000 
1.800 


Nelson . 

i» • • < 

*Lateran . 


t* • 
Dublin 

Rome . 


177 
125 
105 


1,500 

1,000 

445 


Alexander 
•Vatican . 


St. Petersburg 
Rome . 


84 
83 


200 
220 


•Luxor 


Paris . 


76 


240 


♦Cleopatra 
•Meidan . 
♦Quirinal . 


London 
Constantinople 
Rome . 


68 
50 
48 


140 
60 
60 



In the foregoing table those marked with an asierifik are 
Egyptian monoliths, or real obelisks, of extreme antiquitj. 
There is also a very fine obelisk at Heliopolis, still 8tandin«{. 
The second of Cleopatra's Needles has been removed to the 
United States, for erection in New York. 



OBSERVATORIES. 



A. — Number. 




B. — Telescopes. 


United Kingdom 


14 


• 


IncLea 


France . . . . 


6 




Apeiture. 


Germany , . . . 


29 


I^rd Rosse . 


. 72 


RuHsia . . . . 


12 


liassell . . . . 


48 


Italy 


9 


Herschell 


48 


Austria 


8 


Polkova 


30 


Switzerland 


4 


San Jose, California 


28 


Other countries . 


. 12 


Vienna. 


27 




— 


Washington . 


26 


Europe . 


. 94 


Newcastle . 


25 


United SUtes . 


. 19 


Pultowa 


16 


Canada 


1 


Cambridge, U.S. . 


15 


Spanish America 


7 


Paris .... 


IS 


Asia .... 


2 


Greenwich . 


12 


Africa 


. 2 


Cincinnati . 


12 


Australia . . . , 


3 


Munich 


11 






Rome .... 


10 


The World . 


128 


Berlin .... 


10 



Leyden Observatory was founded 1632, Copenhagen 1637, 
Greenwich 1675, Paris 1677. 

Lord Rosse's telescope brings the moon apparently within 
50 miles of our view. 




OCCUPATIONS 
OOOVPATIONa 

A. — WOKKERB IN ALL NATIONS. 







Itmlo. 


Total. 


r^- 


(kIS™. 


Twiou.. 


igrt. 


Ifona- 


Varioui. 


EnKlud. . 


1.657 


6,138 


7,968 


U-3 


34-7 


510 


100 


ScotUnd. . 


270 


740 


1,171 






53-7 


100 


treUad . . 

U.ElDgdom 


1,062 


351 


2,150 


29-9 


B-S 


60-2 


100 


2,989 


6,'211 


11,289 


14-6 


LlO-4 


55-0 


100 


France . . 


14,192 


6.615 




51 


24 


2S 


100 


GenniiDy . 


12,920 


10,110 


7,014 


13 


31 


23 


100 




40,E.9a 


2.136 


6,494 


81 


6 


14 


100 




13,766 


3,266 


7,987 


66 


13 


82 


100 


luij . . . 


12,862 


1,27* 


4,174 


70 


7 




100 


Spain. . . 


3,360 


1,344 


6,416 


SO 


12 


68 


100 


P^R.1. . 


1,251 


220 


1,306 


IS 


S 


47 


IDO 


Ho^nd! : 
















1,563 


321 


806 


58 


12 


30 


100 


IkudinkvlA 
Europe . 


3,610 


520 


1,760 


01 


s 


30 


100 


108,504 


83,813 


55,052 


55 


17 




100 


U. States . 
Total . . 


7,713 


8,526 


18.876 


2S 


12 




100 


llfl,2I7 


37,339 


73,928 


51 


17 


32 


100 



B. — OccuPATioKS IN United Kinodoh. 





Tl>ou»»d.. 


aitio. 


IWl. 


IMI. 


isn. 


IML 


IMI. 


1871. 


Manufwturing 
VAriooi . . . 

Total . 

Cbadten . . . 


387 
759 
3,922 
4.254 
8,539 


699 
822 
3,436 

5,842 
8,299 


794 
1,038 
2,989 
6,211 
9,157 


2-2 
4-3 
21-8 
23-8 
47-9 


3-1 
4-8 

18-1 
3U7 
43-8 


8-9 

6-1 
14-6 

30-4 
46-0 


17,861 
9,651 


18,998 
10,006 


20,519 
11,139 


lOO-O 


100-0 


100-0 


27,612 


29,084 


31,658 


... 







For Ceiwus of 1881, see page 335. 



332 



OCCUPATIONS. 



C. — Occupations in England. 







Thousands. 


Percentage. 


Year. 


Agri- 
culuire. 


Trade and 
Munufac. 


Various. 


Agri- 
culture. 


Trade and 
Manufae. 


Yarloo*. 


1811 . , 
1821 . 
1831 . , 
1841 . 
1861 . . 
1861 . , 
1871 . 




896 
979 
961 
1,499 
2,029 
2,011 
1,657 


1,129 
1,350 
1,436 
8,111 
8,692 
4,829 
5,953 


519 
612 
1,018 
2,180 
6,927 
6,234 
7,153 


36 
33 
28 
22 
17 
16 
11 


44 

46 
42 
46 
81 
87 
40 


21 
21 
30 
82 
52 
48 
49 



D. — Occupations in England, under Sexes. 



Class. 


Males, Thousands. 


Females, Thousands. 


1851. 


1861. 

385 

585 

1,632 

3,263 

505 

3,431 


1871. 


1851. 


ISf.l. 1871, 


Professional 

Commercial 

Agricultural 

Manufacturing . 

Various 

Children 


201 

470 

1,571 

2,476 

989 

3,073 


486 

758 

1,470 

3,616 

858 

3,871 


71 

51 

458 

695 

4,666 

3,199 


97 

38 

379 

1,566 

4,626 

3,612 


198 
57 

187 
1,522 
5,611 
4,078 


Total 


8,780 1 9,801 11,059 


9,140 10,318 


11,653 

1 



E. — Occupations in England, according to Age. 



Class. 


Thousands. 


Under 20. 


Over 20. 


1851. 1861. 


1871. 

204 

164 

356 

1,147 

1,455 


1851. 

250 

406 

1,590 

2,396 

4,411 


1801. 

419 

502 

1,606 

3,746 

4,062 


1871. 

480 

651 

1.301 

8,991 

6,014 


Professional 
Commercial 
Agricultural 
Manufacturing . 
Various 

ToUl 


22 

115 

439 

775 

1,244 


63 

121 

405 

1,083 

1,077 


2,595 2,749 


3,326 


9,053 


10,325 


11.437 



OCCUPATIONS. 



333 



F. — Ratio in Enqland, undeb Sbxbs. 



CUsa. 


1851. 


1871. 


Male. 


Female. 


Total 


Malei 


Female. 


Total 


Profesdonal 
Commercial 
Affricoltoral 
Stumufacturing . 
Various 

Total 


1-8 

4 

18-5 

21-8 

8-5 


0-6 
0-4 
4 
6 
89-9 


2*4 8-8 

4-4 5-2 

17-5 100 

27-8 , 24-4 

48-4 5*8 


1-8 

0-4 

1-8 

10-8 

88-0 


4-6 

6-6 

11-8 

847 

48-8 


49 1 


50-9 


100-0 487 


51-8 


100 



G. — Ratio of -Enqush Occupations (Age). 





1851. 


i8n. 


Under SO. 


Over SO. 


Total 


Under SO. 


Over SO. 


Total 


Professional . 
Commercial 
Agricultural . 
Manufacturing 
Various . . 

Total . . 


0-2 
1-0 
8-8 
6-6 
10 7 


2-2 

8-5 

14-0 

20-6 

87-4 


2-4 

4-5 

17-8 

27-2 

48-1 


1-8 
11 
2-4 
77 
9-9 


8-2 

4-2 

8-5 

27-5 

84-2 


4-5 

5-8 

10-9 

85-2 

441 


22-8 


777 


1000 


22-4 


77-6 


1000 



H — Occupations in Scotland. 





Tbousanda. 


Percentage. 


1851 


18«l. 


1871. 


1851. 


18«1. 


1871. 


Professional . . 
Commercial . . 
Ag^cultural 
Manufacturing . 
Various . . . 

Total . . . 
Children . . . 

Population . 


S3 

74 

861 

543 

860 


52 

83 

872 

682 

806 


54 

115 

270 

749 

1,002 


17 

4-0 

19-8 

28-8 

457 


2-6 

4-2 

18-6 

841 

40-5 


2-6 

5-2 

12-8 

84-0 

46-0 


1,871 
1,018 


1,995 
1,070 


2,190 
1,176 


100-0 

• • • 


100-0 

• • • 


100-0 

• • • 


2,889 


3,065 


3,366 


• • • 


• • • 


• •• 



334 



OCCUPATIONS. 



L — Occupations in Ireland. 



Y««r. 


Adult Population, Thousands. 


RaUo. 


Agricul- 
tural. 


Various. 


TotaL 


Agricul- 

tural. 


Yarioiu. 


Totd. 


1841 . 
1851 . 
1861 . 
1871 . 
1881 . 


1,904 
1,582 
1,053 
1,062 
998 


8,015 

2,794 
2,504 
2,372 


4,917 
4,192 
8,847 
8,566 
8,870 


89 
87 
27 
80 
30 


61 
63 
78 
70 
70 


100 
100 
100 
100 
100 



K. — Trades and Professions in England. 





Thousands. 




ThOOMD 
1811. 1831. 


da. 




1841. 


1851 


1871. 


187L 


Acton . . . . 


1 


2 


7 


Gunsmiths . . 


5 


7 


12 


Architects . . . 


1 


3 


6 


Hairdressers . . 


9 


11 


13 


Artists . . . . 


3 


7 


17 


Hatters . . . 


17 


16 


22 


Bakers . . . . 


. 36 


62 


59 


Iron operatives . 


117 


265 


860 


Bookbinders . , 


5 


10 


16 


Law .... 


18 


27 


37 


Booksellers . , 


5 


7 


8 


Linen operatives 


16 


27 


27 


Brewers . . . 


9 


17 


26 


Medicine . . . 


17 


29 


44 


Bricklayers 


. 39 


67 


100 


Merchants . . 


11 


8 


16 


Brickmakers . 


. 17 


28 


89 


Millers . . . 


22 


83 


30 


Builders . . . 


8 


12 


23 


Miners . . . 


108 


261 


376 


Butchers . . . 


45 


63 


76 


Municipal officials 12 


27 


51 


Carriers . . 


. 195 


346 


528 


Papermakers 


5 


11 


17 


Carpenters . . 


. 137 


156 


206 


Plumbers . . . 


38 


56 


103 


Civil Service . . 


. 20 


86 


54 


Potters . . . 


24 


35 


45 


Clergy . . . . 


15 


28 


39 


Printers . . . 


15 


22 


45 


Clerks . . . 


. 49 


CO 


119 


Railway officials 


3 


25 


85 


Coachmakers . 


. 12 


17 


23 


Saddlers . . . 


14 


15 


23 


Coopers . . . 


. 14 


16 


19 


Sawyers . . . 


25 


31 


28 


Cotton operatives 


215 


458 


533 


Servants , . . 


977 


908 1,503 


Dressmakers . 


. 92 


234 


299 


Shipbuilders . . 


17 


20 


41 


Druggists . . . 


10 


15 


19 


Shoemakers . . 


188 


240 


223 


Engineers, Civil , 


2 


3 


5 


Silk operatives . 


54 


117 


77 


Engine-drivers . 


« • • 


7 


31 


Tailors . . . 


108 


132 


150 


Fishermen . . . 


10 


17 


21 


Teachers . . . 


47 


67 


127 


Gamekeepers . . 


6 


8 


12 


U pholsterers . . 


26 


34 


57 


Gardeners . . . 


45 


72 


98 


Waggoners . . 


26 


44 


74 


Gaswork operat. , 


1 


6 


14 


Watchmakers . 


13 


17 


22 


Glassmakers . . 


7 


12 


20 


W hcelwrights . 


25 


28 


30 


Greengrocers . . 


8 


14 


26 


Wine- merchants 


2 


7 


10 


Grocers . . . 


. 41 


71 


111 


Woollen operat. 


109 


242 


252 



OCCUPA TIONS—OCTROI. 



335 



L— OcCtTPATIONS AND EARNINGS, UnITBD KINGDOM, 1883 

(Levi). 





§2 


Enminge, 
Millions £. 


£ 
per Head. 




■if 

fco 


Samings, 
MiUions2. 




Amy • • • 


182 


7-0 


89 


Forward • 


.8,080 


8811 


41 


Agridaboorert 1,882 


671 


86 


Mills, cotton 


. 619 


28*6 


45 


Baken . • . 


92 


4-4 


48 


„ linen 


. 138 


4*4 


32 


Bootmaken 


254 


126 


50 


>* mUe • 


. 61 


2-0 


33 


Bailders . . . 


736 


416 


55 


„ woollen 


. 260 


9*2 


35 


Cabinetmaken 


79 


4*6 


58 


Navy . . . 


. 56 


80 


54 


Oarrian . . 


199 


9-8 


47 


Papermakers 


. 66 


2*6 


86 


Ooitermongera 


77 


2-9 


36 1 Police . . 


. 58 


3*6 


68 


Ckiaohmakeia . 


97 


4-2 


43:Pottery . . 


. 65 


3*3 


60 


Domestici . 


1,951 


68-5 


37 


Printers . . 


• 80 


4*9 


61 


Dyers . . . 


88 


2-8 


32 


Quarries . . 


. 64 


8*6 


65 


Hatten . . . 


54 


1-9 


35 


Railways . 


. 205 


10*6 


52 


Hosiery . . . 


64 


2*4 


87 


Sawyers . . 


. 116 


6*4 


55 


Ironworkers 


635 


82*1 


60 


Seamen . . 


. 876 


21-2 


56 


Labourers . . 


929 


28*6 


80 


Shipwrights 
Shirtmakers 


. 62 


2*5 


40 


Mechanics . . 


192 


12*5 


65 


. 161 


8*1 


20 


Messengers . . 


164 


4-0 


25 


Tailors . . 


. 655 


238 


36 


Miners . . . 


505 


24 6 


49 


Various . . 


1,158 


57*5 


60 



8,080 331-1 41^ Total . 12,265 521*2 42 

The above includes not only wages, but also board and lodging ; tailors 
include milliners. See Occupationt in Appendix. 

M. — Occupations in Germant (1881). 

Clam. 
Agricultural .... 
Manufactures .... 

Commerce 

Simdiy ..... 



PrusioiA. 


Germany. 


42-7 


415 


83-2 


31*1 


8-2 


6*2 


15-9 


21*2 



Total 
OCEANS. See Seas. 



100-0 



100 



OGTKOI 

A. — Aggregate for all Towns in France. 



1823 


. £2,470,000 


1833 


2,640,000 


1843 


8,802,000 


1853 


3,617,000 


1863 


6,298,000 


1873 


8,451,000 


1880 


. 11,040,000 



Poptilatlon 
Taxed. 


Per Inhabw 


Shillings. 


6,998,000 


8 


6,306,000 


8 


7,297,000 


9 


7,330,000 


10 


9,682,000 


13 


10,517,000 


16 


11,255,000 


20 



336 



OCTROI— OIL, 



B. — Components op Octroi in 1877. 



Leried on 


Amount. 


Penc«. 


Wine .... 


£3,078,000 


68 


Spirits .... 


720,000 


16 


Meat, bread, ftc. . 


3,631,000 


78 


Fuel, forage . 


1,604,000 


83 


Sondriea 


1,177,000 


26 


Total . £10,006,000 


220 


C. — Octroi 


OP Pari& 




Tear. Amount. 


Population. 


PerHead, 

Siiillinga. 


1801 . . . £441,000 


663,000 


16 


1821 . . . 1,040,000 


724,000 


29 


1845 . . . 1,870,000 


986,000 


28 


1867 . . . 4,030,000 


1,732,000 


46 


1880 . . . 6,640,000 


2,180,000 


62 



D. — Increase since 1867. 





Amount 


Shillings per Inhab. 


1867. 


1880. 


1867. 


1880. 


Paris 

' Marseilles 
Lyons . 
Rouen . 
Bordeaux 
Nice 


£4,030,000 
307,000 
244,000 
102,000 
112,000 

• • • 


6,640,000 
490,000 
480,000 
166,000 

76,000 


46 
21 
16 
21 
12 

• • • 


62 
28 
25 
29 

• • • 

28 



on.. 



A. — Pounds of Oil from 100 lbs. of 



Horse-chestnuts . 6 
Beechmast . . .16 
Hempseed ... 18 
European linseed . 25 



Indian linseed . . 29 

Olives 83 

Rape 33 

Colza 40 



Almonds . . . 


. 48 


Poppy . . . 


. 58 


Walnuts . . . 


. 60 


Castor-oil seed . 


. 62 



B. — Production of Olive Oil. 





Acres 

<Ti ouKandfl 

Umi ted). 


Tons 
OliTos. 


Oil. 

Million 
Gallons. 


Gallons 

per 

Acre. 

14 
16 
18 
12 


Value of 

Crop 

(Thousands 

Omitted> 


lUly . 

Spain and Portugal 
France . 
Greece . 

Total 


2,224 

1,500 

320 

400 


110,000 
90,000 
22,000 
18,000 


81 

25 

6 

6 


£5,800 

8,800 

1,200 

700 


4,444 


240,000 


67 


15 


£11,500 1 
1 




OIL— OPERA TI VES, 
C. — Pbieolbum is trNrnm Statbs. 



T„. 


Anniul ATinga, 


Produced 
{Tlnnmnd. 
OmitUd). 


P«0>1li<., 




B-port. 


186»-«. . . 
18«-fl8. . . 
1868-78. . . 
1871-80. . . 
1881 . . . 


SO 
180 
320 
880 
960 


e 

iS 
133 

B*0 
480 


£6.700 

e,soo 

11,600 
18,700 
1G,600 


92 
17 
9 
6 
1 



There are 15,500 wells witbia an area of 40 square miles 
(Fen&BjlTuiis), but only 6000 are working. Depth varies 
from 400 to 1200 feet Each bore cosU XIOOO, and only 
1 ia 5 Btrikes oiL 

D. — Marine Oils, 

Annukl OalloDi aiUotil 
Blliu^tvr, Oil- TMr f^r«AAL 

Whklei 

Se>la . 
Penguins 

About 300 gallons of oil will suffice in 20 minutes to 
smooth the roughest sea (Admiralty experiments, Aberdeen, 
December 3, 1882). 

OFAL. — The Emperor of Austria has one weighing 17 
ounces, and for which he refused an offer of j£50,000. 

OFE&ATIVES. 

A. — NCIIBKHB EllPLOIED (THOUSANDS). 



TMo 


8,300,000 


2,200 


GGO,000 


3,300,000 


6 


1,800,000 









In»«tort«. 








^ 




Itatlle. 


Vnrioai 


Mining. 


cnfL 


ToUl. 


n. EingJom . 


1,060 


720 


600 


3,811 


8,211 


18 




620 


130 


208 


6,359 




IS 


OermuiT 




632 


180 


231 


8,787 


10.140 


22 






351 


286 


207 


1,689 


2,138 


3 


Austria . 




sso 


190 


92 


2,321 


3,288 


9 






130 


240 


38 


883 


1.27* 


6 


3p^ . 




90 


110 


71 


1,073 


1,344 


8 






280 


130 


105 


921 


1,436 




United 3Ul«.. 


&lfi 


I,M* 


6S0 


787 


3,626 


7 


ToUl 




1,071 


1.420 


2.168 


26,629 86,278 


lOi 



338 



OPIUM-GRANGES. 



K — Textilb OpsBATiyBs IN Unitxd KmODOM. 



Year. 

1835 
1850 
1880 



ThouMado. 



Ken. 
82 
158 
232 



WoneiL 
167 
329 
543 



Children. 
104 
109 
201 



Total. 
353 
596 
976 



Batioto 

Popnlatioi^ 



1-4 
2-S 

2^ 



Cotton . 
Wool 
FUx, &c 
Silk 



115 
72 
37 

8 



259 

118 

138 

28 



Total in 1880 232 



543 



1835 
1850 
1860 
1870 
1880 



Englittd. 
295 
501 
643 
718 
774 



108 
48 
85 
10 

201 

flootland. 

40 

67 

95 
127 
138 



482 

238 

210 

46 

976 

Ireland. 
18 
28 
38 
62 
64 



••• 
••• 
••• 



U. 



353 

596 
776 
907 
976 



See Manufactures, Occupations^ 'Wages, 



OPIUM. — Annual shipments from India : — 

Years. Cheats. Tona. 

1861-66 . . 73,100 4,805 

1866-70 . . 82,800 4,870 

1871-76 . . 89,200 5,250 

1876-80 . . 102,100 6,005 



Value. 

£10,810,000 

11,240,000 

11,790,000 

12,640,000 



Per Ten. 

£2,510 
2,290 
2,250 
2,106 



The Chinese impose a duty of £5 per ton. It is retailed 
at 2 shillings per ounce, or double the price of native opium. 
The province of Hankow produces 5300 tons per i^nnnm 
There are in China 3 million opium-smokers. 

OBANGES.— Italy has 5,400,000 trees, which give 1600 
million oranges yearly, say 300 per tree. The average in 
Seville is said to be 600 per tree. The island of St Michaers, 
Azores, with an area of only 210,000 acres (about equal to 
the Isle of Man), sends 250 million oranges yearly to Eng- 
land, worth £300,000. 



A. — Exporting Countries. 

MUIiona. 


R 

1854 
1861 
1871 
1881 


— Importation into 

U. KiNODOH. 


Spftin 
It*ly . 
Greece . 
Azores . 


1S02. 1870. 1880. 
. 150 230 960 
. 4G0 780 930 
. 23 47 30 
. 300 300 300 


244 9 9/ 
. . 390 13 11/ 
. . 712 23 8/ 
. . 1,152 33 7/6 



ORCHA RDS'-OZONE. 



339 



There is no return of the qoantities shipped from the 
Azores in 1862 or 1870. Each inhabitant of the United 
Kingdom spends 1 shilling per annum on oranges, or, allow- 
ing for retail, almost 2 shillings. 

OBCHABD& — The orchards of the United Eangdom cover 
an area of 180,000 acres, and produce 85,000 tons of apples ; 
those of France, 560,000 acres, from which are obtained 220 
million gallons cider yearly. 

ORPHANS.— In 1882 there were 61,000 in the French 
asylums. See Charities. 

08TSI0HE8.— The production of ostrich feathers is as 

foUowS:— Ll». Peathem. Value. ^~|gj 

260,000 
20,000 

4,000 

2,000 
160,000 

About 35,000 birds are plucked annually at the Cape, 
averaging 3 lbs. per bird. In Buenos Ayres they are 
slaughtered, and the race is dying out. 



Gape Colony 
TnpoU . 
Egypt 
Morocco . 
Buenoo Ayres 



Value. 

£1,040,000 

200,000 

40,000 

20,000 

82,000 



ATei 

per 
£4 
10 
10 
10 

48. 



'XSXliiUI. 




Per Annum. 




U. Kingdom . 
France . . 
United SUtes 
Portugal . . 


Production, 
Millions. 

800 

880 

. 11,200 

600 


Consumption, 
MUli(>ns. 

London . . 220 

Paris ... 67 

New York . 810 

Franoe . . 260 


Per 
Inhabw 

60 

26 

660 

7 



Total . . 12,480 

Baltimore packs 7 million bushels per annum. An oyster 
3 months old is the size of a shilling, 6 months half-a-crown, 
but is not fit to eat before 4 years old. The oyster beds 
established by advice of Abb^ Bonnetard in France produced 
97 million oysters in 1881. 

OZOKEBIT. — Ozokerit is a mineral oil from layers of wax 
found at Borislav, Galitzia. The mines arc about 25Q feet 
deep, employing 9000 men, who raise 30,000 tons, worth 
X480,000 per annum. 

OZONR — The Scottish Meteorological Society report as 
follows : — 

November . . 5*8 | ll^y ... 6*2 
Annual average 6*0 



PALUS—PAPER. 



VAliUB. — There are 13 million date-palnu in India, 
wbich produce annually 4 lbs. sugar each. The numbei of 
date-palms in £g7pt in 1880 waa 4J millions; 



A. — PRODUOnON AND 


COHBDHPTIOK. 




UlUlaiuLbL 








n. Emsdom 


. m 


430 


rnmoT . 


. 880 


830 




. *60 


ilO 


RuMi. . 


80 


90 


Aaatru , 


160 


120 


Italy 


105 


110 


Sp«n . 


20 


32 


PortiigJ . 


10 


10 


Belgium . 


70 


*0 


HolUnd . 




16 


SoandiDnvia 




30 


Switzerland 


'. 20 


IS 


Turkey and G 




12 


Europe 


. 1,819 


1,618 


United 3uteg 


630 


eio 


CanaJa . 


H 


IS 


Spanuli Amer 


m . 2 


14 


Australia 




17 


Otber countrit 




as 


The WorL 


1 . ^365 


asw 



IS. — CoMroKEsia is Prodcctiok. 

1 

rlil. Toi» Uaed. Tonii, Pitper. 1>> Hi 



Woollen rags . 


670,000 


890,000 


Cotton „ 


450,000 


280,000 


LiDei.,4<i,., . 


100.000 


60,000 


Jute and Hparta 


300,000 


60,000 


Wood and etraw 


400,000 


40,000 


Snndrie. . . 


2,2011,000 


220,000 



orPapw 




PAPER. 



341 



In 1881 there were 3,960 paper-mills, employing 90,000 
men and 180,000 women : there were 2,780 mills worked 
hj steam-power. The capital employed in the industry ex- 
ceeded 62 millione sterling. {There were in the United 
Kingdom 354 mills with 16,000 opemtives, producing 
310,000 tons of paper, or 13 tons per operative, per annum.) 
The paper industry of the world sums up thus : — 
Rag, jate, ^ . . . . £1 (,000,000 

Gbemk^ S.EOO.OOO 

~- 9,000,000 

8,400,000 
3,600,000 






C. — Manner of Conbohftion. 



Pailj pkpen . 

W»kly, monllitv, £c 
Uooki . 

Printing . 

SchooU . 
l>ub)ic offices 
Lettcra . 

Account- boolu, Sr. 
Wall paper . 
Papier- niache, kc. . 



IS million copies dailj. 
lame C6 miUioDa. 

S6 million volumea. 

lncladiii([ engraving*. 
32 million children. 
Stationery, blue-bookl, 4c. 
6 milliard Ull«ni. 
Including circulara. 



^VhccU for nilwuy waggons are now mnde of compressed 
|>apcr, instead of iron. T)ic dome of the new Paluia de 
.histico at BnisstU in all of ['iijitr. Flour barruls are made 
of it in the United States, ona factory at Iowa turning out 
IGoO barreU daily, from 5 tons of paper, each barrel taking 
6 1I.S. 

D.— r.uiTisn pAFEn-TiiADB (1882). 



Germany . 


. £389,000 


Auitralia. 


£575,000 


Holland . 


2.'!8,00O 


iKdia . . 


188.000 


Belgium . 


i05,000 


fiiited State* . 


67,000 


Knuce . 


118,000 




487,000 


Variou* . 


ii8,000 










Total . 


£1,307,000 


Total. 


. i:i,sos,ooo 






Tlic above 


includes aU kind 


» except hangings. 





342 



PAPER'MONEY. 



PAPER-MONEY. 

A. — Amount in Millions £. 





IMO. 


1850. 


1800. 


187a 


1880. 


IncreaMin 
40 Tears. 


United Kingdom 


86 


34 


89 


41 


46 


10 


France 


9 


20 


83 


68 


90 


81 


Qennany .... 


8 


15 


26 


43 


42 


84 


RossiA 


70 


66 


106 


116 


116 


46 


Austria 


43 


60 


60 


70 


66 


22 


Italy 


2 


4 


6 


38 


66 


63 


Spain, Belgium, &c 
Europe .... 


18 


30 


36 


42 


64 


46 


186 


218 


804 


408 


486 


301 


United States. . . 


20 


83 


41 


168 


144 


124 


Spanish America 


6 


11 


17 


86 


66 


69 


British Colonies . . 


1 


2 


10 


14 


28 


27 


Cuba 


• • • 


• • • 


4 


6 


12 


12 


Japan 

The World . 


• • • 


■ ■ • 


• • • 


• • • 


26 


26 


212 


264 


376 


622 


761 


649 



B. — Bank of England Issue (1878). 

Ratio. 

p«r CttnL 

39 

18 

28 

8 

_7 
100 

The notes cost one halfpenny each. The life of a bank- 
note in 1880 "was under 70 days, the number issued during 
the year having been 15,260,000 for an aggregate amount of 
338 millions, say JB22 each. The average in the above 
table, for 1878, is only £10 each. 

C— French Paper Money (1883). 



Value of 
Note. 


Number. 


Amount. 


£6 . . . 


2,208,000 


£11,040,000 


£10 . 


607,000 


6,070,000 


£20-60-100 


160,000 


8.030,000 


£200-300-500 . 


7,000 


2,120,000 


£1000 


2,000 


2.000,000 


Total 


2,884,000 


£28,260,000 



Note«, 
Franca. 






Number. 


Amount, 
£ Sterling. 


6. . . . 175,000 


35,000 


20. 






198,000 


158,000 


26. 






28,000 


28,000 


60. 






4,725,000 


9,450,000 


100. 






. 10,812.000 


43,248,000 


200. 






3,000 


24,000 


600. 






625,000 


12.496,000 


1,000 . 






1,263,300 


60,532,000 


6,000 . 




* 


5 


1,000 


Total 


17,829,306 


116.972.000 



PARKS-^PARLIA MENT. 



343 



D. — Currency Value Compared to 


Gold. ^ET 


Tear. 


U.SUtaa. 


Russia. Italy. 


Buenoa Ayrea. 


1878 


88 


86 88 


100 


1876 


87 


84 92 


100 


1877 . 


96 


72 91 


80 


1879 


100 


70 89 


74 


1881 


100 


68 93 


90 


1883 


. 100 


64 100 


100 



See Money, Green-backs^ Eouhles. 



PABKa 



A. — Keharkablb Parks. 



Name. Place. Acres. 

Regent*! . . . London 450 

H^e .... o 400 

Bob de Boulogne Paris . 2,100 

Phoenix . . . Dublin 1,760 



Name. 


Plaeei 


Aerea. 


Prater . 


. Vienna • 


2,300 


Royal. . 


Munich . 


1,300 


Queen's . 


Edinburgh 


407 



R — Parks in United Kingdok. 

Inhabltanta to an Acre. 



rHH«A 






Area. 


Park 


Kunidpal 


Park 


\yiuea. 




Aeraa. 


Acres. 


Area. 


Area. 


Birmingham 




. 8,400 


211 


46 


1,736 


Bradford . 






7,200 


215 


26 


889 


Bngfaton . 






2,400 


106 


45 


996 


Bristol . 






4,500 


442 


47 


475 


Dublin . 






. 10,100 


1,753 


81 


175 


Edinburgh 






4,200 


407 


54 


410 


Glasgow . 






6,100 


447 


96 


1,293 


Hull 






8,600 


26 


40 


4,7ai 


Leeds 






21,600 


350 


14 


C81 


Leicester . 






3,200 


65 


39 


1,256 


Liverpool . 






6,200 


625 


103 


1,025 


London . 






75,400 


1,790 


48 


1,114 


Manchester 






9,600 


191 


77 


2,846 


Newcastle 






5,400 


91 


27 


4,199 


Norwich . 






7,500 


7 


11 


12,175 


Nottingham 






9,900 


150 


17 


1,129 


Oldham . 






4,700 


60 


24 


1,855 


Plymouth 






1.400 


22 


53 


3,377 


Portsmouth 






4,500 


81 


29 


8,239 


Sheffield . 






19,700 


49 


15 


3,761 


Sunderland 






2,800 


24 


41 


4.774 


Wolverhamptoi 


1 


8,400 


60 


22 


1,510 


PARLIAMENT 


1 












A. — House op 


Lords 


■ 




Princes 


4 


1 Earls 


189 


Barons • 


. . 272 


Dukes. 


23 


Viscounts 


32 


Total of members 615 


Marquises . 


19 


Bi 


shops . 


26 







344 



PARLIAMENT. 



B. 



HousB o^ Commons (1884). 

County. Borough. Univenitj. 

281 6 
16 

26 2 

87 2 



United Kingdom 283 359 9 

C. — Acts op Parliament since 1801. 



Total of 



England . 


. 172 


Wales . 


. 15 


Scotland . 


. 32 


Ireland . 


64 



458 
SO 
60 

103 

651 









Public. 




Privato. 


1^»la]. 


1801-10 


• • 


1,322 




2,614 


8,886 


1811-20 






1,487 




2,233 


8,720 


1821-30 






986 




1,979 


2,965 


1831-40 






1,038 




1,706 


2,744 


1841-50 






1,129 




2,140 


8,269 


1861-60 






1,158 




2,057 


8,215 


1861-68 






1,010 




2,140 


3,160 


1869-82 






1,283 
9,413 




2,828 


4,111 


82 > 


ears 


17,597 


27,010 


I 


). — Prime Ministers 


SINCE 1801. 




Premier. 


Montbi 


Public Acts Monthly 
PasKed. Average. 


Period. 


Addington 


. 38 




435 


11 


1801-1804 


Pitt . 


. 20 




196 


10 


1804-1806 


Grenville . 


14 




180 


13 


1806-1807 


Portland . 


. 39 




453 


12 


1807-1810 


Perceval . 


. 24 




269 


11 


1810-1812 


Liverpool . 


. 178 


1,975 


11 


1812-1827 


Canning . 


4 




28 


7 


1827 


Goderich . 


5 




27 


5 


1827-1828 


Wellington 


. 34 




223 


7 


1828-1830 


Grey 


. 44 




378 


8 


1830-1834 


Melbourne 


6 




48 


10 


1834 


Peel. 


4 




80 


7 


1834-1835 


Melbourne 


. 77 




640 


8 


1835-1841 


Peel . 


. 58 




547 


9 


1841-1846 


Russell 


. 68 




653 


10 


1846-1852 


Derby 


10 




73 


7 


1852 


Aberdeen . 


. 25 




274 


11 


1852-1855 


Palmerston 


. 37 




332 


9 


1855-1858 


Derby 


16 




139 


9 


1858-1859 


Palmerston 


76 




797 


10 


1859-1865 


Russell 


8 




7S 


10 


1865-1S66 


Derby 


20 




229 


11 


1866-1868 


Disraeli . 


9 




96 


11 


1868 


Gladstone 


. 62 




565 


9 


1868-1874 


Disraeli . 


. 74 




507 


7 


1874-1880 


25 Premier 


8 . 79 


years 9,171 


10 





I 



PA SSA GES—PA TENT-OFFICE. 



345 



PASSAGES. 



Date. 


Steamer. 


Porta. 


Days. 


Hours. 


1837 


Great Western 


Brittol— New York 


19 


2 


1840 


BrHaonia 


Liverpool — New York 


14 


13 


1843 


Great Britain 


*New York — Liverpool . 


14 


1 


1876 


City of BerUn , 


tt f> 


7 


18 


1876 


Britannia 


»» »» 


7 


11 


1881 


Arab 


Cape Town — Plymouth 


18 


13 


1882 


Alaska . 


New York— Cork . 


6 


22 



The Arab averaged 16, the Alaska 19 English statute 
miles per hour. The quickest passage from China to Eng- 
land was made in 1882 by the steamer Stirling Castle, from 
Hankow to London, in 29 days and 22 hours. 

PASSENGERS. — The number of persons who crossed 
Waterloo Bridge, London, in a year, was as follows : — 



1820 
1830 
1840 



1,821,000 
2,423,000 
2,486,000 



1850 
1860 
1863 



4,295,000 
4,873,000 
5,145,000 



In 1882 the number would not fall short of 7 millions. 

In 1875 there were 38^ million persons and 7^ million 
vehicles that crossed London Bridge. 

The Dover and Calais steamers carried 440,000 pas- 
sengers in 1882. 

There were in 1881 cleared from British ports (United 
Kingdom) 334,000 vessels, carrying over 3,000,000 persons, 
of whom 750 were drowned, or 1 in 4000. 

The ferry-boats between Liverpool and Birkenhead carry 
22 million passengers yearly. 

PATENT-OFFICE. 



The returns for Great Britain and United States in 1880 


compare as follows : — 








Great Britain. 


United SUteik 


Applications 


5,517 


19,402 


Granted . 


3,740 


12,840 


Receipts 


. £190,000 


£140,000 


Average fees 


£52 


£12 


Average terms . 


. 14 years 


17 years 



The applications in Gieat Britain rose to 6241 in 1882. 



346 



PA UPERS. 



PAUPEBS. 







CompeimtiTe Cost 


Nainber. 


Expenditure. 


Per Pauper. 


Per y»»^»**fc 










Penoe. 


England .... 


803 


£8,015 


£10-0 


74 


Scotland .... 


99 


850 


8-5 


66 


Ireland .... 
United Kingdom 


115 


1,187 


10-8 


56 


1.017 


£10,052 


9*8 


68 


France 


1,251 


2,720 


2-2 


18 


PniBsia .... 


1,810 


4,780 


8-6 


42 


Austria .... 


1,220 


8,700 


81 


25 


Italy 


1,865 


2,700 


2-0 


28 


Switzerland . . . 


140 


1,050 


7-5 


88 


Spain and Portngal 


600 


1,100 


1-8 


18 


Belginm and Holland 


1,006 


1,280 


1-8 


82 


Scandinavia . . . 
Totel . . 


300 


950 


8-2 


28 


8,208 


£28,282 


3-4 


85 



The custom in the United Kingdom is to count the num- 
ber of paupers existing on a given day, say 1st January, but 
on the Continent to give the bulk number relieved duniig 
the year. The actual number at any time in France, Italy, 
&c, may be taken as one-third the figures above stated. 



r>. — Pauperism in United Kingdom : Number& 



Year. 



1850 
1860 
1870 
1880 



1850 
1860 
1870 
1880 



Tbousanda Omittod. 


Ratio to Population. 


England. 


Scotland. 


Ireland. 


England. 


Scotland. 


4-61 
0-77 
188 
2-21 


921 

851 

1,079 

803 


79 

77 

126 

99 


308 
45 
74 

115 


511 
4^6 
4-69 
309 


2-72 
2-58 
878 
2-66 



Expenditure (Thousandn Omitted). 


Pence per Inhabitant. 


• 


£5,395 


£582 


£1,827 


72 


49 


68 


• 


5,455 


663 


531 


66 


53 


22 


• 


7,644 


905 


814 


80 


65 


86 


• 


8,015 


849 


1,187 


74 


56 


56 



PA UPERS^PA VING. 



347 



G. — BSLATIVB BURDBN OF PaUPERIBM (UkITBD KiNGDOM). 



Tew. 


ThooMnds Omitted. 


Faupen 
to Popu- 
lation. 


Coat per 
Inhab- 
itant 


National 

Income, 

]IUliona£. 


Burden of 
Pauperiam. 


No. of 
Paupers. 


Bzpendi- 
ture. 


1850 . 
1860 . 
1870 . 
1880 . 


1,308 

973 

1,279 

1,016 


£7,804 
6,649 
9,363 

10,051 


475 
3-35 
406 
2-90 


68d. 
55 
70 
68 


620 

760 

950 

1,200 


1-26 
114 
0-99 
0-84 



As compared with national earnings the burden was 
threepence in the £ in 1850, and is now just twopence. 

D. — Poor-Kelisf in England and WALEa 



Period. 


Annual 
Expenditure. 


1702-14 . 


. £910,000 


1760-75 . 


. 1,520,000 


1783-93 . 


. 2,050,000 


1815-20 . 


. 7,106,000 


1830-^ . 


. 6,742,000 


1841-50 . 


. 5,250,000 


1851-60 . 


. 5,510,000 


1861-70 . 


. 6,740,000 


1871-80 . 


7,710,000 



Per Inhab., 
Pence. 

41 

58 

66 
152 
114 

74 

69 

77 

75 



NaUonal 

Income, 

MiUiona £. 

65 

122 

145 

220 

385 

490 

580 

720 

935 



Pereentagv 
of Burden. 

1-40 
1*24 
1-41 
3-23 
175 
107 
0-95 
0-94 
0-82 



In the period just after Waterloo the burden was 4 times 
as great as in the past 10 years. 

PAVING. — The cost of paving and keeping in order a 
street 10 yards wide and 1000 yards long in wood and 
stone is shown as follows : — 





Heavy Traffic, £. 


Light Traffic, £. 


Wood, 


Stone. 


Wood. 


Stone. 


First cost .... 
M&intenance, SO yean . 

Total 


7,500 
15,000 


7,200 
3,600 


7,500 
7,500 


7,200 
2,400 


22,600 


10,800 


15,000 


9,600 



Heavy traffic averages 100,000 tons, light 50,000 tons 
per yard per annum. The former wears wooden pavement 
an inch in five years. Some authorities estimate the first 
cost of paving per square yard as follows : — Stone 10, 
wood 14, asphalt 18 shillings. 



348 



PA WN-OFFICES— PENGUINS. 



PAWN-OFFICES. 

A. — Pawn-brokbrs in Great Britain. 







Per 






Per' 


Tear. 


No. 


Ifillion 
Inhab. 


YeM". 


Na 


Mfflhm 
Inhab. 


1851 . 


. 1,873 


89 


1871 . 


. 8,450 


132 


1861 . 


. 2,678 


111 


1881 . 


. 4,372 


146 



The number of pledges is said to reach 190 millions per 
annum. 

B. — MONTS DB PlETB. 



France . 
Spain . 
HoUand 


• 
• 
• 


• 
• 
• 


Borrowers. 

2,970,000 
235,000 
602,000 


Amount. 

£2,300,000 
985,000 
260,000 


ATerMfre, 

16 

84 
9 


PEAT. 




A,- 


-Heating Powkk. 




Bog of Allen, Ireland . 
Hartz Mountains . 
Konigsbrunn 


100 
61 
67 


Passy, 
Ham, 

Troyes, 


France 
»» • 


52 
49 
82 



The production in France is declining, not exceeding 
300,000 tons per annum. 



B. — British Peat Bogs. 



Ireland . 
Great Britain . 



Acres. 

2,881,000 
3,505,000 



U. Kingdom . 6,336,000 



MilUons 
of Tons. 

38,972 

42,060 

76,032 



Yslue at « Pence 
per Ton. 

£860,000.000 

1,060,000,000 

£1,900,000,000 



The average depth of peat is 12 feet, equal to a yield per 
aero of 12,000 tons of dried turf. 

PEDESTRIANISM. 



Name. 


Miles. 


Days. 


Date. 


PIsca. 


BroMrn 


650 


6 


Feb. 1880 


London. 


Hazel 


660 


6 


„ 1882 


New York. 



Mr. Hazel is an Englishman, and won £4000. In June 
1874 Miss Richards, of Bristol, walked 1000 miles in 1000 
consecutive hours, to gain £50 for her aged parents. 

PENQUINS. See Oil. 



\ 



PENS'-PHTHISIS. 



349 



PENS. — Over 800 tons of steel are consumed yearly in 
making steel pens, Birmingham taking 500 tons. 

Minion steel Pens 

Steel Pena per Inh*- 

per Annum. bitant. 
United Kingdom . . . 810 23 

France 420 11 

United States .... 105 8 

The world consumes over 4 million steel pens daily, that 
is nearly 3 tons. 

PBPPER. — The annual production averages : — 





MUlion 




Million 




Llxi. 




Lba. 


Sumatra . 


28 


Malabar 


4 


Siam 


8 


Borneo 


8 


Malacca . 


7 


Total 


. 50 



PHOTOPHONE. — Sound was conveyed along a beam of 
light, for a distance of 700 feet, by Mr. Graham Bell, in 
September 1880. 

PHTHISIS. 



A. — Ratio op Consumption to all Sickness. 




Per Cent. Per Cent 


Per Cent 


Needle-makers . 70 


Hairdressers . 32 


Masons . . 


13 


File-makers . . 63 


Weavers . . 


2i 


Millers . . 


11 


Lithographers . 48 


Painters . . 


25 


Brewers . . 


11 


Grinders ... 40 


Printers . . 


21 


Tanners . . 


9 


TobacconistB . 37 


Shoemakers . 


19 


Bakers . . . 


7 


Watchmakers . 37 


Glaziers . . 


18 


Butchers . . 


7 


Stonecutters . . 36 


Hatters . . 


16 


Charcoal-bum 


ers2 


Glassworkers 35 


Carpenters . 


14 


Miners . . . 


1 


The above table has reference only to the U. Kingd< 


DHL 


B.— Deaths from Consumption (Dr. Hirsch). 




Per 


Per 




Per 


1000. 


1000. 




1000. 


Glasgow ... 70 


Boston. ... 38 


England . . 


. 30 


Philadelphia . . 56 


New Orleans 


. 37 


Dr^en . . 


. 30 


New York. . . 53 


London . . 


. 97 


Massachusetts 


. 30 


Edinburgh. . . 48 


Bavaria . . 


. 37 


Algiers . . 


. 29 


Paris .... 41 


Copenhagen . 


. 34 


St Helena . 


. 22 


Nejnx)e8 ... 41 


MalU . . . 


. 33 


New Jersey . 


. 17 


The above table includes only certain forms of consum 


ption. 


C. — Deaths from Consumption (1866). 




Per 




Par 


looa 




1000. 


liondon . . . .121 


Paris 


170 


New York 


. 142 


Vi 


lenna 


.... 


252 



350 



PHYSICIANS^PIGS. 



D. — Phthisis in United Kinodoil 

JDeaihiper MUUon InkabUtmii per Annum, 



England. . 1850-59 2,780 


Scotland 


. . . 1877 2,294 


„ . . 1860t^9 2,547 


Ireland 


. . . 1880 2,185 


„ . . 1870-79 2,206 


London 


. . . 1879 2,476 


PH78I0IAN8. 










A. 








Docton Apothecaries 
and and 
Siugeona MidwiTea 


TMaL 


Doelanaad 
Buiseoiia, 
perlOO^OOt 


England . 


15,920 


• •• 


••• 


64 


Scotland. 


3,456 


■ •• 


..• 


91 


Ireland . 


. 8,560 
22,936 


■ • • 


... 


69 


IT. Kingdom 


• • • 


• • « 


66 


France . 


. 10,748 


19,079 


29,822 


29 


(Germany 


, 82,000 


• ■ • 


• • • 


70 


Raitia . 


. 13,475 


6,752 


20,227 


18 


AoBtria . 


. 10,000 


• • • 


• ee 


27 


Italy . 


9,400 


• • • 


• •• 


83 


Spam . 


5,200 


• • • 


• •• 


81 


Belgium . 


2,893 


1,847 


4,740 


54 


Scandinavia 


1,120 


• • • 


• •• 


14 


United States 


65,000 


• • • 


• • • 


122 


The number 


of medical students in 


London 


in October 


1882 was 949. 










B.- 


-Dbqrees of 


M.D. IN 


Francs. 




Yenni. 


Number. 


Tean. 




Namber. 


1801-14 . 


. 8,178 


1849-69 


• 


. 9,145 


1815-30 . 


. 6.423 


1870-82 


. . 


5,901 


1831-48 . 


. 8,468 


82 yean. 


. 83,115 


PIOEONa 1 


See Birds. 








PIGS. 











A. — ^PiGs TO Population. 



I 


Thousands Omitted, j No. per 100 InbaK 


1855. 


1880. 


18S&. 


1880. 


United Kingdom . • 
Continent 


2.810 
36,285 


8.190 
42,118 


10 
16 


9 
15 


Europe 
United SUtes 


1 89,095 
31,940 


45,308 
47,680 


15 
118 


14 
93 


Total 


71,035 


92,988 


25 


25 j 



PILCHARDS— PINS. 



351 



B. — NUHBKR 


AND FlAUGHTEB 


(1880). 






Thooaands Omitted. 














Avenge 


Lbe.of 




No. of 
Piga 


Killed 
Yearly. 


Heat, 
T0D8. 


Lbe. per 
Gftrcasa 


Heat per 
Inbab. 


United Kingdom . 


3,190 


2,100 


145 


155 


9 


France .... 


5,810 


3,900 


240 


138 


15 


Gernumy .... 


7,130 


4,800 


285 


183 


15 


Ronia .... 


10,514 


7,000 


445 


140 


12 


Anstria .... 


7,080 


4,700 


275 


129 


16 


Italjr 


1,570 


1,000 


55 


124 


4 


Spain and Portugal 


5.323 


3,600 


130 


81 


14 


Belg. and Holland 


1,006 


650 


36 


125 


9 


Scandinavia . . . 


1,040 


700 


34 


109 


9 


Switierland . . . 


335 


200 


10 


112 


8 


Ronmania, &c. . . 
Europe. . . . 


2,310 


1,500 


60 


88 


19 


45,308 


30,150 


1,715 


129 


12 


United SUtes . . 


47,680 


32,000 


1,420 


100 


60 


Canada .... 


1,425 


900 


45 


112 


23 


Australia . . . 


815 


500 


20 


90 


15 


River Plate . . . 


362 


200 


8 


90 


6 


Cape Colony . . 
Total . . 


164 


100 


4 


90 


8 


95,754 


63,850 


3,212 


115 


19 



PILOHABDa^The Comislimen take 30 or 35 maiions 
yearly; value, one shilling per 100. Exportation, 12,000 
barrels 

PILGRIMS. — The number that passes through Suez en 
route for Mecca averages 35,000, of whom one-fourth are 
Turks, one-fourth Egyptians, the rest being Moors, &c 



PILOT-BOATS. 








Boeta 


Pilots. 


England 


692 


2,066 


Scotland 


226 


432 


Ireland . 


132 


395 



United Kingdom • . 1,050 
The largest pilot-boat is only 45 tona 



2,893 



PINS. — Great Britain makes 330 millions weekly, or 9 per 
inhabitant, as compared with 105 millions a week in 1840| 
or 4 per inhabitant 



332 



PLAGUE. 



PLAGXTE. 



A. — List op Plaques (Milroy). 



1501-1600. 


1601- i7oa 


1701-1800. 


1801-lSU 


England ... 15 


12 








France ... 14 


11 


1 





Germany ... 12 


19 


4 


1 


Low Countriea . . 2 


14 








Russia and Scandinavia 2 


T 


4 


2 


Italy and Levant 26 


16 


12 


11 


Spain ... 5 


8 


8 


1 



Total 



76 



81 



24 



16 



B. — Great Plague of 1346 

Vi4!timi {Thou$andt Omitted), 



Naples 


60 


Venice . 


. 70 


Paris 


60 


Florence . 


. 100 


Vienna . 


40 


Strasbnrg . 


26 


Sienna 


70 


Marseilles 


56 


London 


. 100 


Parma 


40 


Valencia . 


. 100 


Norwich . 


60 


Genoa 


40 


Avignon . 


60 


Dublin . 


14 



C. — Remarkable Plagues. 



Date. 


Place, 


Deaths 


Weeks. 


1656 . 


. Naples . *. . 


. 380,000 


28 


1665 . 


London . 


68,800 


83 


1720 . 


. Marseilles . . 


39,100 


86 


1771 . 


. Moscow . . 


87,800 


32 


1778 . 


. Constantinople 


. 170.000 


18 


1798 . 


. Cairo . . . 


88,000 


26 


1812 . 


Constantinople 


. 144,000 


13 


1834 . 


Cairo . . . , 


67,000 


18 


1835 . 


Alexandria . . 


14,900 


17 


1871 . 


. Buenos Ayres . 


26,300 


11 



Deaths 
per W«ek. 

13,400 
2,100 
1,100 
2,700 
0,600 
8,600 

11.100 

8,200 

900 

2,400 



D. — Relative Mortality. 



Died, Reoovered, 

per Cent, per Cent. 

67 83 

25 75 

50 60 

91 9 

29 71 

36 66 



Date. 


Place. 


1798 . 


. Cairo . . . . 


1798 . 


. Aboukir . . . 


1813 . 


. MalU . . . . 


1815 . 


. Corfu , . . . 


1834 . 


. Cairo . . . . 


1835 . 


. Alexandria 


1871 . 


. Buenos A^rcs 



40 



60 



Authority. 

GenettesL 

M'Grigor. 

Greaves. 

White. 

GaeUnL 

Clot Be J. 

Bosoh. 




PLA a UB—PLA NETS. 





Doktlu (IhnuuuU OmitUd). 1 


\tn. 


lots. 


IBM. 


ISM. 


im. 


totoL 


Great BriUin . 
Fnum 

Autrik . 
Otharerantriw . 

ToUl . 


W 
lOS 
60 
99 
250 


C5 
13i 
127 
146 
SOO 


22 
146 

lie 

218 
400 


IS 
44 

S3 
220 
246 


83 
62 
436 

TO 


14S 
4»0 
891 
1,118 
3.266 


6S5 


781 


SOS 


seo 


821 


8,412 



The deatb-iatio in 1832 averaged 38 to 40 per cent of 
lases, but it waa lower in subsequent visitations. 



F.— Cholbra op 1866. 
Dtalhi per 10,000 Inhabitant*. 

London . . ISIFuis . . SSI Madrid . 102 

Dublin . . 41 Berlin . . 83 Bnusela . 184 

Vienna ■ ^^ Naples .89 Palermo . . 197 

ManeiUea . . 61 { St Petersburg . 98 ] Oonitantinfiple . 738 

The greatest mortalitj wtis at Kome and Madrid on Sun- 
days ; at London and Berlin on Wednesdays ; and at Paris 
on Saturdays. This cholera ivas more deadly in Italy than 
elsewhere, and worse than any previous visitations, 56 per 
cent of all men, and 54 per cent of women attacked, falling 
victims to it 

FLANETa 







.,-". 


HuuDuoriiiiM. 1 




DlManca 


L«>t 
(romEuth. 


rromEwtH 


Mercury 

Earth '. 
Man 
Jajriter . 

Saturn . 




7,901 
4.920 
8B,390 
71,904 
33,024 
38,820 


S5 

86 
91 
139 
476 
872 
1,7B3 
2,748 


47 
23 

62 
409 
831 
1,746 
2,629 


136 
160 

246 

G02 
1,014 
1,929 
2,888 



354 



PLA TB. 



B. — Ratios op Size, Weight, &a 











Number of 




Sixe. 


Weight. 


Deiiaitj. 


Dnysln 
Tsu* 


Earth 


100 


100 


100 


865 


Mercury . 


5 


7 


124 


88 


Venu8 


80 


79 


90 


225 


Mars. 


' 14 


12 


96 


687 


Jupiter 


. 188,700 


80,000 


20 


4,888 


Saturn 


. 74,600 


9,000 


12 


10,759 


Uranus 


. 7,200 


1,300 


18 


80,687 


Neptune . 


. 9,400 


1,700 


17 


60,127 



PLATR 
A.— 



Quantity Stamped in United Kingdom. 

Annual Avengv, Ob. 



Tears. 
1801-10 
1811-20 
1821-80 
1831-40 
1841-50 
1851-60 
1861-70 
1871-80 



Gold. 

5,680 

6,890 

6,814 

6,445 

7,333 

38,415 

29,204 

42,190 



Silver. 

1,087,000 

1,058,000 

1,157,000 

1,104,000 

1,007,000 

930,000 

875,000 

790,000 



ATsnupe Per Inhabi. 
Annual Valua. Penoa. 

£294,000 



291,000 
817,000 
801,000 
281,000 
873,000 
815,000 
370,000 



4 

4 
8 

Si 

H 

2| 



The sums received in payment of duty on gold and silver 
plate during the 10 years ending March 1882 were as 
follows : — 





10 Years. 


1882. 


Pence per 
Inhab. (188t). 


England . 


. £682,000 


£66,880 


0-64 


Scotland . 


17,700 


1,420 


0-10 


Ireland . 


5,100 


460 


0-02 



United Kingdom . £704,800 £68,710 



0*49 



B. — Quantity Stamped in France. 





Thousandfi Omitted. 














Per 
Inhab., 


Amount 
of 


Per 
Inhab., 


Ve-.r. 






Vrthie of 
Both. 




Gold, Os. 


Silver, Os. 


Pence. 


DuUea. 


Ptt»c«. 


1830 . . 


101 


1,739 


£839 


6 


£52,000 


0*36 


1840 . . 


164 


2,290 


1,229 


8.i 


77,000 


0-62 


1850 . . 


169 


1,840 


1,136 


8 


72,000 


0-48 


I860 . . 


288 


2,294 


1,611 


11 


121,000 


075 


1869 . . 


380 


2,379 


2,115 


13 


149,000 


0-92 


1878 . . 


409 


2,456 


2,251 


in 


252.000 


1-60 



PLEBISCITES-^POLICB. 



35S 



PLEBISOITE& — The principal in France have been as 
follows : — 



Tear. 


For. 


Agniniit. 


1793 . 


1,801,000 


12,000 


1808 . 


8,568,000 


9,000 


1816 . 


. 1,302,000 


4,000 


1852 . 


7,828,000 


253,000 


1870 . 


. 7,336,000 


1,561,000 



POISON. — Deaths from accidental poisoning in England, 
in 1878, were 235 males and 118 females, apart from 215 
cases of suicidal poisoning. The accidental were as 6 in 
10,000 deaths. 



POUOE. 



A. — Cost in Cities. 



ThouMndt. 


Per Inhab. 
Pence. 




Thousands. ^%^^'* 


London . . 


£1,060 


68 


Genoa . . 


£15 


21 


Paris . . 


1,160 


122 


Florence 


14 


20 


ViennA . . 


890 


09 


Turin . . 


13 


18 


Berlin . . 


70 


16 


Antwerp 


18 


19 


S. FranciBOo 


48 


52 


Trieste 


12 


27 


Buda . . 


38 


27 


Ghristiania 


11 


86 


Rome . . 


30 


24 


Frankfort 


7 


14 


Leipsic . . 


24 


• 49 


Liege . . 


6 


12 


Bucharest . 


22 


26 


Venice . . 


6 


12 


Stockholm . 


21 


33 


Palermo 


6 


6 


Copenhagen 


20 


24 


Stuttgart 


14 


28 




B. — Police of I 


Jnited Kin( 


3D0K. 












Police 


Cost per 
Inhab., 




Men. 


Coe 


t. Per Mai 


[L i)er 10,000 










Intiab. 


Pence. 


England .. 


83,173 


£3,440 


1,000 £104 


13 


29 


Scotland . 


3,562 


320 


,000 90 


10 


21 


IreUnd . 


14,772 


1,41C 


>,000 95 


28 


66 



U. Kingdom 51,507 



5,170,000 



100 



14 



83 



C. — London and Paris Compared. 

Per 10.000 Inhab. 



London. 



F^aria. 



Number of men 
Arrests made . 



10,940 
79,490 



London. 
29 
210 



Paris. 
8,250 29 89 

231,140 210 1,065 

The London police cost £97 a year, the Paris £140, per 
man. The London man arrests 7 persons, the Paris 29 per- 
sons, per annum. For each offender (including drunkenness 
and misdemeanours), the police expenditure is £13 in London, 
and £5 in Paris. 



356 POOR—POPULA TIOtT. 

FOOB. See Paupen, Taxea. 



Xnglidi . . 


I Afiieau . 
1 Auitriui . 


. 2 Srriui 
. 2 anek 


S«in 


1 Spuiih . 


S Fnncb 






« ItalUn 



B, — DuRAnoK o? Bbiok. 







TTioa 


■and! Omitted.- 




laOciL 


IBSCk 


IMO. 


IIMO. 


iiaa. 


U. Eingdom . 


16,570 


20,710 


20.640 


28,?30 


34.fl50 


Franoe . . . 


27,720 


30,3«0 


34,102 


S7,2l90 


37.430 




22,330 


20,040 


80,590 


30,410 


45,260 


Ru»i» . 


58,140 


44,220 


64,080 


05,730 


84,410 


Anetria. . . 


21,230 


23,620 


28,170 


32,240 


37,830 


llAly . . . 


13,380 


15,730 


18,610 


21,820 


28,910 


SpJn . . . 


10,440 


11,680 


11,820 


15,560 


16,290 


Portugal . . 


3,080 


8,2 10 


8,490 


-1,030 


4.3^0 


Belgium . . 


2,980 


3,S80 


4,02') 


<4,a90 


6.480 


Holknd . . 


2,280 


2,510 


3,130 


3.620 


4,060 


Denmark . . 


900 


1,040 


1,290 


1,680 


1,660 


Sweden. . . 


2,330 


2,530 


3,210 


3,870 


4,610 


Norway . . 


880 


1,010 


1,230 


1,590 


1,950 


Switierland . 


1,820 


2,040 


2.310 


2,630 


. 2,810 


Greece . . . 






1,020 


1,310 


UBO 


Servia . . . 
Houmauia . . 


0,200 


10,300 { 


12,490 j 


1,240 
4,360 


1,920 
6.3S0 


Turkey. . . 

Europe . , 








10,230 


8,310 


17-2,300 


108,4 JO 


236,160 


2?S,860 


312,990 


V. Stale. . . 


5.310 


9,640 


17,070 


31,440 


60,410 




ao.oco 


22,000 


23,600 


24.800 


26,600 


Britiih India . 


70,000 


83,000 


98,600 


143,300 


191.400 


Canada. . . 


470 


840 


1,730 


3.8S0 


4.340 


Au.tralia . . 


10 


90 


410 


1,330 


2.eso 


Cap* Colony . 
Total . 


40 


BO 


270 


420 


1,030 


288,1100 


314,060 


377,630 


480,610 


688,550 



In the above table Lombnrdy is counted Italia 
Sleswig German, territory, (^ 




POPULATION. 
B. — Inhabitants per Square Hilk 



TTnited Kingdom 
Gennu; 



Italy '. 
Spaiii . 

Portug&I 

B«leium 
HoUuid 
Diiunwk 

SwitierUnd . 

Turkey, &c . 
Karope . 
United Sutes 
Cftoida. 
Aiutnli> 
C»pe Colon;. 
Brituti India 
Soath America 



C. — United E^ihqdom. 







ThouHHiLl. Om 


i.d. 


l»!..WU 


uHl-;r3q 


mroUllB. 1 


T«r. 


EDgbnd. 


HoolUad. 


Irclind. 


EBgluid. 


ScotUn*. 


IreUni 1 


1066 . . 


2.160 


350 


1,000 


37 


II 


32 


1381 




2,860 


400 


1,100 


41 


13 


36 


1528 




i,866 


650 


770 


76 


17 


24 


1672 




8,600 


900 


1.320 


86 


29 


41 


1712 




6.280 


1,050 


2.090 


110 


34 


SS 


17G1 




7,020 


1,265 


2.873 


120 


40 


74 


17S0 




8,080 


1,430 


3,050 


110 


47 




1801 




s.sn 


1, 60S 


5,21 e 


155 


63 


IS5 


IBU 




10,164 


1,806 


6,657 


175 


60 


ISS 


1821 




12,000 


2.002 


6.802 


207 


6S 


212 


1831 




H,0OI 


2,384 


7,768 


241 


77 


S48 


18*1 




16,038 


2,620 


8,195 


276 


86 




1861 




18,071 


2,886 


6,652 


810 


04 




1881 




20,202 


3.063 


6,800 


847 


J"^ 




1871 




22,905 


8,366 


6,387 


SBl 






1881 . . 


26,110 


!.784 


6,160 


U> 







8 


POPVLA TION. 






D.— Ekgland 


Ubban and 


Kdhai. 




Ku«L 


Urbu. 


ToUl. 


ISSl 
18S1 
1871 
18S1 


. 8.772.000 

B.133,000 

. 9.802,000 

. 10,523,000 


9.1GS,0D0 
10,933,000 
12.911.000 
16,4*6.000 


17,828,000 

20,066.000 
22,713,000 
26,968,000 




R— Towns or England. 











leoi. 


18SI. 


IMl. 


IBM. 


UN. 


London . . 


9S9 


1,379 


1,948 


2,804 


S.S15 


liveipool 




82 


133 


286 


444 


&63 








129 


243 


858 


S4> 






71 


102 


183 


296 


402 






C3 


84 


162 




SOB 






ia 


65 


111 


185 


^4 






SI 


85 


125 


154 




NottiDgh»m 




29 


40 


52 


75 


187 


Bradford 




13 




67 


106 


184 


Hull . 




30 


ts 


67 


97 


155 






83 


42 


70 


109 


145 


Brighton 




7 


25 


49 


87 


108 




1,161 


2.160 


3.353 


4,922 


6,897 




7,<32 


9.930 


12.685 


15,280 


10,213 


1 8,893 


12,090 


16,038 


20.202 


26,110 


Ratio of 12 1 


ow™. 


1 16 p. e. 


Up-c 


21 p. c. 


2ip.a 


26 pt 



F, — UsiTBD States. 





TboiuBDili Omiltcd. 1 


















Bnalind. 


MlddlB. 


Soutbcn. 


Wnlem. 


PmolflB. 


ToUL 


1790 . . . 


1,010 


1.342 


1,680 








1800 






1,233 


1,807 




64 






1810 






1.472 




2.897 


292 




7.240 


1820 












849 






1830 






1,S54 


4.138 


6.164 


1,610 




12,866 


1840 








6.088 








17.069 


1860 






2.724 


6,593 


8,288 


6,409 


178 


23,193 


1860 






3.145 


8,294 


10,297 


9,223 


485 


31,443 


1870 






3.6U6 


9.770 


11,330 


13,188 


764 


88.6S8 


ISSO 




4.010 


12,375 


16,264 


17.609 


1,262 


60,410 




POPULATION. 3S9 

G. — Tbb United States in Detail. 







Tbouunda ODilltEd. 




ISOD. 


1B». 


1»40. 


IMO. 


WO. 


1880. 


NewYork . 


GSS 


1,873 


2,429 


3.881 


4.383 


6,083 






floa 


1,01S 


1,724 


2,90« 


3.622 


4,283 


Ohio . . 




1G 


BSl 


1,GI9 


2.340 


2.666 


3,198 


niinoia 






GS 


476 


1,712 


a.640 


3,078 


MUsoori 






87 


884 


1,182 


1.721 


2.168 






"fl 


147 


ese 


1.3S0 


1,681 


1,978 






<23 


623 


73S 


1.231 


1.467 


1,783 






S3l 


G64 


780 


1.168 


1.331 


1,649 


Uiehigw . 






9 


212 


749 


1,184 


1,687 


low. . . 








43 


676 


1,194 


1,626 


TnH. . 










604 


819 


1,692 


TOUMNH . 




IM 


4SS 


829 


l.llO 


1,259 


1,612 


Geo^U 




163 


S41 


691 


1,057 


1,184 


1,642 


Virglni. . 




S80 


1,065 


1,240 


1.698 


1,225 


1,613 


North Cuolina 




*78 


83B 


753 


S83 


1,071 


1,399 


WbooiulD . 








31 


776 


1,066 


1,316 


AUbuu . 






128 


6B1 


964 


697 


1,263 


Miuiuippi. 




"e 


76 


876 


791 


828 


1,132 


NcwJeney. 




211 


277 


373 


672 


906 


1,131 


Konuu 










107 


364 


996 


South CiTolioa 




sia 


603 


"694 


704 


708 


906 


LoDiiriuim . 






153 


3S2 


708 


727 


940 


M»ijLuid . 




3i'2 


407 


470 


687 


781 


936 


Califomi. . 










380 


600 


866 








"ii 


"m 


433 


484 


803 


MinoetoU . 










172 


440 


781 


MaiDfl. 




112 


ass 


602 


028 


627 


819 


Conneoticot 




Wl 


275 


sto 


4U0 


637 


823 


Wert Virginb 












442 


618 












"m 


123 


452 


New Huonhirc 




184 


£44 


286 


326 


318 


317 


Vermont . 




154 


236 


292 


816 


331 


332 


Rhode Iiluid 




69 


63 


109 


176 


217 


277 






61 


73 


78 


112 


1 26 


147 


Florida 








64 


140 


188 


269 


Colondo . 










34 


40 


194 


Ongon 










62 


91 


176 


TJUb . . 










40 


87 


144 












6 


14 


136 


Tteitori> . 




13 


"as 


'60 


189 


_344 


667 

60,1 6S 


m» Union 




6,308 


9.633 


17,009 


31.443 


38,658 



The increaae of population eince 1630 <8«a p. 361) has 
averaged 32 per cent, every 10 jeftrs. At tliia rate there 
vrill be 68 millions in 1900. 



36o 



POPULATION. 



H.— Great Towns in 1831 and 1881. 



TlumtancU Omitted, 



Amsterdam . 

Antwerp 

Belfast 

Berlin. 

Birmingham 

Bombay 

Bordeaux . 

Boston 

Brussels 

Buda . 

Buenos Ayres 

Cairo . 

Calcutta 

Constantinople 

Copenhagen 

Christiania 

Dresden 

Dublin 

Edinburgh 

Florence 

Genoa . 

Glasgow 

Hamburg 

Havana 

Leipsic 

Lisbon 

Liverpool 

See Cities, 



18S1. 

201 

65 

63 

220 

142 

229 

94 

61 

102 

67 

81 

333 

280 

590 

109 

21 

70 

227 

130 

82 

83 

164 

112 

111 

42 

202 

165 



1881. 
326 
182 
185 
1,129 
402 
644 
212 
363 
407 
870 
212 
815 
480 
819 
235 
120 
221 
350 
229 
168 
179 
572 
454 
230 
149 
224 
552 



London 

Lyons . 

Madrid 

Manchester. 

MaT^ *1^ft ^ 

Mxifseillet . 

Milan . 

Moscow 

Munich 

Naples 

New Orleans 

New York . 

Palermo 

Philadelphia 

Prague 

Rio Janeiro 

Rome . 

Rotterdam . 

St. Petersburg 

Smyrna 

Stockholm . 

Stuttgart 

Turin . 

Tunis . 

Venice 

Vienna 

Warsaw 



isn. 

. 1,655 
. 146 
. 205 
. 238 
. 134 
. 116 
. 125 
. 308 

65 
. 354 

46 
. 203 
. 168 
. 167 

85 
. 145 
. 128 

66 
. 324 
. 115 

79 

32 
. 114 
. 108 
. 110 
. 280 
. 151 



1881. 

8,815 
877 
396 
549 
270 
360 
821 
694 
230 
491 
216 

1,243 
245 
868 
169 
275 
801 
153 
703 
155 
163 
117 
241 
210 
142 
731 
318 



I. — Towns of France. 







Populatiun in Thousands. 


Ratio to FopL of Fnmc«. 




1801. 


1835. 


1881. 


1801. 


1885. 


188L 


Paris .... 


553 


881 


2,226 


2-0 


2-6 


6-9 


Lyons . . 




110 


162 


877 


0-4 


0-5 


1-0 


Marseilles 




111 


125 


360 


0-4 


04 


1-0 


Bordeaux 




91 


110 


212 


0-3 


03 


0-6 


LiUe . . 




55 


77 


178 


02 


0-2 


0-5 


Toulouse . 




50 


62 


140 


02 


0-2 


0-4 


Nantes 




42 


78 


124 


0-2 


0-2 


0-3 


Rouen . . 




48 


91 


106 


0-2 


0-3 


0-3 


Havre . . 




16 


24 


106 


01 


01 


0-3 


Total . 


• • 


1,076 1,610 


3,829 


4*0 4-8 


10-3 




POPULATION. 



— ImGRKASK op PoFdLATION IN UNITED StATES. 
KBtunl. ImmiEntioii. 



184I-G0 . 

18&1-S0 . 

1861-70 . 

1871-80 . 



ToUI, 
per Out, 

»9'u-z f'sa S2'67 

24-19 9-88 3&-87 

21-20 11-38 SS-Sa 

IB'38 7-26 22-83 

2278 7-29 80-07 



L — TovNs ovzB 20,000 Population. 







ThfHuudi OmitM. 


pttCent 


Town. 
i« 10,000 

■4.nill». 


otTown.. 


TowaPopL 


ToUlPopL 


EngUnd. . . 

SeotlMd. . . 
IreUnd . . . 

IT. Kingdom 
Fruioa . . . 
Gtirmuiy . . 
RuBsik . . . 
Anitrik . . . 

HoSSd! ! 
Denmu-k . . 
Sweden . . . 
Norwij . . . 
Suritierlud . 
Greeoe . . . 
BoomBni. . . 
3«rri> . . . 
Turkey . . . 

Eorope . , 

United SUte> . 

Cuudk . . . 
Total . . 


101 

10 


11,120 
1,310 

820 


26,110 
8,734 

5,160 


14 

35 
13 


17 
3 
3 


120 
91 

111 
SS 
37 
78 
28 

21 

ig 

12 


13,GC0 
6,810 
7,120 
E,S-20 
2.650 
1,670 
1,910 
120 
1,510 
1,H0 

2eo 

350 
210 
280 
100 
820 
270 

oeo 


35,001 
37,870 
15,260 
81,140 
87,830 
28.910 
16,270 
4,350 
5,180 
4,080 
1,960 
4,610 
1,810 
2,810 
1,690 
6,310 
1,720 
8,010 


30 

18 
18 
6 
7 
18 
12 
10 
27 
28 
13 
8 
11 
8 
3 
11 
6 
12 


10 

5 

6 

0-1 

1-3 

7 

1-5 

1 
22 
10 

1« 

0-4 

0-4 

4 

2 

2 

0-5 

07 


fllO 
li'2 


18,130 
9,160 
370 

710 


327,401 
60,310 
4,310 
2,880 


15 
18 
9 
26 


1-6 
0-3 


707 


58,370 1 381,931 : 16 | 05 1 



The above does not include all urban populatioi 
example, see England in Table E. 



362 



POPULATION. 



M. — Towns in United SxATEa 



Population. 


1800. 


1820. 


1840. 


I860. 


1880. 


Over 100,000 


. 


2 


i 


9 


20 


60 to 100,000 


2 


1 


1 


9 


16 


20 to 60,000 


2 


2 


16 


25 


66 



Total . 



21 



43 



102 



The aggregate of urban compared with total population in 
the United States was as follows : — 





nioasandi Omitted. 


Batioof 
Urban. 




Urban. Total. 


ISOO 


340 6,810 


6-4 


1820 


460 9,640 


4-8 


1840 


. 1,650 17,070 


91 


1860 


. 4,240 81,440 


18-6 


1880 


. 9,160 60,310 


18-2 



The urban class comprises only towns over 20,000 popu- 
lation. 

N. — Great Powers op Europe. 



1 






Thousands Omitted. 




1380. 


1480. 


1580. 


1680. 


1780. 


1880. 1 


England . . . 


2,360 


3,700 


4,600 


6,532 


9,661 


35.004 


France 






11,240 


12,600 


14,300 


18,800 


25,100 


37,400 


Prussia 






600 


800 


1,000 


1,400 


5,460 


45,260 


Russia 






1,200 


2,100 


4,300 


12,600 


26,800 


84,440 


Austria 






2,300 


9,500 


16,500 


14,000 


20,200 


87,830 


Italy . . 






8,400 


9,200 


10,400 


11,500 


12,800 


28,910 , 


Spain . 






7,500 


8,800 


8,150 


9,200 
73,032 


9,960 


16,290: 


Tote] 

1 


I . 


» • 


33,600 


46,700 59,250 


109,881 285,134 ; 



In the above, England at present stands for United King- 
dom, and Prussia for the German Empire. 



O. — Density op English Towns. 

InhabitanU per Acre. 



Norwich . 
Leeds . . 
Sheffield . 
Nottingham 
Oldham . 



12 
15 
16 
18 
26 



Bradford ... 28 
Portsmouth . .31 
Leicester ... 42 
Hull 42 



Birmingham . . 48 I Liverpool . 



Bristol • . 
London . . 
Plymouth . 
Manchester 



. 49 

. 49 
. 54 
. 85 
. 106 




p. — Easlt Towns of ENOLAtrD (a.d. 1377). 



London . . 


8S,20a 


Norwich . 


. e,30o 




4,800 


York . . . 


11,400 


Lincoln . 


. 5,500 


Oxford . . . 


3,800 


Briitol. . . 


e,2oa 




. 6.200 




3,400 


Pljmouth . 


7,3M 




. 4,700 


LdO-tM . . 


8.200 


Covenlry . . 


7,100 


ColehMter 


. 4,600 




3,000 


POSTS. 














A. 


— TONKAOB 


OF Ebtb 


JES. 








ThoutaiuU OmiOed. 






London. . . 


8,210 


Hamburg. 


. 2,315 


HnD. . . . 


2.010 


Wow York. . 


7,60a 


H.VP,. . 


. 2^260 


Geno> . . . 


1,640 


Li»«pool . . 


7,320 


Gtugow . 


. 2.170 


Borton . . . 


1,660 


HmmUIo . . 


3,260 


DubEn . 


. 2,120 


Baltimore . . 


1.365 


Antwerp . . 


2,720 


B«lfa>t . 


. 2,030 


PtuUdolphik . 


1,260 


K— F0BB10.N 


Tbadb op 


Bbitisq 


POBTS (1880). 










HlUKmif. 








r=.«>rt.. 


ExporU. 


TotaL" ItaUo. 




London 




. m 


63 


194 277 








107 


S4 


ISl 27-3 




Hull 






20 


19 


39 6-6 




Gluwotr 

Soutbdi 






12 


12 


24 8-4 




pton 




10 


9 


19 27 




Tyneport. 




7 


7 


U 2-0 




Leith 









3 


12 17 




Bristol 






8 


2 


10 1-6 




Cirdiff 






1 


G 


e 0-9 




Dablio 






1 


2 


3 0-5 




Belf«t 






1 


2 


3 0-5 




V«rioi» 






Si 


S9 


183 28-2 





C. — Trade of United States Ponm 





MillloiK£. 


Bitlo. 1 


Importt 


B»port«. 


ToUl 


ImpocU. 


Export.. 


Tut.L 


New York . , 


103 


69 


172 


68 


46 


67 


Botton . . . 


14 


13 


27 


10 


8 


9 


San FruiciKO . 




11 


20 


6 


7 


01 


NcwOrleuu . 




14 


17 


2 


10 


6 


PhiWelpbU . 




8 


16 


G 


6 


6 






8 


11 


2 


6 


H 


V«ioui . . . 
ToUl . . . 


12 


29 


41 


7 


20 


13 


161 


162 


303 


100 


100 


.00 



3^4 



POST-OFFICE. 



POST-OFFICE. 





A. — CORRESPONDBNOB 


IN 1881. 










MiUions. 




Par 




Letters. 


Papers. 


Suudries. 


Total. ^ 


Inhji^ 


United Kii 


igdom . 1,299 


134 


249 


1,682 


49 


France 


. 695 


864 


401 


1,860 


36 


Germany 


. 721 


452 


126 


1,299 


29 




. 110 


76 


7 


192 


2 


Austria 


. 483 


79 


87 


699 


16 


Italy 


196 


86 


77 


369 


18 


Spain 


71 


41 


6 


118 


7 


Portugal . 


16 


8 


2 


26 


6 


Belgium 


91 


69 


37 


197 


36 


Holland 


. . . 71 


36 


14 


120 


80 


Denmark 


26 


26 


2 


68 


27 


Sweden an 


d Norway . 46 


33 


2 


81 


12 


Switzerland 


i . . 66 


60 


15 


130 


46 


Greece 


3 


• • • 


1 


4 


2 


Roumania 


6 


2 

1,444 


• • • 

976 


8 


2 


Europe 


. 3,798 


6,218 


20 


United Sta 


ktes . . 1,155 


761 


327 


2,243 


45 


Canada 


57 


15 


7 


79 


18 


Australia 


36 


36 


1 


73 


27 


India 


. 121 


10 


4 


135 


1 


Japan 


48 


14 


1 


63 


2 


South Amt 


;rica . . 36 


9 


9 


54 


2 


Algeria 


7 


1 


• • • 


8 


3 


Egypt 


8 


1 


• • • 


4 


1 


Java . 


4 


1 


1 


6 


1 



The World . . 5,265 2,292 1,326 8,883 13 

B. — Letters in France and United Kingdom. 



Period. 


Annual Average, Millions. 


Number per Inhabitant. 


U. Kingdom. 


France. 


U. Kingdom. 


France. 


1841-50 
1861-60 
1861-70 
1881 . 


277 

466 

724 

1,299 


122 
210 
340 
595 


10 
17 
24 
37 


4 

6 
9 

16 



C. — British Postal Revenue. 



Year. 

1643. 
1663. 
1685. 
1707. 



Amount, 


Per Inhab., 


Tear. 


Amoant, 


Per InhaK. 


Thousands £. 


Ponce. 


Tliousands £. 


PiBUC*. 


6 


• • • 


1744 


. . 235 


7 


. 22 


1 


1790 


. . 480 


12 


. 65 


3 


1835 


. . 2.353 


22 


. Ill 


6 


1881 


. .9,028 


62 



POST-OFFICE-^POTA TOES. 



36s 



D. — British Postal TRAFFia 

MiUiont of Letten, Papers, fto. 











nana 


BeoeiTed ftrom 


Sent to 


ToUL 




United Kingdom 


1,526 


1,526 


1,526 


907 


AmericA 


22 


22 


44 


2-6 


European Continent . 
TheEatt . 


37 


44 


81 


4*8 


4 


9 


18 


0-8 


Australia 


4 


6 


10 


0-6 


Africa. 


2 


6 


8 


0-6 



Total 



R 



. 1,595 1,618 1,682 

— British Postal Tarifp. 



London to 
York . . 
Edinburgh 
Dublin . . 
Gibraltar . 



1645. 
. 6 
. 8 



Pence. 

1885. 
11 
13 
16 
34 



1881. 
1 
1 
1 

2i 



London to 
New York 
Madrid. . 
Rio Janeiro 



1645. 



100-0 



Penoe. 

18S6. 1881. 

26 2i 

26 2^ 

42 4 



In the reign of Charles L the rates of postage were : — 



Under 80 miles . 
80-140 

POTATOES. 



Pence. 
. 2 
. 4 



Over 140 maet 
To Scotland 



Pence. 
. 6 
. 8 





Thousands Omitted. 


Cwts. 
per Acre. 


Lbs. per 
Inbab. 


Acres. 


Tons. 


Vslue of 
Crop, £. 


England 
Scotland 
Ireland . 

United Kingdom 
France . 
Germany 
Russia . 
Austria. 

Italy and Spain . 
HolL and Belgium 
Scandinavia . 
1 

Europe 
United SUtes 
Canada, &c . 

Total . 


400 
189 
854 


1,400 

665 

2,970 


4,600 
2,200 
9,400 


70 
70 
70 


120 

390 

1,320 


1,443 

3,200 

6,800 

3,100 

3,500 

450 

750 

560 


5,035 
9,500 
21,300 
9,200 
8,100 
1,120 
2,800 
1,750 


16,200 

28,800 

57,500 

22,300 

20,200 

3,000 

8,100 

5,000 


70 
59 
62 
60 
46 
50 
75 
64 


315 
550 
1,060 
250 
510 
55 
580 
460 


19,803 
1,900 
1,100 


58,805 
3,500 
3,300 


160,600 

10,600 

9,400 


60 
37 
60 


450 
150 

• • • 


22,803 


65,605 180,600 


57 


• • • 



Potatoes wero introduced into Germany in 1710, into 



366 POULTRY— POWER. 

Busaia in 1769, aad into Scotland eome yean later. Ths 
man who sowed the first field of potatoes in Scotlutd died 
in 1860. 



Gre>4 Britain 
Unitod Kingdom 



Hem. 
I>acka 

See Hens. 

POWER. 



2S M I Fnnca . . 

IS 2G6 Oerminy . 
41 117 ! Italy. . . 

B. — Bbitibb Foultbt. 



Omitwd. 

23,G0O Q«au . 

8,700 I Turlujt 



A.- 


PowBB Available for Indubtbikb. 








a<iio. 






BlHim, 


Riten, 


Tulal 




Workii™. 




«««.-' 


h™- 


H-r*,- 














7-5 


U. Kingdom . 


22,670 


2,90s 


7,780 


4,520 


17.166 


France . . . 


27,765 


2,833 


S.513 


0.130 


16.263 


6-6 


Germany 




3O,07i 


3,360 


1,325 


6,010 


16.735 


7-2 


RuKilB . 




49,620 


10,200 


1,365 


36,115 


58,630 


25-0 


Austria 




25fi<iS 


3,7eo 


1,280 


5,830 


13,370 


5-7 


Italy . 




ie,3io 


653 


180 


3,960 


6,929 


2-0 


Spain . 




11.120 


690 


183 


2.220 


4,10S 


1-8 


Portugal 




2,780 


70 


66 


610 


1,051 


0-5 


Botgium 




3,77fl 


2S3 


595 


370 


1,620 


07 


Holland 




2,000 


280 


210 


610 


1,405 


0-6 


SomdiDiLVia . 


S,SIO 


970 


l!fl 


6,360 


8,327 


3-e 


SwitiorUnd . 


1,815 


110 


253 


650 


1,195 


0-5 


Roumiuua . 


3,520 


cao 


90 


1,160 


2,162 


0-9 


Secvia . . . 


1,0 ro 


no 


33 


450 


732 


0-3 


tireeoe . . . 
Europe . . 


i,oao 


87 


20 


420 


610 


0-2 


206,S48 


32,307 


20,917 


75,505 


119,919 


ei-0 


United Sut« 


30,110 


11,202 


8.152 


61,150 


83,516 
233,135 


86-0 
lOOfl 


T,it»l 




23(1,001 


41,009 


29,069 


136.065 



All the above powers may be considered in active use, 
except the rivers, of which less than one-tenth of the power 
is turned to any use. 




POWER— PRESS. 
—BaiiATin DisTRiBDTioN or POWZR. 

B 
HamiD. Bono. Sttam. RiTon. ToUL | 



U. EingdM 



-a™ 



luiv . 
FortDg*!. 



Onece . 
United State* . 



A. — NEWaPAPBRS < 
EnglUh . . . 13,378 | Italun 



3,333 
1,810 I 

TotiU 



ALL LaNOUAOBS. 
■ 1,165 j FoTtogneM 



B. — Dailt Pafebs. 



Uaited Kingdom . 

Fnnce . . . . 

GermADV 

IUI7 ... 

Bcl^um uid Holluid 

Spun, BoHia, &c. . 

Eoiope 
Dnitad States 
Spaniih AmcricB . 
India, Coloniei, tc 



DtUf Ihua 
8,!00,000 
2,300,000 

2,61)0,000 
600,000 
100,000 
600,000 

0,600,000 

3,800,000 

400,000 

700,000 



London . 
Frorincei 
ScotlAnd 



368 



PRESS. 



D. — Growth of Nbwspafbbs bikcb 1840. 







No. of Papers. 


No. of 


News- 


Dale of 






y- 


Towns 


per Town. 


First Paper 




1840. 


1882. 


in 1882. 


a.d: 


United Kingdoxn 


I 498 


1,817 


120 


15 


1622 


France 


776 


1,280 


91 


14 


1606 


Germany , 




805 


2,850 


114 


21 


1524 






204 


486 


88 


6 


1714 


Austria 




182 


865 


87 


28 


1550 


Italv . 
Spam . 




210 


1,124 


76 


15 


1562 




74 


258 


28 


9 


1704 


Portugal 




18 


42 


8 


14 


• • • 


Belgium 




52 


412 


24 


17 


1764 


Holland . 




26 


210 


19 


11 


1757 


Scandinavia 


104 


280 


18 


18 


1644 


Switzerland 


54 


484 


6 


72 


• •• 


Europe . 


. 2,448 


9,408 


619 


15 


1524 


United Stotes 


830 


11,052 


102 


101 


1704 


Spanish Americi 


i 88 


870 


74 


12 


1728 


Brazil 


11 


296 


20 


15 


1780 


Australia . 


43 


270 


16 


17 


1808 


Canada 


88 


565 


9 


62 


1765 


India . 


63 


644 


180 


4 


1781 


West Indies 


87 


60 


10 


6 


1781 


Sandwich Islandt 


i 1 


6 


1 


6 


1835 


Africa 


14 


62 


12 


5 


1824 


Japan 


1 


34 


30 


1 


• ■ • 


Turkey, &c. 


14 


72 


17 


4 


1797 



Total . . 3,638 23,339 1,093 21 1524 

The Chinese liave had newspapers at least ten centuries. 

In the above table only towns of over 20,000 population 
are counted. The increase of newspapers in Europe has 
been as follows : — 







Per 






Per 


Tear. 


Number. 


Million 
luhAb. 


Year. 


Number. 


MUltoo 
Inhabw 


1828 . 


. 2,142 


10-2 


1865 . 


. 7,140 


26-4 


1840 . 


. 2,448 


10-7 


1882 . 


. 9,408 


31-2 



E. — British Press since 1800. 





Million Papers per Annum. 


Annual Isaue per 100 Inhabi- 
tants, Copietb 


1801. 


1831. 


18«4. 


1882. 


1801. 1831. 


18«4. 1SS2. 


England . . 
Ireland . . 
Scotland . . 

U. Kingdom 


16 
2 

1 


83 

4 
2 


482 
36 
28 


1,350 
130 
140 


180 230 
38 52 
60 84 


2,250 5,120 
640 2 540 
950 3,760 


19 


39 1 546 

1 


1,620 ' 122 164 1,810 4,^50 




F. — Frekch Daily FitEsa 







p»ril . . 


. 1,470 


&£^u^ '. 


73 
70 


Bordeuix 


40 


Other towtu . 


647 



lOCOlnha 



G. — United States Daily Press. 





No. ot Papon. 


iBiu, Thounndi. 


|'?!Sb&r| 














laro. 


IS». 


ISTO. 


ISSO. 1 IS70. j 1180. 1 


Ne»Ea^>nd. . 


60 


fl4 


810 


403 


8S 


10! 


Middle .... 


171 






1,789 


140 


146 


Soathern . . . 






146 


174 


12 


12 


W«teni. . . . 


20S 


38! 


433 


970 


49 


GS 


FaciGo .... 
ToUl .... 


G6 


119 


113 


240 


IS6 


19G 


G74 


962 


2,601 


3,G92 


6B 1 71 1 



U. — LlTERAT V BE 


NeWHFAPBBS and I>00K3. 






"P.por. 






'»"« 




Tool 




Boolu imit pe 






U«l. 






'BDU. 


CJnit«dEiasdom 95,000 


6-1 


£19,060,000 


107 


Pnncs 


70,000 


42 


11,760,000 


75 


OenuAnj 


76,000 


3-7 


12,720,000 


67 


fiunik 


18,000 


0-5 


3,040,000 


9 


AiutriA 


24,000 


1-4 


4,050,000 


25 


luly. 


19,000 


1-5 


3,200,000 


29 


SfL 


B,000 


0-8 


1,010,000 


15 


PaiiDgal 


2.000 


ID 


340,000 


13 


Belgium 


8,000 


3'3 


1,360.000 


G9 


HoUkDd 


3,600 


21 


910,000 


88 


ScMidiiu.v 


> . 6,000 


1-5 


1,010,000 


30 


Switurluu 


4,000 

. 331,900 


33 

2"* 


670,000 


68 


Europe 


£56,810,000 


44 


United SU 


tea . 107,000 


4-7 


18,080,000 


79 


Can&da 


4,000 


2-2 


670.000 


39 




4,000 


3-3 


670,000 


'68 


SpMiihAa 


eiick 10,000 


0-7 


1,980,000 


14 


I>>dift,fta. 


4,400 




740.000 




The Wo 


Id . 461000 




£77,960,000 


z 



37® 



PRICES. 



PRICES. 



A. — Roman Empire, a.d. 303. 

Prices in Englith Pence and EngUik Meanart, 



Wines, Ae. 






Per 
Pint 


Folemian. . . 15 


Sorrento . 






. 15 


Sabine . . 






. 15 


Ordinary , 






10 


Inferior . 






8 


Rustic . . 






4 


Vinegar . 






3 


Beer . . 






2 


Small do. 






1 


Oil, Ist . 






. 20 


Da, 2nd . 






. 12 


Do., 8rd . 






6 



Meat, 4a 



Per 
Lb. 



Game. 



Qroceriefl. 
TaUow . , 


Per 
Lb. 

3 


Cheese . , 


7 


Butter . . . 


9 


Lard . . . 


9 


Honey . . 
Beans . . 


. 12 
5 


Peas . . . , 


3 


Lentils . . 


. 5 


20 eggs . . . 
20 oysters . , 
20fig8 . . . 
20 roses . . . 


. 15 

. 15 

2 

1 



B. — Prices in England since a.d. 1201. 



Per 



Beef . 


. . 4 


Oroose . 


. . 15 


Mutton 


. . 4 


Dove . 


. . 12 


Lamb . 


. . 6 


Pigeon . 


. . 18 


Pork . . 


6 


Wood da 


. . 16 


Ham 


. . 10 


Partridge 


. . 24 


Sausages . 


. . 4 


Duck . 


. . 80 


Venison 


. . 7 


Rabbit . 


. . 80 


Boar . 


, . 9 


Fowl . 


. . 45 


Sea fish . 


. 14 


Goose . 


. . 76 


River fish < 


. . 7 


Fat da. 


. . 150 


Salted „ . 


. . 4 


Pheasant 


. . 80 


Snails, doz< 


en . 1 


Har« . 


. . 110 




Per 


dothing, ki 


i. Fern 


Vegetables. 


tc. SO. 


Socks . . 


. . 8 


Apples . . 


. 2 


Tunic . 


. . 12 


Cherries . 


. 1 


Breeches . 


. 15 


Almonds . 


4 


Cloak . . 


. 30 


Walnuts . 


1 


Boots . . 


. 100 


Chestnuts 


1 


Shoes . . 


. 120 


Onions . . 
Turnips 


4 

8 


Slippers 
Clogs . . 


. 50 
. 40 


Cucumbers 


8 


Saddle . . 


. 400 


Lettuce 


. 15 


Bridle . . 


. 80 


Cauliflower 


s . 15 


Whip . . 


. 12 


Melons 


. 30 


Bath . . 


. 2 


Artichokes 


. 30 







Ox . 

Sheep 
Pig. . 
Wine, gallon 
Beer, „ 
Goose 
Rabbit . 
Hen 

Pigeons, dozen 
Beef, 8 lbs. 
Kggs, dozen 
Butter, lb. 
Wheat, quarter 
Horse 





Nominal, in 


Current Coin, Centuries. 


13th. 

138. 


14th. 
16s. 


15th. 


16th. 
31 9. 


17tb. 


18th. 


19th. 


208. 


lOOs. 


1608. 


280*. 


Is. 


H», 


28, 


3s. 


78. 


18s. 


255. 


28, 


3s. 


3a. 


4s. 


88. 


22s. 


80*. 


Is. 


Is. 


U 


8a. 


58. 


16«.. 


20-^ 


Id. 


2d. 


2d. 


3d. 


4d. 


8d. 


IM. 


3d. 


4d. 


6d. 


8d. 


12d. 


24d. 


50,i. 


2d. 


2d. 


3d. 


3d. 


6d. 


8d. 


l-id. 


Id. 


2d. 


3d. 


4d. 


8d. 


12d. 


ISd. 


3d. 


4d. 


6d. 


9d. 


12d. 


18<i. 


36d. 


2d. 


4d. 


r>d. 


6d. 


24(L 


36d. 


64(L 


1(L 


2d. 


3d. 


3d. 


4d. 


8d. 


12<i 


• • • 


lid. 


lid. 


2d. 


4d.l 


5<i 


12d. 


• • ■ 


6s. 1 


6a. 


168. 


428. 1 


.^0a. 


56s. 


... 


... 


£2 


£3 ' 


£5 1 


£13 


£22 




I EnOLAND SINCK A.D 
Actual Price in Wliglii 



1201 — continued. 
ofSdvtr. 



Wheat, qmutar 
WiDS, gulon 
Bmt, „ 

OOOM 

Rabbit . 
Hen 

Pigeons, doKD 
Beef, 811m. 
Bntter, lb. 



4011 


106s. 


170s. 




SOs. 






106s. 






- 88. 


19b. 


6u 


»B. 


231. 




45a. 


63>. 


<«. 


6s. 


17i 




4d. 


8d. 


lid. 


12d. 


25d. 


M. 


ltd. 


8d. 


fid. 


M. 


12d. 


IM 


l»d. 


18d. 


M. 


25d. 


88d. 


iW, 


4d. 


Bd. 


4d. 


4d. 


Sd. 



a-EiWJ OF 


Prices in England (Ratio op Value). 


A.D. 


Nomlul Talus. 


Cnlnsd; T«l 


-■»"- 1 


Q»in. 


Csttls. 


bib™. 


per Lb. 


G™1b. 




Lsbaur, 

50- 




10 


6 


16 


20s. 


33 


16 








20 


23s. 


32 


20 








9 


22 


82s. 


23 


10 


45 






13 




529. 


41 


16 


20 


1601-1700 . . 


80 


30 




e2s. 


85 


32 


35 


1701-1765 . . 


70 


45 


40 


62s. 


74 


48 


48 


176(H810 . . 


108 


B3 


GS 


e2s. 


112 


66 


58 


1811-1848 . . 


121 


70 


70 


SB.. 


121 


70 


70 


1880-1883 . . 


100 


100 


100 


88». 


100 


100 


100 



The foregoing shows that cattle, for example, sell to-day 
at 20 times the nominal price, but only 6 times the weight 
in silver, which they were worth in the 13th century. Shuck- 
burgh's table (1800) was manifestly erroneous, since prices 
had nominally increased only 7-fold from 1200 to 1800. 

KslloofVi 



A.D. 
1201-1300 
1301-1400 
1401-1600 
1601-1600 
1601-1700 
I701-I765 
1768-1810 
1880-1883 



uckburgh. ' 



372 PRICES. 

D. — P^CES IN £NOLAin> FROM 1780 TO 1850. 

Ratio. 







1780-1800. 


180^-20 


1821-00 


. 1780-1800. 1821-M. 


Wheat, 


qr. 


568. 


868. 


678. 


100 




102 




Butter, 


cwt. . 


638. 


908. 


788. 


100 




124 




Beef 




478. 


658. 


678. 


100 




121 




Sugar 




428. 


468. 


858. 


100 




83 




Iron 




188. 


128. 


68. 


100 




83 




Coffee 




. 1128. 


1268. 


908. 


100 




89 




Cotton 




. 1788. 


1498. 


708. 


100 


■ 


89 




Wool 




. 1408. 


2108. 


1108. 


100 




79 




Tea, lb 


• • 

T 


42d. 
otal 


38d. 

• • 


24d. 

• 


100 
900 


— 


67 
727 




E. andF 


. — Price-Levels op the World for 


100 Tkab& 








AgricalturaL 










' Tears. Grain. 


Meat. 


Dairy. 


WooL 


Cotton. 


Sugar 


• 


roCaL 


1782-90 . 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 




100 


1791-1800 


133 


141 


131 


121 


110 


170 




133 


1801-10 . 


165 


188 


167 


259 


75 


138 




166 


1811-20 . 


175 


208 


190 


206 


75 


165 




172 


1821-30 . 


118 


157 


153 


90 


46 


113 




113 


1831-40 . 


110 


173 


144 


75 


41 


110 




109 


1841-50 . 


105 


165 


155 


60 


26 


110 




102 


1851-60 . 


128 


184 


176 


54 


28 


101 




118 


1861-70 . 


123 


194 


198 


46 


61 


110 




123 


1871-80 . 


115 


220 


218 


36 


34 


88 




119 


1881-84 . 


98 


244 


2^, 


30 


29 


64 




113 








Indu^triaL 










Years. ILirdwart 


>. Timber. 


CoaL 


Cottous. Woollens. 


Leather. 


lotal. 


1782-90 . 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 


100 




100 


1791-1800 


124 


138 


109 


107 


112 


128 




116 


1801-10 . 


159 


263 


85 


82 


199 


173 




138 


1811-20 . 


181 


2:^8 


91 


82 


161 


168 




136 


1821-30 . 


144 


108 


91 


68 


92 


90 




95 


1831-40 . 


124 


127 


71 


54 


84 


100 




H7 


1841-50 . 


82 


182 


67 


42 


73 


111 




75 


1851-60 . 


75 


144 


61 


36 


68 


IU3 




69 


1861-70 . 


72 


144 


61 


52 


78 


108 




75 


1871-80 . 


85 


128 


61 


37 


75 


96 




70 


1881-84 . 


65 


116 


48 


32 


62 


U 




57 



It appears from the above that agricultural products have 
risen 13 per cent., manufactures fallen 43 per cent., in price- 
level since 1782-90. 




PRICES. 
—Prick in Englakd sinck 1854. 







isei-To. 


..n^ 


mi. 


B..O. 1 




















an-ea. 


18S1. 


Bacon, owt . 


a. SI 


49 




46 


49 


100 


90 


Barley, boehel 


d. 37 


43 


60 


50 


100 


135 


Butter, cwL 


». S4 


101 


110 


109 


100 


128 


Carpeti, yard 




d. 31 


35 


85 


29 


100 


93 


chj»«r<^t. 




>. SI 


66 


68 


67 


100 


112 


Clrth, jard 




d. 36 


38 


37 


83 


100 


93 


CoalB,ton 




tl 111 


118 


149 


108 


100 


V7 


Coflee, owt 




R. 49 


84 


88 


77 


100 


167 


Cotton, raw 




*. 61 


148 


68 


GS 


100 


95 


Cotton clotMOO yds. 


d. 29 


42 


SO 


27 


100 


93 


Eggi-. 12 dozen 


d. S2 


88 


114 


109 


100 


129 


Fiinnel, yanl . 


d. IS 


19 


IS 


15 


100 


91 


Flu, cwt. 


B. 47 


55 


49 


41 


100 


87 


GLus „ 


a. 98 


55 


64 


44 


100 


71 


Herrion banel 


a. 29 


87 


88 


3S 


100 


136 


HideTct . . 


a. 99 


59 


82 


89 


100 


130 


Ho™™.«ch . . 


£ 69 


62 


84 


62 


100 


111 


Iron, too . 


a. 69 


59 




66 


100 


83 


Jnte. cwL 


<. IS 


19 


17 


18 


100 


89 


Laid „ 


■. 58 


GO 


47 


Gl 


100 


88 


Lead, ton 


£ £2 


21 


21 


IB 


100 


73 


I*alhor, cwt . 


•- 178 


185 


164 


101 


100 


91 


Linen, 100 vardi . 
Oat*, buihel . 


d. 73 


76 


73 


70 


100 


98 


d. 35 


40 


46 




100 


126 


Oil, tun . 


£ 63 


63 


46 


41 


100 


86 


Oranges, biuhel 


a. 12 


11 


9 




100 


67 


Oicn, each 


£ 16 


18 


21 


22 


100 


137 


I'flper, cwt. . 


a. 85 


63 


49 


45 


100 


G3 


PoUt««, „ . . 


d. 60 


67 


68 


05 


100 


130 


Rica „ . . 


«. 12 


12 


10 


9 


100 


75 


Salt, ton . 


1 d. 130 


126 


158 


140 


100 


108 


Sheep, fKh . . 


a. 41 


39 


45 


47 


100 


lis 


Silk, lU . 


a. IS 


23 


19 


17 


100 


95 


Soap. cwL . . 


a. 24 


26 


25 


22 


100 


92 


»piriti^ gallon . 


d. 45 


31 


40 


67 


100 


149 


Steel, ton . . 


£ 35 


33 


32 


11 


100 


32 


Sugar, ewt. . . 


a. 32 


33 


28 


24 


100 


7G 


Tallow „ 


a. 55 


45 


40 


35 


100 


63 


Tea, lb. . 


i 17 


18 


16 


13 


100 


78 


Tobacco, cwt . 


a. gi 


104 


73 


64 


100 


70 


Wheat, buahtl . 


d 81 


7S 


71 




100 


S3 


Wine, gallon . . 


d 13;) 


67 




71 


100 


58 


Wood, load 




63 


68 


61 


100 


80 


Wool, lb. . . . 


d. 81 


IS 


14 


14 


100 


67 


Tatil. 






... 1 ... 1 ... 


4,400 


4,197 



PRICES. 

H. — FrICSB (ENCLiKD). 











-. 1 




IBSl. 


ins. 


IMl 


IML 


itra. 


im 


Alk>U 


u S-62 


12-S2 


6-1* 


100 


146 


72 


B«r . . . 


a. 74-58 


82-81 


86-60 




no 


lit 


Book. . . 


£ 14-43 


10-88 


9-62 


100 


76 


«7 


Boou. . . 


B. 73-11 


6473 


6870 


100 


80 


60 


Bottle, . . 


i>. 10-16 


10-18 


8-66 


100 


100 


94 


Batter . . 


1. S6-2G 


113-14 


138-88 


100 


117 


144 


Cudlea . . 


«. 11-87 


8-04 


6-49 


100 


67 


5B 


Cupeta . . 


i 30-01 


38 '64 


28-14 


100 


129 


M 


Ct.^ . . 


a. S2-32 


86-30 


81-08 


100 


lOS 


» 


Cloth. . . 


A 28-63 


41-00 


34-19 


100 


137 


11* 


Colli. . . 


s. 8-18 


20-90 


914 


100 


227 


M 


Copper . . 


£ 4-88 


4-88 


3-57 


100 


98 


72 


CohIko . . 


8. 48'39 


6970 


6226 


100 


124 


108 


Cottons, . 


d. 3-02 


3-45 


271 


100 


115 


90 


„ printeJ . 


d. 411 


*78 


374 


100 


117 


91 


„ mixed . 


d. 7'10 


9-29 


6-84 


100 


131 


82 


Fi,h . 


«, 28-20 


28-38 


29-90 




101 


106 


Flannel 


d. 18*7 


1810 


15-14 


100 


98 


62 


Firenrmi . 


«. 32-87 


2913 


2S-20 


100 


90 


67 


Gttus, flint 


B. 6S-18 


67-88 


47-50 


100 


105 


66 


„ plate 


«. 2-67 


301 




100 


112 




G^powdcr . 


d. 7-40 


8-38 


603 


100 


86 


81 




1. 3G-35 


2916 


21-86 


100 


82 


60 


Hona . 


£ 80-61 


62-95 


63-21 


100 


78 


79 


Iran«il« . . 


£ 770 


13 27 


6-83 


100 


172 


89 


.. pig ■ . 


B. 61-77 


124-65 


66-44 


100 


210 


109 


Jute. . . 


d. 4-68 




270 


100 


85 


67 


LeaJ. . . 


£ 21-65 


23-75 


15-45 




110 






». S98 


900 


874 




100 




Linen . . 


' d. 7-16 


7-62 


6-90 


100 


107 


97 


„ printed . 


d. 987 


7-63 


811 




77 


82 


Paper 


£ 3-96 


3-04 


2-23 


100 


75 


56 


Salt . . . 


; iL 10-53 


1877 


11-90 




179 


113 


Silk . . . 


H. 3-14 


3-54 


3-37 




112 


107 


Soap . 


B. 2471 


2C-45 


22-40 




m 


90 


Spirit. . . 


B. 2-37 


250 


6-87 


100 


106 


214 


Steel . . . 


£ 33-33 


37-11 


11 -SO 


100 


111 


35 


Sugu . . 


B. 49-24 


3002 


23-30 


100 


61 


48 


Tin . . . 


£ 6-07 


6-83 


6-24 


100 


113 


66 


Wool . . . 


d. 1746 


21-18 


15-20 


100 


121 


87 


Yam, cotton 


■L 12-54 


17 76 


1296 


100 


142 


101 




d. 1391 


16-51 


1371 


100 


117 


H| 


" woollfn '. 


d. 30-13 


37 20 


25-e-j 


100 


12t 




Zinc . . . 
Total . . 


£ 21-83 


2192 


I4-C7 


100 


114 


07 ■ 






... '4.400 


6.001 


^i 



I 




I, — Fricbs ih UNirxD Statkb (ih ENOLiaH Gold). 





lUfr^. 


Ml^. 


ISU-M. 


18S1-W 


lui-m 


1871-W. 


Cod,ton . . 


a. 33 


34 


2G 


2S 


26 


19 




>. 218 


187 


133 


121 


122 


lai 


WbMt, bndiel. . 


d. b6 


08 


GS 


7fl 


75 


SB 




d. 80 


iO 


32 


40 


88 


28 


P«wk lb. . . 


d. 818 


*'2fi 


270 


4-26 


4'83 


3 88 


SopT „ . . 


d. S7B 


3'40 


810 


8-11 


4-20 


3-62 




d. 1-38 


1-74 


1-3S 


1-60 


1-31 


1-27 


Rtco . . . 


d. 1-66 


180 


2-28 


2-04 


8-61 


8-42 


Fid. „ . . 


d. 188 


218 


276 


3-98 


8-66 


817 


TobMCO .. . . 


d. 2-01 


3-62 


2-89 


4-80 


8-16 


4-82 


Wool „ . . 


d. 18B1 


16-48 


13-BO 


17-62 


18-84 


1S-3S 


Coffee „ . . 


A 7-0 


6-8 


3-9 


6-2 




8-3 




d. 6-0 


8-2 


4-2 


6-3 


18-2 








2-7 


2-3 


2'5 


2-3 


2-3 




i E'O 


6-2 


87 


4-9 


4-8 


4-G 




d. 7B' 


8-6 


8-6 


B-6 


11-4 


11-2 


ChMae „ . 


d. 3-6 


4-0 


S-1 


4-1 


4-9 


66 


Leather „ . 


d.lO-G 


a-6 


7-» 


10-9 


U-2 


12-6 



K. — Fricbs in Francs (English Monbt). 





l«0-». 


IMO-M 


18W-W 


iToi-eo. 


ISW-M 


IBWMD 


IBTO^. 


Whe»t,qf. . 
Wine, gallon. 

at": 

Butter „ . . 
Sugu „ . . 
Pot»toe».cwt 


>. 6 
d. 4 
d. 2 
d. ... 

d. ... 
d. ... 
d. ... 




IS 
12 
3 
3 
4 
6 


26 
IS 


18 

11 
24 


62 

26 
6 
6 

10 
8 

46 


63 
22 
9 

8 
14 

6 
70 





L— Prices op 


Food in 1878. 








EDBlwd. 


FnwcK. 


OennMr. 


Italy. 


N.Tork. 


Cblc^ 


Beef, lb.. . 


d. 10 


9-5 


90 


8-0 


6-0 


4-0 




d. 2 


1-6 


2-0 


SO 


20 


2-0 


Butter „ . . 




13 


11 




14 


12 




d. 11 


S 


10 




14 


9 


Sngw.lb.. . 


d. 4 




2 




6 


8 


d. 4 


S 


5 




6 


6 




d. 16 


16 


17 


18 


13 




Rioa „ . , 


d. 8 




4 




6 




Pork „ . . 






8 








Fotatoei, cwt 


1. 6 


4 


4 




11 


6 



376 



PRISONS— PUBLIC PROPERTIES. 



PRISONS. 

A. — Prison Population op Great Britain (1880). 

Englnnd. SootUnd. Great BriUin. 

Maleg . . 23,791 2,063 25,854 

Females . 4,533 1,006 5,541 



Total 



31,995 



28,324 3,071 

Per 100,000 JnhabitarUi. 

189 114 

• • « • 34 vji 

109 83 

In England there are 84 male to 16 female offenders^ in 
Scotland 67 of the former to 33 of the latter. 



Males . 
Females 
General 



179 

36 

105 



B. — Persons Committed to Prison. 

AnnucU Average per 100,000 Jnhabitanti, 

EngUind. Scotland. IreUnd. United Kingdom. 



Period. EuffUind. Scotland. 

1840-49 . . 164 149 

1850-59 . . 126 130 

1860-69 . . 91 104 

1870-79 . . 04 89 

For other countries, see Crime, 
PROSTITUTION. 

Prostitutes. 

London . . 31,800 
Paris . . . 2C,990 
Berlin . . . 27,300 



IreUnd. 

302 

227 

91 

84 



Ptr 10.000 
Inhab. 

83 

122 

248 



Lyons 

Marseilles 

Bordeaux 



Prostitutes. 

. 5,520 
. 4,080 
. 2,610 



204 

151 

92 

69 



Per 10,000 
Inhab. 

145 

112 

125 



PROTECTION. — Tlie absurdity of protection is mani- 
fested in the United States : inferior native ironstone costs 
(1882) 42 shillings per ton at Pittsburg, while the best 
Bilbao ores can be delivered in Kew York harbour at 12 
shillings per ton. See Bounties, 

PRUDHOMMES. — A kind of arbitration-tribunal for dis- 
putes between employers and workmen : cases heard annually 
average 42,600 in France, and 4,100 in Belgium. 

PUBLIC PROPERTIES IN FRANCE (1882). 

Paris. 



Summarj. Millions £. 
State forests . [>0 
Royal palaces . 12 
Fortifications . 29 
Buildings, &c . 42 



Total 



133 



Palaces, Value, 

&c. Thousands. 

VersaiUes . £4,444 

Fontainebleau 2,202 

Louvre, &a . 5,150 



Total . £11,796 



Churches 
Schools. 
Parks . 
Various 



Value, 
Tbousands. 

. £7,188 

. 4,280 

. 10,890 

. 20,027 



Total . £42,885 
Tlie Church of St. Roch, Paris, is valued at £660,000 ; 
the Madeleine at £460,000. 



PUBLIC WORKS. 



377 



PXJBLIO WOBES. ? 





Value in Millions £. 


Batio 
Inbab. 


Roads 

and 

CanuU. 


Streets, 

Drains, 

Ac 


PubUe 
Buildings. 


Fordf. 

Arsenals, 

Ac. 


T6taL 


U. Kingdom 
France 
Germany . 
Riiiaia 
Austria 
Italy . 
Spain. 
Portugal . 
Belgium . 
Holland . 
Denmark . 
Sweden 
Norway 
Switzerland 
Greece . * . 

Europe . 
United Stotes . 
Canada 
Mexico 
Argent. Repub. . 

i Australia . 

1 


162 
297 
210 
76 
80 
22 
10 

2 
10 
23 

3 
18 

7 
14 

2 


68 

34 

87 

26 

13 

23 

10 

2 

8 

6 

2 

2 

1 

3 

1 


114 

95 

73 

44 

39 

83 

17 

4 

7 

6 

2 

3 

1 

4 

2 


203 

164 

122 

78 

66 

63 

23 

7 

16 
90 
4 
9 
4 
9 
2 


647 

690 

442 

224 

188 

131 

60 

16 

41 

125 

11 

32 

IS 

SO 

7 


£15 

16 

10 

8 

6 

4i 
4 

4 
8 

31 
6 
7 
7 

11 
4 


936 

174 

11 

3 

1 

8 


236 
46 
3 
2 
1 
4 


444 

139 
6 
6 
2 
6 


840 

168 

10 

2 

2 

10 


2,456 

627 

SO 

12 

6 

28 


£8 

10 

7 

1 

8 

10 


Total . 


1,133 


292 


602 


1,032 


3,059 


£8 



PUBLIO WORKS LOANS. 

From 1817 to 1881. 



Advances 
Repaid 
Bad debts 



Groat Britain. 

£44,743,000 

16,768,620 

1,948,000 



Ireland. 
£31,800,000 
18,000,000 
7,714,000 



Total. 
£76,648,000 
84,768,620 
9,662,000 



Balance due . £26,026,480 £6,086,000 £82,112,480 

PUBLIO WORKS (UNITED STATES). 

A. — Expenditure from 1789 to 1879. 

MiUum$£. 



Buildings . 
Lighthouses . 
Arsenals 



24 Harbours and canals . 16 

6 Roads, &C. ... 22 

15 Fortifications . . 11 

Total . . £93,000,000. 

The above represents only the subsidies granted by Con- 
gress, a small part of the total outlay. 



378 



PULSE^PYRA MIDS. 



B. — Distribution op Expenditure. 



8UtM. 



New England 
Middle 



MilUona 
A. 
9 
28 



Total 



BtatM. 

Southern . 
Western 

£93,000,000. 



IfilllOM 

16 
40 



PULSE. — The number of pulsations per minute is 120 in 
infancy, 80 in manhood, 60 in old age, and rather more in 
women than in men. 



puMPa 






Million 


Work. 


Tons 




Water. 


Zegedin 


36 


Severn tunnel 


• •«* 



No. of 
70 



Oallont 
per Pump 
per Hour. 

90,000 

125,000 



The draining of Haarlem lake, which took 13 years, could 
now be done in 22 months by means of 100 of the new 
pumps patented in England in March 1882. The proposal 
to pump out the Zuyder Zee, with 500 pumps, at a cost of 
X10,500,000, in a period of 2 years, is based on this table: — 





S«)nare 


Depth, 


Million 




MUes. 


Feet 


Tous Water. 


Ilaarlem 


90 


15 


990 


Zuyder Zee . 


. 600 


12 


5,400 



The site of Haarlem lake sold for XI 6 an acre, but the 
Zuyder Zee must realise £26 per acre to cover expenses. 

To pump out Lough Keagh, in Ireland, which contains 
4800 million tons of water, would cost fully as much as the 
Zuyder Zee, and the land reclaimed should sell for £100 an 
acre to pay expenses. See Windmills. 

PYRAMIDS. — The largest, that of Cheops, has a base 
equal to the area of Leicester Square, London, and a height 
of 452 feet. It is composed of 4 million tons of stone, and 
occupied 100,000 men during 20 years, equal to an outlay 
of 40 millions sterling. It would now cost 4 millions sterling, 
at the contract price of 18 pence per cubic foot 




QUA KBRS-RA IL WA YS. 



QTTAESBB. 

A. — Atebaoe Dcbation c 



Deaths, p«r lOOO ... IB '22 

lutntie, per 10,000 ... S3 !8 

Charitiei per inhftbiUut . SSi. 6*. 

The total number in the United Kingdom ia 17,960, who 
have 10 representatives in the House of Commons, -whereas 
1^ tnUiioit £oiiiaii Catholics in Great Britaia have bat one 
co-religiouist in that house. 

QITINIMG. See Cliinekana. 



One pair of rabbits can become multiplied in 4 yeatB into 
1,250,000. They were introduced into Australia a few years 
Qj;o, and now that colony ships 6 million rabbit skins yearly 
to England. 

KAILWATa 

A. — SmMART. 



,.„.. 


Conrtruo- 


ConC. 
UtUluni C. 


Coat par 
Mile, £. 


AnHQol At««cl | 


Oi-JSl 


Co*t, 

IIUUau.,t. 


ISSS-IO . 

1810-50 . . 
1850-SO . . 
1860-70 . . 
1870-82 . . 

Totrf. . 


6,231 

10,259 
42,680 
63,100 
120,022 


114 
827 

638 

i.oes 

2,263 


21,800 
17.100 
12,700 
17,400 
18,900 


3S0 
1,930 
4,260 
6.310 

10,000 


8 
83 

64 

no 

190 


260,102 


4,3*0 


17.300 


6.820 


93 



B. — Four Decades of Railwatb. 





Udu Optn. 


c«..™™. 1 


IBSO. 


IMO. 


IBTO. 


IBM. 


uw 


IHO. 


WTO. lUL 


V. Kingdom 
Continent . 
17. Sutea . , 
Canada, ftc. 

Total . 


6,621 
8,311 
9,020 
638 


10,*S3 
21,815 
3D,E93 
4,228 


15.B37 
49,320 
62,074 
12,339 


17,946 
86.81S 
93,671 
31,804 


340 

184 

60 

7 


318 
3C6 
22fi 
60 


fi30 7» 
890 1,788 
480 1,041 
177 4IS 


2i,ieo 


67,069 


130,170 


230.288 


435 


979 


2.077 3,971 



C — Traffic in 1 





MlUl™. 


sss. 






4-20 
4-12 
4-21 

a-20 
s-rs 

218 
3-78 

2-S5 
3-66 
3-46 1 

2-10 
2-12 


,.;jr. 


^ood^ 


United Kingdntii 
Franco .... 

Ru™r^ : '. 

Austria . . . 
lUljr .... 

Portngaj . . . 
Belgium . . . 
HoUand . . . 
DeanmrlE . . . 
Hwed. and Nor. . 
Hwitjerland . . 
Turkey, it . . 

Europe . . . 
United Stitea . 
Canada. . . . 
Spanish America 
Australia . . . 
India .... 
Egypt, tc . . 


752 
180 
210 
38 
44 
34 
24 
4 
50 
17 

9 
22 
1 


256 
90 

35 
67 
10 


£69.400 

42,800 

47,300 

22.200 

23,200 

6.600 

5,300 

700 

6,400 

1,800 

700 

2,200 

2,300 

600 

£230,400 
13e,3o0 
6,600 
6.700 
4,400 
12,100 
3,300 


K20 

52'2 
54-0 

70-0 

56'8 
61-5 

47-2 
571 
692 
500 
711 

56'5 
66-5 


£3,772 
2.520 
2,083 
1.547 

i.aeo 

1.270 
I, ITS 

002 
2.030 
1,283 

740 

Mm; 


i.a97 
■270 
'I 


290 
10 
3 

I 

1 


55-4 

66-0 
CI -5 
51-.> 
68-0 


£2.070 
1,414 
790 
8S0 
l.OH) 
1,330 
UtiO 


3-60 ' 
4-IJO 1 
1-Sti 
2-05 ■ 
3-60 1 
4SS 1 
2-8l> ; 

410 1 


The World . 


1,742 985 .£398,800 1 67-3 


£1.010 



The above includes 15 per cent, cxint iu Uitilcd Kingduin 
for season-tickets. 



I 



i! 




RAILWAYS. 

T). — RaILWATB IH CoCKTtllEB. 





UUuOpni. 


Mll«PBrl(10,0«IInlub. 


1840. ,m 


188^ 


IMO. 


1S«, 


lesi. 


Unitad Kingdom . 
Fnnce . 

R^rf : 

Aiutrift . 

It>]v . 

Spun and Portugal 

Belgiom and Hoa 

Soiidl>..vi> . . 

Turkey, &c . . 

Europe 
United SUtea 
Canada . 

Spinii-h AmoriM . 
Aostrali* . 

iDdi* . . . 

Other countries 
Total . 


S3S 

265 
291 
IB 
2S5 

207 


10,483 

5.863 

6,887 

937 

3.205 

l.llS 

1,066 

1,294 

731 

681 

41 


18,406 
17,006 
22,160 
16,070 
12,330 
6,650 
5,610 
4,110 
5,662 
1,640 
1,860 


s 
I 
1 

"i 
s 


36 
16 
39 
1 
10 
S 
6 
15 
10 
27 


52 
46 
49 
18 
83 
20 
27 
40 
63 
60 


3,ai9 

... 


32,256 
30,593 
2,173 
865 
166 
811 
276 
401 


100,303 
104,810 
7,450 
8,540 
6,390 
10,790 
1,215 
2,784 


20 


12 

100 
63 
1 
13 

10 


S4 

210 

28 

190 

6 

24 


5.231 1 e:,069 1 250.372 









F 


— AcOIDES'TS 


ON Railways. 








KiU«l. 


Wounds. 




Per 




















OOiwi 


gc™. 


0th.™, 




gurfc 


U. Kingdom . 


29 


1,106 


904 


8,055 


5,094 


8-1 




34 


S'27 


410 


1,813 


2,584 


15-8 


(iermMy . 


26 


4S4 


81 


1,960 


2,561 


12-2 
















Austria . 


3 


218 


22 


343 


6flfi 


135 


It»Iy . . . 
Holluid '. \ 


9 


170 


62 


636 


867 


28-4 


22 


SO 


130 


124 


356 


14-8 


t 


25 


9 


29 


67 


4-4 




6 


m 


74 


S80 


629 


117 


Sondinavik 


2 


31 


4 






5-0 


Europe . . 

United Stat^ . 
Tot»I . . 


7 


84 


16 




lie 


6 '4 


162 


3,049 


1.764 


9,097 


14,072 
8,215 


10-8 
411 


2.349 


5,866 


6,560 


16.727 22,287 


148 



RAILWAYS. 
F. — Rails, Euplotes akd Looomotitbs. 







lUiU-Ton., 


Ki.plr.y4i 


'Sr 


nT 


1 




Inn. 


BtMl. 


No. 


MUo 


a^. 


17. Kingd 
FnaOB 

Aiutru 
lUly . 

Varioiu 




],9S0 
1,570 
2,550 
620 

eso 

265 
2,215 


2,410 
1,715 
1,570 
920 
700 

255 
1,620 


282,000 
234,000 
301,000 


15 
14 
14 


60 
39 
SI 
25 
24 
29 
24 


13,480 
6,220 

10,900 
3,560 
3,600 
1,8M 

i.iio 


340 
SOS 
19S 
12« 
128 

ii'o 

160 


Europe . 
U. SUtei . 


10.330 
7,200 
3,200 


6,190 
6,200 
3.100 


463,000 


S 


60 
40 


40,860 
17.800 
6,M0 


182 
118 

no 


Total 




20.730 17,J90 1 1 50 


Ci,B80 


152 



The weight of rail vojiea in England from 28 to 76 lbs. 
per yard, the tons of rail per mile above stnt^d including 
double lines. Locomotives cost about X2000, posfen^r 
carriages from £200 to i-100. The rolling-stock of iho 
world sums up a total of 360 miUiond stcriing. 

G. — Bbitish Eailwats- 





1 Ei>t;l>ud. 1 g.-ut]uid. 


ISW. 18T0. 1 18S2. 1 IMO. '■ ISTO. 1 1»S. 


Miles .... 
CapiUI, mill £ 
Mile, caroiDga . 
Expensea . . . 
Profit per mile . 


1 7,583 11,043 
1 289 440 
£3,090 £3,330 
1,490 1 1.650 
] 1.600 1.680 


13,000 1 1,486 2,519 2.940 
635 39 03 98 

£4,546 £1,990 £1,890 £2.512 
2.379 905 1 950 1.270 
2,167 1,085 1 940 ' 1,272 



Ckpital, milL £ 
Mile, eamiDgi . ^ 
Eipeniiei . . . 
Profit per mile . 



, 1,975 
I 27 

I £1,060 



2,465 1 10,433 



18,405 

7':8 

£3.772 

1,966 




RAILWAYS. 383 

H. — Bailwat Capital and Fcbuo Wealth. 





Amount, 
Mlllloai 


FsfHUi 

W.J. 


Pn- 
hxh-b. 


Nation*! 
i:. 




TToitAd KioBdiaa . 
FnnoB . 
OennanT . 
Riuii* 

AortiU . 
lUlj 

p^gai : ! .' 

Belriom . . . 
EoUuid . 
Denmark . 
Sweden and Naiiray 

Toikoj, ftc . . 

Europe. 
■Dnitad St»te» . 
Cuiads . 
Aottnlik . . . 

ToUl . . 


770 
494 
487 
309 
285 

tos 

79 
12 
61 
27 
10 
32 
33 
24 


£41.800 
27,400 
21.100 

20,600 
80,700 
1B,400 
16,400 
1G.4O0 
22.500 
IS.6OO 
IO.8OO 
e.800 
20,000 
13,300 


£23 
18 

10 

4 

7 

4 
5 
3 
11 
7 

e 

G 

12 
2 


8,720 
8,060 
6,820 
4,050 
3,920 
2,280 
1,570 
360 
1,180 
1,120 
354 
738 
SIO 
720 


S'8 

e-1 

71 
77 
S'G 
4-8 

5-1 
3-3 
6-3 
3'4 
S'8 
1'3 
10-7 
3-3 


a,6Bi 

fiS 


£24,100 

n,40o 

9,600 
10,400 

£17,400 


£S 
23 

17 
20 


3S,S52 

10,370 

650 

698 


67 
11'4 
ll-l 

B-3 


4.009 


XIO 


51,270 


7-8 



L — Tbafpic asd Population Coupabbd. 



United EiDgdoi 

Gennuiy 

AiutrJA 
Italy . 



SnitierlkDd 
United StAtei 
CaoadA . 

AoitnlU. 



K 


— Ukitbd Statbb Railways. 






Statu. 


1[U« OlH. 


Coi 


.Million,*. 1 


18W, 


I8T0. 1 I8M. 


lew. 1 1970. 


mi. 


New England . 
Middio . . . 
Southern . . . 
WeatandPaeif. 

Tb.Uni™ . 


0,516 
11,286 


4.4S4 

10,964 
11.163 

29,264 


6,150 
16.440 
16.800 
86,420 


81 
88 
63 
87 


64 

290 


84 

soe 

113 
708 


30,792 I 62.836 ; 104,810 | 239 


660 


1.1M 



Unitbd States 'RuLWAjB—eoniimied. 
Capital Employed. 



Bb.ll!>. 


r« uii>. 


















IITO. 


1882. 


latO: 


imu 


iwt. 


NewEDgUnd . 


£8,450 


£A,m 


£10,400 


£10 




£1< 




10,800 


14,800 








S8 


Smthem. . . 






7,100 




6 


7 


Werteni . . . 


7,700 


11,060 


10.700 




21 




ToUl .... 


8,100 


10,800 


11,330 




14 


SS 







lUilw.)^ Mlloa 


cST. 


FlUBII, ThoiMMd. 


In- 




18T1. 


18S0. 


\m. I 1S80. 


niinois. . . 


Ei.B04 


8.338 


41 


25,883 


81,B74 


21 


Ohio . 




3.740 


6.661 


7fi 


21,713 


24.629 


IS 


Iowa . 




3.160 


6,113 


n3 


13,542 


84.758 


61 


TUH . 




865 


6.344 


620 


18,397 


36.292 


S8 


Indiana 




3.D29 




36 


18,120 


31.874 




Michigan 




2,110 


4,281 


102 


10,019 1 13,807 


as 


Mia8<.uri 




2,530 


4,211 


02 


21.707 


27,879 


27 


KUIHU 






3,718 


in 


5,657 


21.417 


282 


Wucon-in . 


1.725 


3,442 


S9 


11,715 


15.353 


31 


Mianesota . 


1,512 


3.391 


110 




13.403 


106 


Nebrulu. . 


B13 


2,310 


146 


2,074 


e.94G 


380 


11 State 




27,B3i 


52,568 


83 


157.311 250,726 


80 



L. — CoNSTHCCTiox OF Union Pacific. 

Hountnlni. YMnt. DlTenrtfied. ToUL 

Milei ... 300 533 944 1,777 

Subeidv . . £2,970,000 £1,760.000 £8.210,000 £10.970,000 
CoinpBtiy itocit 7,800,000 4,000,000 16.030,000 27,830,000 
Total cost . 10,770,000 5,760,000 22,270,000 38,800,000 
Cost per mUo . 35,900 10,800 23,400 21,960 

This charter wna BiRtipd liy Prosident Lincoln in July 
1862, and the first train left Chicafjo for San Francisco on 
May 1, 1869. BesiUea a eubsidy of £10,970,000, the 
Conijiany received o land-Rrant of 23 million acres in alter- 
nate lots. 20 miles deep on cither side of tho line. Bay 34,000 
square miles. 




RAILWAYS. 



M. — Frakci, Tkaffio of 40 Ykars. 



,«. 


AiuuulAtmc^ 1 




»1S 


Workl»K 

b|>*BM*, 


Pw«p«Hll«.| 


P»- 




ffil 


P» 


^ 


i8ii~fe . . . 

1860-69 . . . 
1880-66 . . . 
1870-7B . . . 


10 
92 
SI 
132 


3 
11 
33 
60 


£!;080 
8.U0 
2,880 
2.820 


G4 

40 
GO 


1-08 
0-M 
0-88 
0-83 


170 
1-28 
1-04 
0-M 



— PASSiKaKR Tariff pir 100 Miles (iv Pexcx). 



GnatBriUlD. 230 160 06 

Oermuij 

Atutrb . 

Portue«i 



102 144 106 

. 164 116 77 

. 183 1B6 77 

. ISO 136 BO 

. 173 126 85 

. 200 164 B5 

. 102 125 35 



Dennurlc 
Turkey. 




0. — Pabsbnqeb Traffic 



England 
Soottkcd 

Unitad Kingdcm 

Gennuij 



Parcanlaga ol Puaangna. 
Finl Sacond. Third. T( 



P. — UiQnEsi Eailwats is the World. 



Lims-Orora 


Ande* . 


16,840 


Hollenda-Titleaca 




14,610 


Union PacUo . 


Rockv MouDUJiu 


8,578 


Bnnner . 






Hont Ccnii 






St Gothard 








n 


aiBio 



Eogl&Dd 

SootUnd 
France 



RAILWAYS. 
Q.— Railway Tai. 

Ratio la 

. iC670,000 '"ll 

60,000 0-9 

. 3,400,000 8-0 

330,000 e-i 

-Growth of Railway ToAPPia 





MUUonit 1 


P 


UHUgU.. 


Qood..I»».. 1 


IWW. 


im. 


ISSl 


ISM. 


ma 


iin. 


United Kingdom . 


1R7 


34S 


7B2 


82 


170 


2M 




64 


110 












48 


IBS 


210 


24 


SB 


167 




fi 


14 










AdBtrU 


12 


21 


44 


7 


26 


67 


Italj .... 


6 


24 


S4 


I 


« 




Spain and Fortugal 


S 


10 


28 


2 


4 




Belgium and Holland . 


10 


47 


73 


8 29 


42 




6 


IS 


22 


1 4 




Scandinavia . 
EuTnpc . 


1 


8 


IS 


6 




343 




1,393 


150 401 


66S 


Uuitt-'d States 




110 


270 


150 


290 


Total . . 




843 


1,666 


... 051 1 953 [ 



Jiiclmiing 15 per euiit. for ecason-tickct journeys i 
United KingJom. 

The preceding taLle compared with mileage give 
following results ;— 





PMwngmiwrMUo. 


Good*, Tu.=», per Hilt. 1 




ISOO. 


1B70. 


lESa. 


ISM. 


isra 


18»i 




17,930 


22,400 


Jl.lOO 




10,600 




France . . . 


9,300 


10,200 


10,000 


3,700 


4,800 


6,500 




7,0::0 


11,400 


9,B00 




8.300 


MOO 




4,700 


2,100 


y,550 


?,m 


1,200 




Aiutria . . . 


4,010 


3,650 


3,670 


2,400 


4.300 


4,t*00 


Italy .... 


fi,S00 


o,iao 


6,110 


900 


1,500 


1,9110 


Spain and Tort. 


5.iOU 


2.M0 


6,320 


1,700 


1.050 


1.400 


U^l^. and Hull. 


14,000 


18.020 


17,900 


6.600 


11,200 


lo.-.;oo 


Switzerland. . 


6,800 


10,400 


13.750 


1,500 


4.4<iO 


3,900 


Scandinavia. . 


1.340 


4,400 


3.0-20 


100 


2.800 






io,aoo 


11.500 


12,700 


4,8-0 


6,240 


6.670 


United Stj.t«a . 




a,080 


£,SCO 




2,950 


3.2>iO 




Bftth . 

Bergen 

Berfin. 

Bermuda 

Bombay 

Bordeaux 

BoMon 

Briibaue 

Biiitol 

Bruseli 

Calcutta 

Cambridge 

CB;eDn« 

Cbarleilon 



Colmbra 

Copenb>e<:l 
Cork . 

Detroit 

Dublin 

Dumfries 

Edinburgh 

Florence 



U. KIngdon 



A. — Annual Avkragk (Inohbb). 

Hobart 
Iile of Man 
Kej West . 
Limerick . 

Uverpool . 
Madnti 



Marseillea . 
Melbourne. 
Met! . 
Milan 
Milwaukee. 
MontpeUer . 

New Orleana 
New York. 
NotCbgham 
Oiford 
Palermo 
Parii . 
Pekin 

Peniance . 

Perth, W.A. 

—Rainfall akd '. 

Million ^ 



«t 




81 


Fittibnrg . 


21 


Prague 


sr 


Bio Janelio 


SB 


Rome . 


S5 




27 


SbBerurd. 


36 


San Frudeco 


2S 


St Helena . 


28 


St Domingo 


U 


St Jobn'i, N.R 


S6 


St Joho'a, N.F. 


S3 


StLonie . 


277 


StPeter.bnrg 


23 


Sierra Leone 


2g Singapore . 


29 ' Stockholm . 


38 


Stiaiibtuv . 


80 


Stuttgart . 


S2 
10 


iWnto 


GI 


Tonloo« . 


IS 


IWn. . 


26 


Truro. . 


27 


Uuh . 


22 


Vera Oral . 


22 


W-Aingt™ 


27 




46 


York . . 


25 


Zurich 



Incbeh Ui.ne- P°"' 



— Raisfall c 



ItalT. . Si 
SnunandP. 13 
Belg. ftHoL 26 
Scandinavia 22 1 
EurtfM 16 l: 

Grkat Britain. 



181S-24 . . . 290 1845-&4 . . . 286 

1S25-31 . , . 28-5 18Sr.-64 . . , 2B-6 

183&-*! . . . 2S-3 I iee5-&2 . . . 29-3 

The QTcragG rainfnll is equal to 630,000 gallona (almoGt 

3000 tons) per acre pci onaum, of which 2000 tons are 

required to feed the rivers and crops, and 1000 tons per 



388 



RAINFALL^RATES. 



acre are lost, being allowed to ran ofL mie above doef 
not include Ireland, where the rainfall averages 35 inches 

D. — ^Rainfall of London. 
The average for 70 years has been >— 

Summer half-yeftr 12*87 



Winter 



n 



12-OS 



Annuil rainfall . 

Taking the ^bove figures 
have been as follows : — 



. 24-90 

par, the variations of 70 yean 



1818-22 
1828-82 
1888-42 
1848-62 



Bummer. Winter. 

. 97 110 

. 108 98 

92 99 

95 101 



Year. 

108 

101 

95 

98 



Bommer. Winter. 
1858-62 . 105 86 

1868-72 . 98 107 
1878-82 .110 106 



K— 



Valentia, Kerry . . 

Scotland, west coast 
mountains 
east coast 

England, east coast 
west coast 






»f 



Ammonia in Rain. 

1-00 



2-69 
2-96 
6-61 
5-94 
10*55 



Germany 
London . 
Scotland. 
Liverpool 
Manchester 
Glasgow . 



Tear. 

95 

100 

108 



10*61 
1917 
21-22 
29*89 
86*54 
60*58 



F. — Rainfall op England, in Months (1815-48). 

Inches 
2*40 
2*67 
2*53 
2*02 



January 
February 
March 
April . 



1*68 
1*58 
1*61 
1-73 



4 moDthH . 



6-60 

G.- 



May . 
June . 
July . 
August 



Inches. 
1-96 
1*83 
2*37 
2*40 



September . 
October. . 
November . 
December . 



Rainfall 



4 months .8*56 4 months 

-Rainfall of France. 

MiUion Tods 
{•er Annum. 

875,000 



9-62 



Tons per 
8«cond. 
11,901 



Outflow by Rhone 
Gironde 
Loire 
„ „ Seine 
Other rivers 
Absorbed fur crops, &c. 



fi 



ft 
if 



54,000 
87,000 
31,000 
22,000 
36,000 
195,000 



1,718 
1,178 
985 
694 
1,146 
6,180 



Total 875,000 11,901 

France loses nearly half her rainfall, England more than 
one-third. 

EATES. See Tiixes. 




REFORMA TORIES— REINDEER. 



BEFOBUA.T0BIES. 





Or-tDilUiD. 


Inlud. 


U. KingdoD.. 


^ 


^ 


Olrl*. 


Ben. 


aitU. 


Boyt 


airi.. 


Iteron>»toriei . 
Indtutriklidioob 


1,867 

18,387 


1.070 

4,eis 


B7S 
2,185 


236 
3,348 


5,aso 

20,672 


1.806 

7,868 


7,136 
28,438 


Tot«l . . 


23,241 


S,6S8 


8,168 


3,583 


28,*02 


8,171 


86,673 



^ese institutiona ia 1880 cost for maintenance £596,000, 
being an tivtrnga of £16 per child in Great Britain, and £21 
in Ireland. The Treaeury anbrention vas 6 pence a day on 
each child, that ia £323,000, the reat being defrayed hj 
donation a. 

The good effect of Befonnatories, since Iheir introduction 
in 1869, is shown thus: — 



10,314 
468 



6,67B 
215 













1830 . 


. £6,100 


46 


1860 . 


. £11,010 


1840 . 


7,600 


53 


1871 . 


16,020 


1860 . 


. 8,1*0 


67 


1881 . 


. 22.080 



This gives a decline of 53 per cent in jaTenile crime. 

The summary of reformatories for 11 years was : — 
Admitted . 3S,233 I Died, remored, Ac . 6,547 

PuttdtndM. 23,650 | On huid . . . 7,136 

Put to trade includes those put to sea. 

BEQIBTBT. — Tax on transfer of property in France : — 

m . _ ^.„_. 

»8 
140 
If these figures be compared with the valae of property in 
Franca (see Legacy Relnnu, £.), it will appear that the tax 
has only kept pace with the increase of wealth. Property 
almost doubled from 1630 to 1860, and again from 1860 to 
1880. 
BEINDEEB. 

Herds. Haul st Dasr. Avcnc*. 

Finluid . . . 2,822 44,400 16 

Nonra; . . , 2,400 101,800 43 

Sweden . . 3,200 220,800 66 

ToUl . 8,422 367,000 44 

They can travel with a sleigh 130 miles a day, and are 
worth usually 30 shillings a head. 



39^ 


RELIGION. 








BELIQION. 


LL NaTI 










A. — A 


0N8. 








Thoutandt OmiiUdL 








Roman 
Catholic. 


Protestant. 


Greek. 


Jews. 


Mahry. 


United Kin 


gdom 5,336 


29,390 


• •« 


51 


• •• 


France 


. 85,387 


581 


• •• 


49 


• • • 


Germany . 


. 16,233 


28,331 


28 


512 


• • • 


Russia 


6,780 


4,132 


57.161 


2,298 


5,662 


Austria 


. 29,430 


8,570 


2,930 


1,670 


449 


Italy . 


. 26,663 


59 


• •• 


35 


• • • 


Spain. 


. 16,410 


11 


• • « 


3 


• •• 


Portugal 


4,260 


1 


• •• 


• •• 


• •• 


Belgium 


5,410 


12 


• •• 


8 


• •• 


Holland 


. . 1.440 


2,470 


• • • 


82 


• •• 


Denmark 


2 


1,930 


• •• 


4 


• •• 


Sweden and 


Norway 2 


6,365 


• • • 


2 


• •• 


Switzerland 


1,161 


1.667 


• • • 


7 


• • • 


Greece 


12 


1 


1,842 


3 


24 


Servia 


4 


1 


1.853 


2 


6 


Roumania . 


114 


14 


4,810 


400 


'J 


Turkey 


280 


45 


3,220 


75 
5,196 


3.532 


Europe . 


. 148,924 


78,580 


71,844 


9,675 


United Stat( 


es . 6,143 


42,800 


• • • 


110 


• • • 


Canada 


2,150 


2,100 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


Spanish Am 


lerica 33,340 


115 


• • • 


47 


■ • • 


West Indies 


1 . 2,480 


1,030 


• • • 


• • • 


• • • 


Australia . 


604 


2,220 


• • • 


1 


• • * 



Total . . 193,643 126,845 71,844 5,v'54 9,075 

For expenditure, clergy, &c., see Church, 

B. — United Kii^gdom. 





T)iousand« Oinitt«d. rorc«ota;;e. 




England. Scotland 


Ireland. 


Eni^Iand. 

72-3 


Scotland. 


• 

Inland. 


U. Klni^limu 


Ch. of England 


18,798 


99 


636 


2-7 


12-3 


5:)-8 


Rom. Catholic 


1,066 


318 3,952 


41 


8-6 


77-4 


152 


Presbyterian . 


114 


2,997 


486 


0-4 


81-0 


9-4 


103 


Methodist, &c. 


5,990 


281 


48 


23-2 


77 


0-9 


lS-7 


Total . . 


25,968 


3,695 5,122 


1000 


1000 


1000 


100-0 


C. — England, Church Ati'kxdanckl 




Ratio to PopulcUion. 




Per 


Per 




Por 


Cent. 


Cent 




Cvnt. 


Sheffield ... 23 


Bradford . . 27 


Nortbampt 


on 40 


Bolton. ... 24 


Bristol ... 31 


Hull . . 


. 41 


Kottingham . . 24 


Southampton. 38 


PortsmouU 


1 . 41 


Liverpool . . . 


26 1 


Derb 


y . . 


. 89 


Bat 


h . . 


. 52 




RENTES-RESISTANCE. 391 

The total showed 37 per cent. Church of England, 8 pet 
cent Roman Catholics, and 65 per cent roado up of various 

D. — UKITBD STATiB. 





Tlwuiudi OmIttwI. 


p™ 


»Ug^ 


Church 1 
18T0. 


183i 


1880. 


IBK. 


18W. 


MethodbU. . 
BaptUti . . 

Bomui C»thoUca 
Vtrion* . . 

ToUl . . 


1,240 
2.929 

2,102 

7,532 


u.eej 

10,«4 
6,478 
6.143 

12,407 


8-6 
20-5 
14-8 

39 
E2-4 


29-4 

20-9 
12-9 
12-3 
24-5 


9 
11 
15 
13 
27 


l«,3aS 60,1G» 


100-0 


100-0 


76 _ 



£. — Rohan Catholics, Britibh and American. 









L*lly. 


GiMt Britain 




1,461 


1.384,000 


IrBknd . . . 


. 2,977 


2.620 


3.952,000 


C.I.«d». . . 


. 2,130 


1,660 


2,150,000 


AtirtnUiA . . 


402 


787 


SOl.OOO 


IndU . 


. 1,134 


400 


1,318,000 


Other Colonics . 


322 


344 


465,000 


Britidi Empire . 


. 9,270 


7,272 


9,873,000 


United State 


. 8,410 


7,660 


6,143,000 


'i\>tJ . . 


. 15,680 


14,938 


16,010,000 



-Iloldcra of Fiench national stock. 



Oniittod. "'""■ 

1810 . . 146 £480 1860 

1830 . . 195 1,230 1870 . 

1850 . . 846 350 | 1880 . 



BESISTANOE. — On a railway it incroosea witlt the e\ 
of the train per hour (on level way) as follows : — 



A. — BRTTieB Rbvbsob. 



Ihito. 


Balgn. 




r.'z!r j 
















NomlDU. 


IB Bo™,. 


V.1U.. 


au"*r. 


TllH 


loao 


WiUiwnL. . 


£400 


£1,320 


£4,010 


12 


36 


loeo 


Knfui . . . 


360 


1,150 


3.520 




30 


1120 


HemjL . . 


300 


990 


3,005 




27 


1160 


Stephen . . 


K50 


830 


2,510 




21 


1180 


Henry IL . . 


200 


660 


2,005 




IS 


1210 


John. . . . 


100 


330 


1,000 






12G0 


Henry IIL . 


80 


264 


800 


H 




ISOO 


EdwM^I. . . 


160 


486 


1,602 


4{ 




1350 


Edw^ IIL 


164 


460 


1,360 




12 


1400 


Henry IV. . 


100 


264 


800 






1480 


EdwuA IV. 


100 


162 


600 






1600 


Henry VI L 


400 


650 


2.000 






1540 


Henry VIII. 
Eliikbeth . 


800 


1,300 


3,600 






leoo 


600 


650 


1.500 






1920 


Jmnea L . . 


eoo 


640 


1.500 


^i 




1040 


Charles I. . . 


838 


BSO 


1.800 


*i 




iefl2 


Cli«rU» IL . 


1.800 


1,910 


3.600 




14 


less 


JameB II . 


2,002 


2.120 


4,010 






1700 


William IIL . 


3.eBG 


4,135 


8.030 




29 


1713 


Anne . , . 


5,fl92 


6.030 


11,080 




33 


1716 


George L . . 


6,7H3 


7.160 


13.200 




SB 


1728 


George IL. . 


8,523 


9,030 


16.800 




47 


1780 


George UL 


8,880 


9,420 


13.330 




30 


1790 




13,745 


14.540 


18,650 


29 


37 


1800 




37.6ao 


39.700 


6U,350 


78 


9« 


1810 




62.672 


65.810 


B5.810 


S3 


103 


1S20 


George IV. 


61,634 


61,634 


74,270 


62 


74 


1830 


WillUm IV. 


6S,365 


69,365 


68.740 




63 


1S40 


VictorU . 


62,916 


62,916 


68,110 


40 


44 


18MI 




68,205 


63,205 


61.300 


43 


45 


1860 




71,090 


71,090 


64,600 


43 


45 


1870 




76,434 


76,434 


64.400 


49 


41 


1880 




81,295 


81,265 


81.265 


47 


47 


1SS3 


., ■ ■ . 


89,004 


89,004 


89.004 


49 


i» 




RIBBONS— RICE. 





B.— FiUMCt 






Dite 


K^ S- 


Omtttad. 


8bll)lD(u 


1262 . 


IxrablX. £1*0 


10,160 


i 


1697 . 


Henri IT. 8,760 


14,600 


6 


174S . 


LouUi XV. 18,703 


22.000 


13 


182S . 


ChulM X. 88,400 


81,800 


21 


1840 . 


L. PhiUHW. 46,400 


84,100 


27 


ISSO . 


Ni^Kdoonin. 68,600 


87,200 


87 


ISS3 . 


Republic. 112,300 


87,430 


60 



For other countries see Finaaeet. 
BIBBONS. — The value manufactured has been aa followa 
(thouBands omitted) : — 

QenLaaj 
Switierbnd 
Anitria . 
Great BritftiD . 
United SUta . 
Other cwutriei 

Total . . £12,640 £15,606 

BIOS. 

A. — FRODUCniOy AND COXBDMFTION (TBOUaAHDS). 



. £4,020 


£6.010 


2,810 


2,420 


2,G90 


2,230 


»20 


710 


800 


800 


100 


8,480 


400 


000 





Acn. 


Crop. 


c™„^ 


"ler-" 


Indi» . . 


22,600 


16.800 


16,700 


1,100 


Cejlon 


900 


480 


330 


160 


J.v> . . 


6,200 


2,740 


2.200 


640 




M^o 


1,800 


1,750 


50 


J.p«. . 


6,790 


3,460 


8,260 


200 


p.: : 

Iliiited 8t*t«* 


670 


710 


660 


160 


62 


SO 


80 




120 


00 


90 





The consumption in Europe has doubled since 1670, and 
is now neatly 2 million tons per annum. 

B. — CoKSDUPTioN IS United Kixqdou. 

— _, t™. I'**- Priee 

""■ "™- ixrlnlub. parCwt 

I860 . . . 18,100 li 

1870 . 95,200 7 

1880 . 221,000 14 

Rice has been successfully grown i 
neat Windsor. 



the Tbames Valley 



394 



RIFLE^RIVERS. 



BIFLR — The competition for the Elcbo Sliield by the 
best shots, in the 3 kingdoms in 1883 resulted as follows : — 
Irish 1600, Scotch 1589, English 1564; each nation being 
represented by 8 champions. 

BIOTS. 

1346. Citizens of Mayence bum alive 12,000 Jews. 

1780. Lord George Gordon fires London in 36 quarters : 
285 rioters killed by troopa 

1882. Rioters in Russia destroy Jewish property worth 
16 millions sterling; at Warsaw 900 shops sacked. 

1882. Riots at Alexandria: 460 Europeans killed by 
Arabs, and city burnt. The indemnities awarded to 9100 
claimants summed up £9,200,000, of which 31 per cent to 
Greeks, 24 per cent to Italians, and 5 per cent to English. 



BIVEBS. 



A. — ^Volume of Water. 



Amazon 
La Plata 
Mississippi 
St Lawrence 
Oby . 
Volga . 
Yangzekiang 
NUe . 
Ganges 
Danube 
Euphrates 



Basin, 

8q. Miles, 

Thousands 

Oinittod. 

1,920 

1,560 

1,170 

340 

1,370 

653 

742 

708 

443 

312 

243 



Outflow, 
If iUion Cub. 
Foot 
per Hour. 

3,700 

3,100 

2,070 

1,670 

1,200 

1,120 

1,100 

560 

700 

960 

420 



Don . 

Dnieper 

Dwina 

Rhine 

Vistula 

Loire 

Rhone 

Elbe. 

Seine 

Thames 

Tiber 



Banln, 

8q. Miles, 
Thduaands 
Omitted. 
220 
170 
124 
89 
75 
45 
43 
59 
26 
6 
5 



Oatflow, 
Milliiin Cub. 
Peel 
per Hour. 
430 
450 
150 
230 
160 
120 
160 
100 

80 

40 

80 



8 Tibers = 1 Seine. 
8 Seines = 1 Rhine. 
8 Rhines = 1 Ganges. 



3 Ganges = 1 MinissippL 

2 Mississippis = 1 Amasoo. 
1 Amazon = 16 Rhinea. 



R — Currents. 



Seine, Paris 
Thames, London 
Tiber, Rome 
Danube, Ebersdorf 
Loire (average) . 
Rhone 
Duranoe 
Rhine 
Amazon 



i» 



M 
It 



N 



Feet, 
per Minute. 
135 
180 
200 
210 
2C0 
390 
510 
640 
780 



Miles, 
per Hour. 
1-5 
2-0 
8-2 
2*3 
2*9 
4-3 
67 
6-0 
87 



«% 



C. LSKOTH IS MlLE& 



AmaioQ . 


3.a70 


HudMn . 


280 












],Eeo 


Jeoiwi . 


2,100 


ColuiDbiK . 


i.oeo 


Kiang-ka. 




Congo . . 


1,400 




2,500 


DMube . . 


1,540 




M9 


DDieper . 


1,070 




1,600 




9SS 


Mud&lena 


820 


Douro . . 


tm 




2,250 


Ebro. . . 


470 




2,300 


Elbe. . . 


615 








1,861} 


Norte . . 


1,250 


Guigei. . 


1,850 


Oby . . 


2,800 












320 


Orinoco . 




Ho»ng.ho . 


■2,400 


OXM . . 


1,300 



Rhone . . 
St. Lawrcucu 
Seine . . 
Senegal. . 

Shuinaa 

Tbamea . . 
Tiber . . 
Vitfola. . 
Volga . . 
Yang-kiang 
Zatabaii 



A. — TIlOHWATH OF KaTIOKB. 





MlleiCIh 


ouundiX 


uii»oiw..r. 


^ 


Rail- 


W»tia- 


Tol.l. 


PirlO.OOO 


PorlOO 




naji. 


wan 




iDhab. 


Bq. Ntkiu 


United KiDgJom . 


142 


IS 


e 


165 


51 


140 


Fiance .... 


23!i 


18 


8 


261 


70 


130 


Geimaiij . . . 


265 


21 


17 


303 


87 


150 


RuHia .... 


S5 


15 


22 


102 


13 


5 


Austria .... 


66 


12 


3 


81 


22 


30 


Italy 


74 


5 


2 


81 


23 


72 


Spain and Portugal 


16 


6 


2 


21 


12 


n 


Belgium. . . . 


6 


3 


1 


9 


17 


80 


Holland .... 


3 


1 


1 


5 


13 


25 


Dcnmart . . . 


2 


1 




3 


IS 


21 


Sweden .... 


35 


4 


"i 


40 


90 


21 


Norway .... 


14 


1 




15 


80 


12 


Eorope 


925 


105 


62 


1,092 


35 


27 


United States ! . 


260 


101 


21 


385 


75 


10 


Canada .... 


6 


8 


4 


IS 


42 


i 


India 


GS 


It 


S 


74 


3 


G 


ToUl . . 


1,249 


228 


92 


1,569 


2S 


12 



The cost of rosd-makinK is about £600 a mile in England, 
X920 in France, and £130 in Italy. The maintenance 
averages £15 in England and £7 in Fiance per mile per 



396 



ROUBLES— ROUND TOWERS. 



anDum. English main-roadB, according to Macadam, oost 

£1760 per mile. French roads are of i classes, and cost as 
follows : — 

Width. Co«t per Mik. 

let dmss. 50 feet. £1,900 

2nd „ 40 „ 1,200 

8rd „ 88 „ 800 

4th .. 25 » 400 



If 



n 



Between 1830 and 1880 France spent 180 millions ster- 
ling on common high-roads. 



B. — HiGH-BoADS IN Ehglaitd. 







Milfli. 




1818 
1839 
1870 


Main. 
. 19,700 
. 21,962 
. 15,125 


Ordinary. 
95,100 
104,772 
102,615 


TMaL" 
114,800 
126,784 
117,740 



The development of railways seems to have diminished 
the mileage of roads. 



C. — Waggon Draught peii Ton. 



Read of stone and cUj 
Road thickly gravelled 







Lbs. 


Well-made pavement . . 


. 33 


Macadamised road . . 


. 46 


ROUBLES. 




Tear. 


I«8U6, 


Value. 


Millions. 


Pcnco. 


1774 


20 


38 


1786 


. 100 


36 


1796 


. 160 


24 


1800 


. 210 


18 


1810 


. 580 


12 


1817 


870 


9 


1823 


, 605 


10 



Tear. 

1843 
1844 
1850 
1860 
1870 
1880 
1883 



Millions. 
600 
180 
310 
690 
720 
1,180 
1,130 



65 
147 



V:»lua, 
PcDce. 

12 

35 

83 

30 

23 

24 

23 



The conversion of 1843 consisted in calling in the old 
notes and giving 30 new roubles for 100 old ones. 

BOUND TOWEBS.— There are 45 in Ireland : the small- 
est is St. Kevin's, Ca Wicklow, 46 feet high by 1 2 feet 
diameter; the greatest is at Kilmacduagh, Galwaj, 108 feet 
high by 18^ feet diameter. 






RYESALMOff. 




RYE. 










OmlCud. 


Buih^ 


taAen 


FruM . . 


s,soo 


80 


21 


0«niuui7 . 


15,100 


2*0 


16 


Rouik . . 


72,200 


880 


9 


Auitcw . 


. 8,800 


130 


1« 


IUIt and Spain 
Belgium anJHon 


. 8,600 


S8 


18 


and 1,220 


28 


23 


Seuidinavia . 


1.800 


10 


22 




1.100 


24 


23 


Enrapa 
United SUta . 


. 108,130 


1^ 


13 


2.100 


31 


IS 


Other oountrie* 


6,000 


87 


17 


Total 


. 116.230 


1.408 


13 


The rye-orof 


of the world 


8 votth 232 miUic 



and feeds ISO millions of people. 



s sterling, 



s 

SADDLERY.— The value annually exported from Great 
Britain has been : — 

Xrm. Parinnura. I Tou*. Pvanonm. 

1863-71 . . £370,000 1876-79 . . £306,000 

1872-76 . . 408,000 | 1830-83 . . 468,000 

SALMON. 

The annual fishery in the United Kingdom is aa follows— 

Tuiu. Tilu*. 

England 380 £40,000 

Scotland 2,110 232.000 

Ireland 1,180 120,000 

Total . . 8,600 £392,000 

London consamca more than half, namely, 1840 tons 
yearly. England imports 150 tons p>eT annum from Nor- 
way. Salmon have been caught in the Tay weighing 70 
Ihs., but the average weight of this fish is only 8 lbs. The 
exportation of tinned salmon from California exceeds 10 
million lbs. yearly, of which one-half goes to England, one- 
fourth to the Continent, and the rest to New York, Sec 
The quantity has doubled since 1875. Tliis is irrespective 
of 6 million lbs. annually consumed in California. 



398 



SALT— SARDINES. 



SALT. 



A. — Production and Consumption. 



U. Kingdom 2,280 

France . . 820 

Grermany . 515 

Russia . . 630 

Austria . 260 

Italy . 240 
Spam and Port 420 

U. States . 750 

India . . 540 



Tons (Thousands Omitted). Lbs. Con- 
^ — ^ suD&edper 

Production. Consumption. Inhabi. 



1,230 
800 
500 
700 
220 
240 
160 
930 
910 



80 
50 
25 
19 
14 
18 
17 
89 
9 



Salt Tkx. ^"^^^ 



£642,000 
1,805,000 
2,110,000 
8,360,000 
8,280,000 



6,750,000 



4 

10 

6 

22 

28 



8 



B. — Salt in Great Britain. 



Period. 

1800-1806 
1807-1815 
1816-1823 
1824-1840 
1841-1860 
1861-1870 
1871-1880 



Average 

Produc^on, 

Tons per 

Annum. 

203,000 

230,000 

257,000 

410,000 

880,000 

1,540,000 

2,020,000 



Duty per 
Ton. 

£30 
30 
30 

• • • 

• • • 



Price per 
Ton. 

£32 

82 

32 

1 

168. 
148. 
128. 



•um«dper 

16 
16 
16 
19 
32 
53 
72 



The consumption in the United Kingdom 



averages 



40 



lbs. por inhabitant for cooking or condiment, the rest beinpj 
used for chemicals, manure, &c. Reduced death-rate and 
higher efficiency of workmen are results of the greater con- 
sumption of salt. Hence the salt taxes in various European 
countries are most injurious to public interests. 



C. — Salt in Sea- Water. 



Soa. 


Pcrcentago 
of Salt. 


Siilt per 

Ton of 

Water, Ibe. 


Sea. 


Percentage 
of Salt, 


Paltpn- 

Toaof 

Water. Ibt. 


CoApian . 


. 0-5 


11 


Red . 


. 4-3 


93 


Black 


. 1-2 


26 


Dead . 


. 8-5 


187 


Baltic 


. 1-3 


28 


Mediterranean 3*9 


85 


£ug. Channel 


. 3-3 


72 


Atlantic 


. 3-7 


81 


SARDINES. 




Annual Fi-hery. 










Million Fish. 


Tons WeK'Uu 


Spain 


• • 


• • 


. 1,260 


62,000 


France 


• • 


• . 


980 


41,000 



The exportation from France averages 450 million per 
annum, say 20,000 tons. 




SA VINGS-BANKS. 
SATIKa8SA]?E& 

A. — Ahouht or Dxpoans. 







^^ar| 


ISHL 


IMO. 


1*70. 


im 


law. 


lUt 


£ 


£ 


£ 


£ 


fc 


, 


U. Kingdom . 


80,100 






60.400 


28 


46 




3.2DD 


13,S00 


27.400 


ei.200 


8 


83 


G«nii»nj. 


G,100 


16,400 


35.000 


105,300 


10 


47 
















Aortri. . . 


19,600 


28,000 


40,300 


85.100 


10 


46 


ItjJy . . 


2,200 


12,400 


14,800 


33,600 


12 


24 


SwitterUnd . 


2,300 


G,100 


11,600 


12,200 


47 


88 


Spun . . 




200 


1,000 


2,400 




3 


Bclg. ud HolL 


1.800 


2,200 


4,B00 


7,300 


5 


16 


Eu«.pe . 


3,100 


r.soo 


14,600 


27,300 


25 


67 


87.700 


127,400 


204,700 


418.000 


n 


27 



£. — Xt;uiiE& OP Depositors. 



U. Klngdnm . 






o.m.>. 




Perm 
lUtio 


sx 


IBM. 


18». 1 ISTft 


18S1. 


18M. 


1881. 


1,060 


1.580 


2,620 


8,715 


B-6 


10-9 


Fnnce . 


630 


1,100 


2,100 










BSO 


1,600 


2,200 


4,200 


4-3 


B-4 






100 




200 


0-2 


0-3 


Auetria . 


600 


1,100 


1,300 


1,850 


3-6 


6-4 




170 


380 


671 




1-5 


6-8 




181 


355 


612 


1.080 


4-2 


35-3 






80 


200 


£50 


06 


1-5 


Belg.«idHolL 


90 


100 


ISO 


310 


1-2 


3-3 


3c«Bdii..vU . 
Europe 


300 


400 


MO 


1,600 


6-3 


181 


3,911 


6,695 


10,333 


19,075 


30 


6-6 



Tlio Savings Banks in the United States liad 2,200,000 
depositors in 1873 wilU 155 millions stcrliDg of deposita, 
and Ihe latter have now risen to 202 millions sterling. The 
French Savings Bonks in January 1883 counted 4,352,000 
depositors. 



4oo 



SCIENCBSBALS. 



C. — Savings Banks op United Einodoil 



Year. 


Amount of Deposite, Thouaanda. 


BhiUinga p«r InhaUtuit. 


England. 


Scotland. 


Ireland. 


England. 


Scotland. 


Iralaad. 


1880 . . 
1840 . . 
1850 . . 
1860 . . 
1870 . . 

1881 , . 


£12,600 
20,700 
27,680 
86,700 
46,280 
69,000 


£520 
1,080 
2,410 
4,130 
7,560 


£910 
2,200 
1,360 
2,140 
2,690 
8,800 


18 
25 
80 
37 
40 
54 


• • • 

4 

7 

16 

25 

40 


2 
5 

4 
7 

10 
15 



D. — Savings in Ireland. 

Thoutandt Omitted, 

Tear. 

1860 
1865 
1870 
1875 

1881 

SOIENOE.— United Kingdom in 1881 had 1355 schools 
of science, with 66,600 pupils ; annual cost, £295,000, or 
89 shillings per pupil. 



Bank 


GoTemroent 


Total. 


Amoont 


Deixwita. 


Stocka. 


per Inhah. 


. £15,609 


40,104 


55,713 


£9 19 


18,619 


87,513 


56,132 


10 6 


24,366 


36,497 


60,863 


11 5 


33,619 


33.710 


67,229 


12 14 


30,161 


31,605 


61,766 


12 2 



SEA. 





Yards, 
Average. 


Depth. 




Mnximum 


Atlantic . 


. 4,026 


7,750 


Pacific 


. 4,262 


9,310 


Indian 


. 3,658 


6,040 


Arctic . . 


. 1,690 


5,300 


Antartic . 


. 8,000 


3,960 



Mediterranean 1,476 2,860 



Yards Depth. 

Average. Kaziunim. 
Irish ... 240 710 

English Channel 110 300 

German . . 96 
Levant ... 72 
Adriatic . . 45 
Baltic ... 43 



Tlie Southern Ocean below Cape Horn reaches a depth of 
5500 yards, and off Cape of Good Hope, 5700 yards. The 
average of the Bay of Biscay is 1200 yards. 

SEALS. 



Fishery. 


Annual Slauj|;hter. 


Value. 


Tone on. 


Canadian 


460,000 


£280,000 


9,200 


Norwegian 


80,000 


50,000 


1,600 


Falkland Islands 


6,000 


8,000 


100 


Montevideo 


5,000 


3,000 


100 



Total 



560,000 



jt336,000 



11,000 




SEAMEN. ;tol 

The skius are worth 2 BhUltDgs each, the oil, £25 per ton. 
One fishing vessel Bometimes kills as manj as 60,000 in a 
season, off Kova Scotia. The batbaroua practice of slaughter- 
ing seals while suckling their young, threatens to extermiiiate 
the breed. 

SEAMEir. 

A.— Gbsehal SuxitABr. 





Thmuudi OmitUd. 




K..7. 


Mml-nl. 


Si. 


TotaL 


UDitod Kingdom . 

Fnnoe 

Q«nn»ny .... 

Riuua 

Atutib .... 
Italy 

^^ : ; : : 

HoUAod .... 
Denmark .... 
SwedM and Norwity 

Oreew 

Turkey 

Europe .... 
United SUt« . . 
CriuuIb 

Br.xU 

Argentine Repablic 
Aurtrali* .... 


15 
43 

8 
20 

16 


193 
85 
40 
23 

7 
63 
23 

G 
IS 

7 
79 
11 
10 


187 
9* 
27 

7* 
9 

74 
44 
4 
13 

5 

HI 

15 
3 


405 

172 
75 

123 
28 

111 
74 
13 
38 
13 

231 
27 
17 


1-11 

0-4B 
0-18 
015 
0-07 

0-51) 

0-46 
0'30 
0-95 
070 
3'55 
1-52 
0'22 


180 
8 

2 

1 


503 
120 

60 
6 
2 

U 


672 
54 
65 
8 
8 
3 


1,355 
1S2 
115 

le 
11 

14 


0-42 
0-35 
254 

0-18 
0-65 
0'48 


Toul . . 


191 


(92 


810 1 1,693 


4fi 



and coast-guards were added, the totnl v 
fall little short of 2 millions of men, or very nearly 3 per cent, 
of the able-bodied men of the Christian world. 



B. — Sbambs and Trade c 



Ukitkd Kihodoh. 

Tnila, Trad* per 

UllUoiu £. S.-MHaii. 

169 £1,120 



1850 . 151,400 

1860 , , 171,600 

1970 . . 195,900 459 2,340 

1880 . 192,900 671 2,950 

Some of the above trade is done on foreign bottom, but it 
ia balanced by the trade between foreign countries doDe on 
British bottom, not included above, 

So 



402 



SERFS. 



C— Dbatiu of Bbitish Mbrohakt SiiLOBS (1879). 



Undar 21 . 
21 to 80 . 
81 „ 60 . 
Over 60 . 

ToUl . 



624 = 
1,488 = 
1,064 = 

616 = 



17 p. a 

40 

20 

14 



tt 
If 
ft 



8,602 = 100 



tt 



Dfuwudd . 
ninew. . 
Soiddo . 
Yariooi . 

ToUl . 



2,001 

1,886 

88 

272 



64 p. & 
87 

1 

8 



•t 
It 
■• 



8,602 = 100 



f« 



The death-rate was 19 per 1000, or almost douUe the 
oorrespondiDg rate for age in England. Deducting those 
drowned, the rate would be lower than on land. 



8EBF8. 



A. — BussiAN SsRFS nr 1861. 



ThouMiidi OmittML 



Crown serfs 
Appanage . 
Held by nobles 

Total 



Male. 
11,168 

1,624 
10,674 

23,466 



Ftmale. 

11,688 

1,702 

11,081 

24.466 



TotaL 
22,861 

8,826 
21,766 

47,982 



B. — Noblemen's Serfs in 1861. 



NoblM. 


Serfs. 


Atctu 


28,100 


18,676,000 


802 


86,150 


2,520,000 


70 


43,800 


660,000 


15 



103,050 



21,755,000 



211 



C. — Cost ok Kedemption. 

Mortgages remitted £80,400,000 

(vovemment scrip 20,280,000 

Paid by serfs 10,470,000 

Balance due 8,900,000 

Indemnity award .... £65,000,000 

Tlie indemnity to the nobles was jG3 per sert The lands 
are mortgaged to the State till 1912. The lands cedcil to 
Crown serfs are mortgaged only till 1901. The above itom 
of ** mortgages remitted " is the amount due bj nobles to the 
Imperial Lank and cancelled. 



^^^■^^^^^^ 



SERFS— SEWAGE. 
D.— Lasdb hbld bt Fbbbd Skbfs (1879). 

nito. _Hold«™. iam. ^ 

Crown-gtft 8,117,0m 8*.200,000 ] 

Appuugn . Ifi2i,000 30,300,000 1 

Purcbue . 10,187,000 05,900,000 

Bcggar-loU 1,840,000 - 0,110,000 



ToUl . 10,710,000 186,340,000 9 

Id Tetorn for croirn-gift the holders have to pay 60 per 
cent extia poll-tax till 1902. Be^ai-lota aie lands given 
gratis b; the nobles to the peasants, rather than sell fans- 
lots at XI per acre to them. 

E. — Austrian Skrtitude (1840). 

Labour (2 daya p«r we«k) .... £38,000,000 

Titha ol enjm, io. 18,000,000 

Hale tribute, Umber 1,400,000 

Pnnals tribate, ipun wool .... 1,800,000 

Fowl, tggt, battel 1,000,000 



Total . . /Gl,200,000 

There were 7 miltioa serfs, vliose tribate averaged more 
than £7 pei head, which was, in fact, the rent of their 
farms. Some Bohemian nobles had as many as 10,000 
serfs. The redemption was effected by giving the nobles 
5 per cent Government scrip, and land then rose 50 per 
cent, in value. 

F. — German Serfs. 
In 1848 the State took 60 million acres from the nobles, 
leaving them still 25 million acres, and gave the former 
among the serfs. Indemnitj as follows : — 

1. Government scrip, £180 for each serf family, to noble- 
man. 

2. Land-tax, £3 per annum, transferred to peasant. 

3. Interest, £7 per annum for 47 years, to he paid by 
peasant to the State, being 4 per cent on cost of redemption. 

8EWA0E. g„« C«t T»n>olS*ww* 

parMlla. DlKbumd Wceklr. 

Mucherter. . . . £1,240 770,000 

PreitoD .... £,000 140,000 

Lmidon .... 5,860 8,800,000 

"■ ■" ... 4,700 180,000 



The Bystem of sewage farms requircB an acre per 500 
inhabitants, eay 1000 acres for a city like Manchester or 
Liverpool Sewage is supposed to have a market value of 
one penny per ton. 



A. — Ratio to Popni.ATioK. 



Jlila. pEDula. 



EDgluid . 


485 


616 


IS,: : 




481 


619 


Inluid 


490 


610 


HoulSid .■ 


Uaiteil KiDEdom 


485 


615 












489 


611 










Nor-.r 
UniteJ State* 


Au.tri» 


4S5 


616 



—United Kingdom, Porci,iTios is Sexes. 

Thmitandt Omillfd. 







Wsks. 






Ft-x^a. 




Engliind. 


^.-.,u,vi. 


Ireliud. 


EngUnd. 


aeotUnd. 


ItrUnd 


182 


5,SM 


!ISO 


3.340 


fi,140 


1,100 


3.4r,0 


183 


6,770 


1,110 




TvlSft 


1.240 


3.970 
















85 




1,370 


3.1W) 


9,140 


1.6 




8G 


D.SOl 


1.45:i 


2,&!a 


10,31S 


l.fi 6 


2.957 


87 


11. OS!) 


l,r,03 






1.7; 7 


2.773 


8» 


I2,r,35 


1,7!H 


i.K-s 









RCMMAHT FOR VSITEH KiSr.DOM. 





Th 


ouandi Omil 


Id. 


i luilo per l,x» 




Male 


F™„k,. 


Tolil. 


; Mtln 


F™.! 


1831 


10.170 


IO.C90 


20,800 


4.07 


Bl.T 


1831 


11.67i 


12,3:w 


24.0113 


486 
















1851 


13.3W 


14,1)10 


•s:.x>o 


1 4S9 


.'.11 


1861 


14,086 


14,831 


28, 1177 


' 483 


515 














1881 


lfi,9J6 


17.917 


;!4.863 


48r. ' 81.1 




A 


— XmiBBB AND 


SLADoami. 








Tbounndi Omllted. 


Par m l"l»b. 


Lbi. 


















Numbor. 


AnnuU 
Si«.,ht«. 


«^^. 


Sb«p 


BUushbir 


In^b. 


United KisgJom. 






71 


33 


19 


















25.200 


10.100 


195 


M 


22 


10 


Kojuia . 


48,830 


19.fW0 


370 


00 


34 


10 


Auatru 








rut 




10 


Spsfnuid Portugal 

Bde^imiuidHolL 














3S.430 


10,200 


lit) 


IM 


60 


13 




eoo 




in 


e 


3 












23 


11 




6.180 


2,600 


m 


77 


31 


10 








1.1 


138 


GS 


17 


16*,096 


77.800 


1,474 


r-i 


2fi 


11 


United St«t« . 


49.337 


14,000 




w. 


27 


14 


CtnadB 




1,300 




71 


30 


17 


Auitnlik . 










140 


70 




TS.230 


6,000 


100 




2<I0 


73 


Algarift 


8,78S 


3.000 




•/W> 


100 


40 


C«|w Colonr 

Tho World . 


11.280 


2.400 


40 




2M 


90 


30i,83-.' 


IUS,5liU 


LMJI 


!oa 


» I, j 



Tho United States census report for 1880 gives 35 million 
sheep; tho asricuituToI report for 1882 gives 49 miUiooa. 

1!. — Sheep in U.mied Kinodou and United States. 





SuDI)»r.T1iou. 


«d.O.Ut.d 


Bh»pp«l<)OlDl»l>lUiiU. 


24.190 

211.7M0 
3-J.'Jin 
31,660 
27,890 


n. sub* 


0. Kluedom. 1 V.aata. 


IMO . 

isa . 

I860 . . 
1870 . 
1882 . . 


12,897 
21,720 
22.470 
28:480 
49.237 


90 
100 
11-.' 


75 
94 

73 

7a 

95 



C. — Sheep is Australia, Cape, asd La Plata 
TlimmuU OmUtrd, 

Cape Colon;. lUcsr 



1830 


770 


1840 . 


. 3.360 


1S.50 . 


. 10.140 






1870 . 


. Bi,3M 


1883 . 


. ea,9is 



3^060 
10,330 
22,000 
B3.430 
117,231 
U3,429 



4o6 



SHIPPING. 



SHIPPING. 



A. — ToNNAQB 8INCB 1820: Thb World. 















SalUng. 


BtMun. 


ToUL 


EffeettTe> 


BtMunnlloi 


1820 . 


. 3.140 


6 


3,146 


8.170 


Ipereenl. 


1830 . 


. 3,022 


28 


8»050 


3,164 


4 .. 


1840 . 


. 4.560 


116 


4,676 


6,140 


11 •• 


1850 . 


. 6,513 


392 


6,905 


8,473 


23 „ 


1860 . 


. 9,586 


820 


10,406 


13,686 


30 ., 


1870 . 


. 13,868 


1,918 


15,676 


23,458 


41 M 


1881 . 


. 15,002 


5,644 


20,646 


43.222 


« M 



B. — British and Fobbiqn Flags. 

Seagoing Tonnage (Thouiandt OmUted). 



Tear. 


Britiah. 


Other Flags. 


Total NominaL 


Steam. 


Sailing. 


Steam. 


Sailing. 


BritUh. 


Other 
Flag*. 


1840 . . 
1850 . . 
1860 . . 
1870 . . 
1881 . . 


95 

188 

502 

1,203 

3,105 


3,216 
4,045 
5,211 
5,947 
5,430 


21 

204 

318 

715 

2,539 


1,344 
2,468 
4,375 
7,921 
9,672 


3,311 
4,233 
5,713 
7.150 
8,536 


1,365 
2,672 
4,693 
8,636 
12,111 



Carrying-power, 



Year. 


Tons (Thousands Omitted). 


Percentagei 


BriUsh. 


Other Flags. 


British. 


Other Flags. 


TotaL 


1840 . . 
1850 . . 
1860 . . 
1870 . . 
1881 . . 


3,691 

4,985 

7,721 

11,962 

20,955 


1,449 

3,488 

5,965 

11,496 

22,267 


74 

58 
56 
51 

49 


26 
42 
44 

49 
51 


100 
100 
100 
100 
100 



In the above tables British includes not only vessels of 
the United Kingdom but also Colonial The net tonnage of 
steamers is given, which is only 70 per cent, of the gross 
tonnage. 



* Effective tonnage is ascertained by multiplying steam tonnage hj 5 and 
adding the product to sailing tonnsge. Steamers nave 6 times the earrying- 
power of sailing-TesMls of eqxial tonnage, a steamer making 8 ocean trtpa, or • 
short trips, for one of a sailing-vessel. 



\n 




SHIPPING. 
C. — Shiffinq of Art. FliAOS. 



TiMt. 


»™i«r^nM«., 


C«i7iii«Pow«r. 
















S^UBg. 


Stom. 


TctaL 


TbouudL 


BiUdL 


IWIuE^ 


U. EiDcdom . 


3,688 


3,00* 


6,693 


18,110 


43-t 


SI 
















G«m«,y. . 




21« 




^046 




















AtuttU . 


248 










i' 






77 


999 


1,307 


3-0 




37* 


164 


038 






















aa: : 






76 


S3S 


0-S 


6 




83 


416 


747 


17 




Danmuk. 


175 


61 


226 
























1,*B6 


fis 


1,611 


















0-6 


14 


&.8H 


4,161 


U,M& 


30,ST9 


71-0 


10 






















1,311 




3-8 


38 


















«7 


28 
























ToUl. 




68 


208 


630 


1-2 




16,002 


^64^ 


20.646 


43,161 


100-0 ... 1 



D.— Tradb and Shippiko Compamd 


(thb "Wobld). 


T«uf. 


"i^r 


AU PUci, Toniucs, 


QoodjaiTlixlpirTBi. 


SoalnMl. 


EAKtin. 


Komtul. 


BttMln. 1 


1S30 . . 
1840 . . 
18S0 . . 
I860 . . 
1870 . . 
ISSl . . 


172 
268 
390 
62.1 
884 
1.240 


3.060 
4676 
6;90S 
10,406 
16,576 
201646 


3,164 
6,140 
8^473 
13,686 
23.468 
43,222 


JE67 

Be 

66 
60 
67 
GO 


£6S 
60 
46 
40 
38 
29 



Sy referring to Balltut, it will be seen that ona-fiftli of 
all vessels enter port in ballast. MoTeover, tbe great Bteam- 
boat lines are used more for passengers tban cargo. Thia 
explains why the increased tonnage carrying-power on sea 
is much greater than the growth in meichandiae carried 
over sea. Coal and iron are also more largely carried than 
before, being articles of inferior Talue^ 



E.- 


-Vebsbui oveb 


100 Tors (1881). 






Nuaibor, 


Tom 


N«)f«V«Kl. 


Gtoni. 


Bill. 


ToliL 


Stum. 


BMiL 


ToUL 




2.809 


II.SM 


14,763 


B30 


363 


474 


Freacli . 


3S5 


2,772 


3,107 


8M 


194 


370 










TIO 


303. 






160 


1.875 


2,041 


601 


223 


251 




82 


B99 




770 


401 


440 


lUliui . 


103 






701 


308 




SpRDUh . 








B95 


205 


253 




17 


434 




MO 


235 


2S0 




40 


28 


60 




460 


















Diniih . 


lOS 


1,172 


1.8S1 


460 


163 


177 


Swsdiiii . 


£S8 


1.979 




270 


ail 


210 


NorwiEidD . 


148 


4.1G0 






330 


















TQrki.h . 


10 




384 


66S 


lee 


leo 




3.%(SS 










UniteJ SUU> . 




B,!J58 




690 


342 


.165 


Caniidii . 


918 


fi,4M 


7,377 


128 


164 


1&5 


Various . 


IM 




(134 




£(2 


360 


C,3U3 


48,684 


51,976 


G'M 


28S 


330 



I". — BniTisH JIerciiant Navr. 





v««,. 


Toi.1, 


Sillon. 


t™ 


p« 




















80 


&dlM-. 




1688 . . 


470 


37,400 






1610 






83,01(0 








J>m« L 


leae 




1,320 


120,000 




90 




CImrtM II. 


1638 






210,000 




80 












201. 000 










1760 




5,730 


487,000 




85 




GeocgaUL 


















1810 
















1820 




25,374 


2.654,000 


175.000 


105 


ir. 


Goor^B TV. 


1830 




23,721 


2,5.13,000 


155.000 


107 


16 


wmUm IV. 
























4.233,000 


339,000 


134 


IH 




iwio 






6,713,000 


230.000 


19.1 


m 




1870 




32,020 


7.1S0.000 


361.000 


21S 


•n 










8.535,000 


270,000 


380 


31 


■■ 


This 


nc 


udes CO 


Oil id ahi 


ipillg. 












G.- 


SHIPPING. 
Shippiko op United Kinodom. 


409 


Tw. 






Ton>p« 


ToBiCriing 
PowBr. 




To.. 


fl«™. 


v™.... 


i^ 


[Tb«.Hnd« 
Omllltd), 


?r^r 


1810 
1S30 
IBM 
1S70 
IMl 


20.253 
19,171 

2fi:Bw 

22.180 
16,811 


2,211 
2,20-J 
3,5G5 
B.691 
6.4W 


145 
131 
118 
196 
]S3 


105 
114 
I3S 
256 
336 


15 
17 
24 
2» 
»3 


2.211 
2.2MI 
3.950 
9,730 

18,110 


13 
10 
IS 
SI 
Gl 



The carrying-power has grown almost eight-fold since 1810, 
and if we required the same ratio of seamen we should need 
at present 1,300,000 sailors to do the work. 
II. — Eabninos of Shippiko. 







T.™«>,d.OmIt.<d. 




n^. 


CaiTled. 


Fnigl.1. 


F««n^^ 


T<*U. 


1 . 

MB 




63,190 

6,100 
6.200 

3,900 
3,600 
37.000 
9,500 


£01.400 

6^000 
3,700 
3.500 

io,r«o 

8.M)0 


£12,300 

r.2oo 

1,200 
HOO 
700 
16,500 
1,800 


£73.700 
7,100 
7.200 
4.,M» 
4,200 
26,000 
10.300 


65-2 
54 

3-3 
31 
19 6 

80 


Tot»l 




129,150 fJ'.l.iXKJ i:a3,500 'i:l3(!,000 lOO'O ' 



British includes colonial The table comprises all trade. 
I. — United States Stsaxboat Traffic (1880). 





Stauian. 


Thouunda Oiallttd. 1 


t™™^. 


PM«n- 

atn. 


^ 


iiie.?£. 


Wng», «. 


Ltk». . . 

Sir."" : 

N. EDglxiitl . 

Mi,ldleStite. 
Uq1( . . . 

T\.ta . 


917 
081 
173 
463 
1,463 
1.116 

5,139 


222 
133 
107 
119 
433 
208 


1.420 
2.710 
4.030 
15.470 

135,720 
9,160 


4,380 
4,820 
2,410 
2,«30 
7,190 
4,110 


2,650 
2,160 
1,680 
1.620 

eleeo 

2,870 


690 
790 

685 
660 


1,221 


168,510 1 25.510 


17,710 


5,120 



The crews mustered 57,100 men, their wages averaging 
£85. The steamers carried merchandise 21 times their own 
tonnage, besides passengers. Each steamer carried in tlio 
year 33,000 passengers and 5000 tons of merchandise. 



4IO 



SHIPPING. 
K — SizB, Death-ratb, &a, of Ships. 



Flag. 


Average Tonnage. 


Annual Loaa. 


Life of 
Ship. 
Teara. 


T^oa 
Sua man 


Steamer. 


Sailing. 


Steamer. 


Sailing. 


U. Kingdom • 

France . 

Germany 

Holland . 

Scandinavia 

Italy 

United Statea . 


520 
705 
525 
660 
360 
518 
237 


206 
192 
228 
290 
230 
220 
326 


2-94 
2-47 
277 
3-84 
1-96 
174 
4-06 


3-93 
4-04 
4*04 
4-49 
3-20 
2-94 
5-45 


26 
90 
23 
22 
30 
28 
18 


280 
174 
154 
123 
106 
75 
306 



The apparent higher efficiency of American seamen is 
because the traffic is on internal waters, mostly for short 
distances. In reality the English seaman carries most Ses 
Wrecica, 

L. — Working Expenses. 

For a vessel of 1000 tons, crew 20 men, the monthly 
expenses are as follows : — 

Brituh . . £145 I German . . £135 i Italian . . £ 93 
French . . 135 I Austrian . . 125 | American • 200 

M. — Ship-building. 



Year. 

1850 
1860 
1870 
1882 


Tona. 


Tone per VeaMl 


British. 


American. 


British. 


AoMrican. 


134,000 

212,000 

343,000 

1,194,000 


272,000 
213,000 
277,000 
281,000 


192 
208 
353 
770 


201 
198 
152 
2o0 

_i 



Steamers cost from £16 to £24 per ton. A first-class 
wooden ship can be built in Canada for £9 per ton ; in 
United States, £11. 

The shipbuilding of Great Britain in 1880-82 was 
follows : — 

Tons. 



as 





I8S0. 


1SS1. 


1882. 


Clyde . 


237,000 


332,000 


389,000 


Wear . 


140,000 


148,000 


212,000 


Tyne . 
Various 


149,000 


177,000 


208,000 


180,000 


203,000 


385,000 



ToUl . . 706,000 860,000 1,194,000 

The new vessels finished in British yards in 1882 repre- 
sented a carrying-power of 5 million tons, being four-fifths 




Bteamen. The world bnilda about 1,800,000 tons of regis- 
tered ahippisg pel annum, or 9 per cent on the tonnage 
afloat, of which Great Britain builds two-thirds, Ti& : — 





T«»«.B. 


lUtlnlMl. 


BiUo. 1 


Konloil. 


^^sss- 


MoDluL 


C^Ttop 


BritUh . . . 

OtlurlUgi . . 

ToUl . . . 


1,1M,000 
281.000 
330,000 


t'S3S:SSS 

^89O;O0O 


66-0 
16-6 
18-4 


is-s 


1,806,000 


7,010,000 


100 


100. 



The shipping lost or broken np yearly averages 1,200,000 
tons, with a carrying-power of 1,800,000 tona The net 
increase of carrying-power in 1882 exceeded 5 million tons. 
N. — BuiBTBRED SBiPPniq OF Forts.* 

ToDDiga, ThMuudi Omittad. 





'8.11. 


Steam. 


loUl. 


CuTTlDg 


Ratio g( 


tiTMpOol . 


1,060 


620 


1,600 


3,680 


8-6 ■ 


London . 


620 


670 


1,190 


8.470 


81 


Obigow . 


350 


380 


730 


2.290 


6-3 


KewTark. 


S30 


210 


740 


1,680 


3-7 




GO 


160 


220 


860 


2-0 


HoU . 


40 


160 


190 


790 


1-8 


Naweutls . 


CO 


140 


200 


760 


1-8 




110 


110 


220 


660 


It 


HuDbnrg . 


140 


TO 


210 


490 


11 


Bnmu . 


160 


60 


220 


460 


11 


Or»UDCk . 


170 


40 


210 


370 


0-9 


8«nPnnciico 


110 


60 


ICO 


380 


0-8 




110 


eo 


160 


360 


0-8 


Ttitrta 


30 


60 


00 


330 


0-8 


Lsith. . 


SO 


CO 


80 


320 


0-7 


Btm 


70 


60 


120 


320 


07 


H*w Bnuiiwiok 


270 


10 


280 


320 


0-7 




100 


40 


140 


300 


07 


Gtnoa . 


im 


30 


160 


270 


0-6 


Odma 


20 


60 


70 


270 


0-6 


JUBMfTdMM 


CO 


40 


100 


260 


0-6 


Ooprabigoa 


40 


40 


80 


S40 


0-6 




30 


40 


70 


230 


0-5 


Antwarp . 


10 


40 


60 


210 


0-0 


AterdMn . 


100 


20 


120 


200 


0-B 


BtTfID 


60 


20 


80 


160 


0-4 


Yu!LonUi 


160 




160 


160 


01 


OUtrapoTti 


10,372 


3.634 


13,006 


«,4T1 


Hi 


Tha World 


16,003 


6,044 


20.640 


43,161 


lOO-O 



412 



SHOT AND SHELL— SICK. 



O. — Decline of Amerioan Carrtikg Tradb. 

Imports and Exports^ MUliont £, United States, 



Year. 


American Flag. 


Foreign Flags. 


Total. 


American 

Ratio, 
percent. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


Imports. 


Exports. 


1860 . . . 
1870 . . . 
1880 . . . 
1882 . . . 


48 
29 
34 
30 


58 
38 
24 
21 


28 

59 

121 

125 


25 

64 

152 

144 


159 
190 
331 
320 


67 
35 
17 
16 



SHOT AND SHELL.— One million take 10,000 tons of 
iron. Great Britain sometimes makes 2 millions in a year. 

SIOK. 

A. — Eatio of Sick. 





Per 1000 Persons, 






London police 


. 26 


English rural . 


. 53 


British infantry 


. 43 


Town population • 


. 60 


French army . 


. 45 


Jamaica garrison . 


. 63 


Cayenne convicts . 


. 69 


Navy at Malta 


. 52 


Algiers garrison 


. 70 


Russian army 


. 78 


The English rural ji 


md town population, 


of course, 


include 


all ages, whereas the t 


roops, navy, &c., are 


usually men in the 


flower of life. 








E.- 


—Sick Population. 








Thousands Omitted. 












"^ick. Invalids. 


TotaD 


of Pop. 


England 


984 492 


1,476 


5-7 


Scotland 


14,5 72 


217 


5 7 


Ireland 


180 90 


270 


5-3 


United Kingdom 


1,309 654 


1,963 


5-6 


France 


1,682 841 


2.523 


67 


Germany . 


2.288 1,144 


3,432 


7-6 


Austria 


2,360 1,180 


3,540 


9-4 


Italy . 


1,672 836 


2,508 


81* 


Spain . . . . 


990 41K> 


1,485 


8-9 


Belgium 


242 121 


36:J 


6-6 


Holland 


190 95 


285 


71 


Denmark . 


76 38 


114 


57 


Sweden and Norway . 


214 107 


321 


4^ 


Switzerland 


126 6.i 


mi 


67 


Greece 


62 :u 


93 


5-8 


United States . 


1,978 9S9 


2,967 


5 5 


Australia . 


75 


37 
6,631 


112 


41 


Total . 


13,264 


19,895 


7-3 


The above table i 


IS not 


fficiah but 


com Du ted 


on Dr. 



Farr's basis applied to death-rate. It includes all ages, as 
shown for England in Table K 




C. — DaI3 of SiCK!IB3B PER IkDABITAKT. 
Ammat Avcragt. 



Ag«. 


IMS. 


1»T0. 1 


Ort-n. 


Ra«L 


EnElud. 


Scotlud 




E-^d.! 


21-30 . . . 
31-« . . . 
41-60 . . . 
61-60 . . . 

407«in. . 


fi-3 
13-4 

23 -a 


GD 
6-4 
9-0 
17-8 


6-1 
8tl 

n-2 

SO-6 


6-0 
6-2 
9-6 
19-9 


6-6 64 
71 7-1 
11-a 10-4 
20-3 Ml 


6-6 
7-1 
10-8 
80-a 


138 


9-8 


n-7 


10-4 


111 1 107 


10-0 ' 



I), — Cost of Sickness, peb Akkuh. 

MUlloDi Dwn nar LoM of Labour . Lom tUI]< 



8i>eden luid Nsrwt 
Switierhnd . 



ToUl . . 5,425 14 2 

The above tablo does not include chi 

E. — Sickness ix Ages, Enoi^nd. 



6CG.O00 
114.000 
376,000 
129.000 
149,000 
312,000 

], 176,000 



414 



SILK. 



The ratio of sickness rises and falls regularly with death- 
rate in all countries, as shown by Dr. Farr and Mr. Edmonds 
at the London Congress of 1860, when the following role 
was established : — 

Of 1000 persons, aged 30, it is probable 10 will die in the 
year, in which case there will be 20 of that age sick through- 
out the year, and 10 invalids. 

Of 1000 persons, aged 75, it is probable 100 will die in 
the year, in which case the sick and invalids of that age will 
be 300 throughout the year. 

For every 100 deaths, let there be hospital beds for 200 
sick, and infirmaries for 100 invalids. 

SILK 

A. — Pboduction of Raw Silk. 

ThouMnda Omitted. 



Chioa • • 

Japan . 

Italy . 

India and Persia 

France 

Turkey, Spain, &c., 



lUkSUk. 


Valuer 


21,000 


£14,600 


4,400 


4,100 


6,600 


6,600 


2,000 


1,600 


1.200 


1,200 


2,800 


2,600 



Total . . 38,000 £30,400 

B. — Italian Silk Industry. 

Italy imports yearly 90 per cent, of the eggs from which 
her silk crop is obtained. 

1 oz. egn, value 7fl., produces 35 Ibf. cocoons, or 

2k lbs. silk. 
70 ions eggs at 7s. per oz. cost .... £880,000 
39,000 tons cocoons produce silk, 5,600,000 lbs., 

worth £5.600,000 



Silk of Italian eggs 



Profit 



£4,720,000 
1,030,000 



Total .... £5,750,000 

C. — French Silk Industry : Annual Averages. 





Raw Silk, Lbs. Consumed, 
Thousands Omitted. 


Valu^ 
Thousands Omitted. 


Native. 


Imported. 


ToUL 


Manufac 


Consump. 


Exported 


1830-32 
1842-46 
1860-52 
1868-73 
1877-82 


1,620 
2,770 
3,830 
1,200 
1,400 


1,140 

4,070 

6,370 

15,400 

13.800 


2,7.50 

6,840 

10,200 

16,600 

15,200 


£5,2,30 
12,700 
18,220 
34,600 
27,400 


£3,920 

7.440 

9,500 

16,240 

15,300 


£1,310 

6.260 

8,720 

18,360 

12,100 







SILVER. 




4'S 




D.— All Nations. 






Thouuuid* Omlttod. 
















BkiUlDg* 




Riw Silk, LbL 




f^u^-V. 


I >,*" 










IWl-M. 


isre-BO. 


"' 


Omt BriUin . . 


B.500 


2.900 


£fl.SOO 


£16.600 


6-8 


Fnnp* . . . . 


13.300 


15.200 


27,400 


16,200 


S-6 




2,100 


3,400 


4,600 


6,000 


2-8 


B^. ' ; 


660 


1,040 


2.100 


2,400 


08 


Anitij* .... 


1.030 


2,100 


3.800 


6,000 


3-2 


luir . . ■ - ■ 


1,300 


r,600 


3,100 


3,000 


23 




100 300 


3,400 


400 


2-8 


Bpun .... 


.150 


400 


700 


900 


11 


Eunip* . . . 


£-20 


480 


900 


1,400 


6-1 


23,460 


27,420 


£B2,700 


£61,900 


3-3 


UDitCdSUtM. . 


450 


1,820 


6,500 


12.100 


4-S 


Ohiu . . . . 
Tot.1 .... 


9.000 


9,000 


15,000 


11.200 




32,910 1 38.240 


£73,200 £75,200 




BILVIiR. 






A 


— Phobcctioh IK 600 Tbam. 






T-HIL MUllOB <. 


Ratio. 


UtXltM . 


78,600 606 


40-7 


Para, ft& 


72,000 054 


37-3 


UoiUd SUtM 


. 11,600 69 


6fl 


0«rmu>r 


8,470 «S 


4-4 


Anitaru . 


7,930 61 


41 


KnMk . 


. . alaoo 24 


1-r 


y«ri<nii. 




11,200 


8 


6 


6-8 



B. — Periods of Production. 



1600 23.800 — 37D 
1700 60,000 37,200 750 
1800 U7,a00 67,000 1,120 
1850 150,000 33,000 1,360 
1680 193,000 43,000 1,487 


£16,000 


C— Production since 1850. 




llillim £. 




United SUtM ... 10 16 68 94 
0«ni>UT ud AutrU .16 18 30 53 



4i6 



SIL VER. 



D. — Production and Consumption. 

Consumpiiots Tons. 



Yeart. 


Production, /C.i«-»« 
Tonn. Coinage. 


""^t The East 


TotaL 


1831-40 . 


. 5,965 2,700 


2,000 2,200 


6,970 


1841-60 . 


7,804 4.800 


2.200 2,400 


9.490 


1851-60 . 


8,d55 


2,700 11,300 


14.140 


1861-70 . 


. 12,201 


3,100 12,300 


15,400 


1871-80 . 


. 22,345 1,200 
. 57,270 8,700 


4,500 10,800 
14.500 39,000 


16.500 


Total. 


62.500 




Production, ,,^,„._, 
Million £. ^^^"•«' 


Cananmption, Million £. 


Tears.' 


- ^--^- TheEa-L 


^ 

TotaL 


1831-40 . 


54 24 


18 20 


62 


1841-50 . 


70 43 


20 22 


85 


1851-60 . 


81 


24 102 


126 


1861-70 . 


. 110 


28 111 


139 


1871-80 . 


180 10 


36 87 


133 



The above table shows that since 1830 the supply has 
not been sufficient, the world melting down 5,230 tons of 
old candlesticks, &c., for current uses. 

For silver-movement since 1860 see Bullion, 

E. — Production in 1882. 





Tons. 


Vnliie. 


lUtia 


United States . 


. 1,010 


£7,770,000 


48-8 


Spanish America 


740 


6,720,000 


357 


Germany . 


150 


1,160,000 


7-3 


Austria . 


82 


620,000 


4-0 


Various , 


85 


650,000 


4*2 


Total 


. 2,067 


£15,020,000 


100-0 



Period. 

1501-60. 
1661-1620 
1621-80 . 
1681-1740 
1741-1800 



F. — Prices since 1501. 



PerOE., 
Pence. 
85 
80 
65 
62 
63 



Ratio to 
Gold. 
11-1 to 1 
11-8 
14-5 
15-1 
14-8 



>« 



t» 



»» 
»» 



Period. 

1801-40 
1841-60 
1861-70 
1871-80 
1885 . 



PerOa, 

Pence. 

60] 

60j 
60] 
56 

m 



Ratio to 
Gold. 



15-7 
15 4 
15 6 
167 
19-6 „ 



tol 



tt 



t( 



tt 



In 1876 the price fell to 46 J pence, say 20 per 1 as com- 
pared with gold. In 1873-79 the German Government sold 
3220 tons of silver coin for £28 J millions. 




EILATBa 

A. — Emancipation in British Colokibs (1831). 



J>m>la . . 


ITniobw. 
3U.700 


IndsinnUT. 
£6.132,060 




83,000 


1,731,000 


TrlDidul . 


22.300 


1039,000 


AD%iu,&e. 


172,093 


3,421,000 


Ooi^K . . 


84,900 


4,297,000 




6?600 


2,113,000 


0.p« of Owd Hoiw 


38,400 


1,247,000 



T«r. 

17M . 



. 780,993 £20,000,000 

—8 LA VERT IN United States. 

VMo to 
btt. PnpalAtlon, T«u-. 



ibar. Popu1>tl'>ii, 



893,040 
IStO . . 1,191,400 
1820 . . 1,338,100 

The war of emancipation cost 655,000 men killed, and an 
outlay of 555 milliona sterling, or XHO per slare. 



1830. . 2,009,030 

1840. . 2,487,500 

1850. . 3,304,300 

1860. . 3,979,700 



16 



C. — Slatert III Brazil (1876). 

Blow ropuUtkin. 



IlillU 


370,400 


2,039,000 


Uio Janeiro . 


341.600 


1,057,700 


B*bi( 


167,800 


1,380,000 


fUn PoDlo 


156,600 


837,400 


retnimbaoo . 


89.100 


841,500 




74,900 


359.100 


KloOnddeSui 


67.800 


434.800 


VirioQj . 


212,600 


2,980,900 



1,510,800 



9,930,400 



There were 806,000 male and 706,000 female elaves hold 
by 41,000 owners, averaging 37 to each ovmer. In 1882 
the total number of slavei was 1,300,000, representing a 
market value of 104 millions sterling. It is expected there 
will be no slaves remaining in 1900. 



%- 





1). — Slaveh op ASTiquiTT. 




Wt«M, 


Valuo. 




Greek l>bonr«r 


6d. 


£56 






lOd. 


103 




". outlBr 


8d. 


77 


',; Uk,r . 


,. bofttmui 


6d. 


60 


„ oook 


Bomu gardtner 


Sd. 


66 


„ actTCH 



4i8 



SMALL-POX. 



Some of the wealthy Romans had as many aa 10,000 
slaves. The minimum price fixed hy law was £16, bui 
after great victories they could sometimes be bought for a 
few shillings on the field of battla 

SMALL-POX. 

A. — Deaths per Million Inhabitants, per Annuv. 



England. 


London 


SeoUand. | Ireland. 


Datai 


DMths. 


Date. 


Denthi. 


Data. 


Deaths. 


Date. 


Deatha 


1760^1800 
1840-54 
1871-73 
1881 


3,000 
430 
178 
100 


1660-80 
1760-90 
1840-60 
1871-73 
1881 


4,170 
2,260 

408 
1,040 

640 


• •• 

• •• 

• • • 

1864 
1874-82 


• •• 

• • • 

• •• 

305 
28 


• • • 

• •• 

1844 

1864-74 

1875-82 


• •• 

403 

106 

82 



In the epidemic of 1861 the deaths in England were per 
million : army, 455 ; civilians, 928 ; London, 2420. In 
that of 1881, the returns showed deaths per million inhabi- 
tants, as follows : — 

Vaccinated. UnTaccinatoii. Difference. 
London ... 90 3.350 35 to 1 

England ... 98 4,3S0 44 to 1 

In the epidemic at Leipsic in 1871, the death-rate was 
12,700 per million inhabitants, 70 per cent, of whom were 
un vaccinated. 

B. — ^Mortality among Persons Attacked. 





Vaccinated, 


Unvaccinated, 


Vaccinated, 


Unracdnatcd, 




per Cent. 


per Cent 


per Cent. 


percent. 


Tendon 


15 


45 


Boston . 15 


50 


Montreal 


16 


54 


Philadelphia 17 


64 



During the FrancaGerman war the Germans lost only 
263 men from this disease, the French 23,499, the former 
having been re-vaccinated in barracks. In the war in Para- 
guay, the Brazilians lost 43,000 men from malignant or black 
smallpox, that is, 35 per cent, of their army, nine cases in 
ten proving fatal. 



C. — Small- Pox in London. 



Period. 

1629-70 
1671-1700 
1701-30 
1731 CO 

1701 uoa 



Deatha from 

tJmall-pox 

per Annum. 

702 
. 1,-353 
. 1,H,J4 
. l.i*67 



Ratio to 
all DeHtha, 
ptr Cent. 
5 



8 
9 



Period. 

1801-20 
1821-30 
1841-60 
1F61 70 
1^=71 bl 



Deaths from 
8mall-i>ox 
per Annum. 
995 
692 
781 
816 
1.6-JO 



Ratio to 

mil Deaths 

per Cent. 

5J 




SNOIV—SOCIETIES. 



4"9 



SNOW.— The moat remarkable snowfalls in England have 
been in the follovring years : — 

1141 1683 ITM 1814 

1606 1709 1799 1820 

1674 1763 1813 183S 

Tho earliest snaw of the seasoa was that of October 7, 

1829, in the present century. There was no suavr from 

November 1862 till February 1861. 

SOAP. 

A.— EZFORTATIOM (1881). 

Million Dm. TiIdb, 

Onat BriUin 39 CIW.OOO 

FiKDca 30 310,000 

DDil«dSut« 14 160,000 

The manufacture of soap in Franca averages 25S million 
Ihs., anil the consumption almost 6 lbs. per inhabitant, as 
against 10 lbs. in the United Kingdom. 

n. — BniTiaH SoAF. 









mllloaLba. 


^^, 




Pri» 




Mxiutu. 


c™»mp. 


B,,«rt. 


791 . . 














801 






67 


M 


3 


3-6 


21 


74 














4-3 


21 


73 




















831 






123 


107 


16 


4B 




63 


Sll 






199 


170 


2ft 


64 




48 




















8ei 






2&4 


332 


23 


8-0 




27 








302 


385 


17 


9-0 




27 


1881 



















The duty was removed in 1853, and the increased con- 
sumption of Bosp has probably tended to the reduction iu 
death-rate. 



A.— LkABKBD SOCIBTIKS OP LOSDOS (15 PRIUaPAL). 



I860. 


17,729 






1880. 


. 29.061 



1850. . . 15,769 
There are in the Unitetl Kingdom 118 eocieties, with 
36,200 members nud an income of £UO,000 per annum. 



420 



SODA-SPECIE. 



B. — Principal Societos: Msicbkb8. 



Royal .... 652 

StatUticU. . . 807 

ArchjBoloffical . 580 

Geological. . . 850 

Aniiquariai . . 640 



Geographical . 3,430 
Botanical . . 1,660 
Fharmaoentical 8,260 
Law .... 1,630 
Arts .... 3,340 



Agiiealtvral . 
2«ooloffi«d 
Britiah Anoe. 
Social Scianoa 



7.1 

2,000 

2,400 

1«660 



80DA. — The annual production is (1882) : — 



Great Britain . 

France .... 

Germany 

Anttria .... 

Belgium, United Statea, ke. 



Total 



Tom. 

432,000 

127,000 

101,000 

40,000 

11,000 

711,000 



The production in Great Britain has quadrupled ainoe 
1850, when it was 104,000 tons. 

SOIL. — The experiments of Schuhler and Schleiden giTO 
the power of absorbing water in an area of 50 square inches, 
as follows, per 1000 grains of soil : — 

Graina Absorbed in 
12 Hours. 2^ 

Gypanm . 
Limestone tand 
Loam clay 
Mnddy ,, 
Calcareous clay 
Field 
Slaty marl 
Garden mould . 
Humus . 

SOOT. — London produces 50,000 tons per annum, worth 
£41,000, used for manure at 10 cwt. per acre. 



12 Hours. 


24 Hours. 


48 Hour*. 


7S Bourn 


1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


3 


3 


3 


21 


26 


28 


28 


25 


30 


34 


35 


26 


31 


35 


35 


16 


22 


23 


23 


24 


29 


:i2 


33 


35 


45 


no 


52 


80 


97 


110 


120 



souin). 

Cannon at 

Waterloo 
Cepeda . 



Ileard at 

Dover 
Buenos Ayres 



DtftAnce, 


T^ir 


Milos. 


1 9mF» 


180 


1815 


160 


1859 



The Cepeda cannonade was heard at Luxan, in the pro- 
vince of Buenos Ayres. Mr. Glaisher, at 2 miles from the 
earth, heard a musket-shot and a dog bark, and at 4 miles a 
railway train. 

SOUNDINGS. See Sea. 



SPEOm See Bullion, Gold, Silver. 




SPINDLES— SPIRITS. 







Thou 


.,^0^ 


ttcd. 




per 1 « 
tnUb 


Cotton. 


Wool 


Fl.i.te. 


8Uk. 


r-uL 


United Kingdom 


«,200 




1,370 


1,080 


■(8,170 






4,S00 


3,010 








28 




5,330 


2,830 


.118 


ftW 


8,488 


19 




3,360 




Hi 


360 




S 


Au<trik . . 




4S0 


343 


420 


3,463 




SS : : 














860 


SCO 




100 


1.330 




Belginm . 


800 


S20 


























;m 


180 


60 




650 


7 


Switxerluid . 


l,B-20 


200 


10 


430 


3,260 




Europe . 


60,650 


14,200 


3,488 




e3,ia3 


27 


United State* 














Total . 


1.470 




830 




2,450 


1 


73,260 


17.500 


4,S98 


CEIS 


100,703 


ir 



A. — COSBOIIPTIOS PBB AkNL'H, 



GalloD*. 
Ihouuind*. 
Bngland . 21,600 
ScotUnd . 8,800 
IreUod 6,610 

n. EiDzdora 37,010 
Praciee . . 94,200 
Q«D»nT . 99.600 
BuhU . . 178,000 



OkllODI. 

ThoniuidJ. i 
. 29,300 



Itsiy . 

Srailn . _._. 

Belg. k EoU. 24,M 



B. — CoNauMPTioH IK United Einqdoh. 



V«r. 


OlUau, TtiuuiwidA 


O.Uon.p*I.l,.Li«mt. 1 


ED^BOi 


BcotlEod.' InluuL 


n. King. 


Eos. 1 Bc-t. 1 Ir* ,D. Itog.i 


1800 


4,360 


1.280 


1.330 


6,960 


0-.'.l 


or4 


0'26 


045 


1810 


4,J90 


1.750 


4.7W 


11.260 


0-48 


097 


0-8)1 


o-oa 








3,300 


9,450 


o;ifi 


0-93 


n-4't 




1830 


7.730 


6.010 


9.005 


22.745 


ii-.w 


3-60 




0-95 


1840 


8,2W 


6.180 


7,402 


21,862 


i\-m 


2-40 


01*1 


0-80 


ISSO 




7,120 








2-43 


V 9 






















1870 




8,»80 


8.300 


31.510 


D-Gl 


2M 


r 6 


101 


1881 


21,600 


8,800 


6,810 


37,010 


0S4 2-35 


1-29 


lOS 



422 



SPONGES—STA R VA TION. 





C. — Manufactdrb of 


Spirits in England. 




Year. 


Gallons, 


Duty. 


Oalluut 


Y«ftr Gilloni, 
• Thousands. 


Duty. 


GaUoQS 


Tuoiuaiida. 


roiico. 


I>or 
Inhab. 


I'euoe. 


per 
Inhftbu 


1700. 


. 1,210 


4 


0-22 


1820 . 4,315 


120 


0-36 


1720. 


. 2,530 


4 


0-42 


1830 . 7,680 


90 


055 


1740. 


. 6,715 


4 


1-10 


1850 . 9 6-0 


90 


051 


1760. 


. 2.320 


30 


0-33 


1860 . 12,910 


90 


0«5 


1780. 


. 2,330 


30 


0-35 


1870 . 11,220 


120 


0*48 


1800. 


. 4,410 


60 


050 


1881 . 16,930 


120 


065 



1). — Fluctuations op Consumption. 

GalUms per Inhabitant. 





1830. 


1840. 


1850. 


1860. 


1870. 


18^1. 


United Kingdom 


. 0-95 


0*80 


0-88 


095 


1-01 


106 


France 


. 0-26 


33 


0-39 


0-51 


60 


090 


Germany 


• • • • 


60 


• • • 


108 


• • • 


1 3.J 


Bussia. 


. 600 


• • • 


3-70 


4 80 


• a • 


2-20 


Sweden 


. 8-80 


800 


8-40 


6-00 


460 


4-2.'^ 


Denmark 




7-20 




5 80 


• • • 


A Mi 


Belgium 


.' 0-96 


• • • 


1-26 


■ ■ • 


11K) 


2 40 


United States . 


. 5-55 


310 


2-50 


210 


1-62 


1 50 



SPONQES.— On tho coast of Svria 300 boats ^vith 1500 
divers pick up annually sponges worth £25,000 ; best, w<.»rth 
40 shillings, inferior, 4 shillings per lb. Depth, 30 to 150 
feet. 



SQUAEES. 

Name. City. Acres. 

Grosvenor . . I^oiulon . . 10 

Parade . . . Vienna . . 15 

Schloss . . ". Berlin . . 16 



Name. 
Bellccour . 
St. Stepben*B 



aty. 

Lyons 
Dublin 



Acres. 
32 
40 



SQUIRRELS.— There are 25 millions killed annually in 
Kussia for their skins. 

STAMP& See Finances, Table G. 

STARVATION. 



Doaths from Hunger lu England. 



Males 
Females 

Total 



1879. 

188 
124 

312 



18S0. 
184 
102 

286 



The coroners' inquests for London show 80 deaths yearly 
from hunger, without counting persons who commit suicide 
in extreme want 



STATIONERY OFFICESTEAM. 



423 



STATIONERY OFFIOE (UNITED KINGDOM).— The 

cost is £570,000 per annum ; viz., " blue-books," £64,000; 
clerks, £108,000 ; Gazette, &c., £398,000 per annum. 

STATURE. See Anthrojxmeiry. 

STEAM. 

A. — The World's Hobsb-Power. 



Tw. 


Thouaanda Omitted. 


Fercentaga, 


Fixed. 


BaUway. 


Ships. 


ToUL 


Fixed. 1 Railway. 


Shlpa. 


1840. . . . 
1860. . . . 
1860. .. . 
1870. . . . 
1880. . . . 


1,290 
1.780 
2,450 
3,650 
7.415 


960 

4,190 

7,900 

13,700 

17.618 


106 

340 

1,050 

2,190 

3,891 


2,356 

6.310 

11,400 

19,540 

28,924 


55 
28 
22 
19 
25 


41 
66 
69 
70 
61 


4 

6 

9 

11 

14 



B. — Owners of Aooreoatb Power 



1 

Tear. 


1 Hone-Power, TUouaanda Omitied. 


Ratio to Toiau 














0. Britain. 


Continent 


U. SUtee. 


Total. 


Britiah. 


Amerlcnn. 


1840 . . 


850 


a52 


1,154 


2,356 


36 


49 


1850 . . 


2,320 


1,990 


2,000 


6,310 


37 


32 


1860 . . 


3,100 


4,220 


4,080 


11,400 


27 


36 


1870 . . 


4,780 


8,980 


5,780 


19,540 


46 


30 


1880 . . 


7,780 


12.992 


8,152 


28,924 


45 


28 ! 

■ 



C. — Number of Engines (1880). 



tJnited Kingdom 

France 

Oerroanj 

Ruaaia 

Austria 

luljr . 

Spain . 

Portngal 

Switzerland 

Belffinm 

Holland 

Scandinavia 

Europe . 
United Statea 



Stationary. 

110,000 

37,805 

55,054 

8,946 

9,160 

4,459 

2.300 

140 

1,500 

11,942 

5J38 

3,000 

250,044 
60,300 



Riilway. 
13.480 
7,031 
9,850 
3,660 
3.580 
1,540 
1,320 

220 
1,000 
1,080 

5i0 
1,100 

44,301 
17,815 



Ships. 

5,247 

387 

266 

227 

81 

119 

324 

23 

20 

34 

94 

575 

7,397 
1,779 



Total 


Ratia 


128.727 


33-7 


45,223 


11-8 


65,170 


17 1 


12,733 


3-3 


12,821 


S3 


6,118 


16 


8»944 


1-0 


383 


01 


2,520 


0-7 


13,056 


3-4 


6,372 


1-7 


4.675 


1-2 


301,742 


78-9 


79.894 


211 



The World . 310,344 62,116 9,176 381,636 100 



424 



STEAM. 
D. — ^HoBSK-PowER OP Natiohs (1880). 





Thousands Omitted. 




HoM 










Ratio. 


p«rrIOOO 












Fixed. 
2,200 


Bailwsy. 


Ships. 


TotaL 


86-9 


lahah. 


Great Britain 


3,400 


8,180 


7.780 


880 


France 


906 


2,387 


220 


8,513 


121 


W 


Germany . 


1,321 


2,860 


144 


4.325 


14-9 


96 


Bonia 


237 


1,070 


58 


1.365 


4*8 


17 


Austria 


157 


1,075 


48 


1,280 


4*4 


30 


Italy . 


54 


377 


49 


480 


17 


18 


Spain . 


48 


3:10 


105 


483 


17 


30 


Portugal 


3 


55 


8 


66 


0-2 


16 


Switserland 


48 


228 


5 


881 


0-9 


101 


Belginm 
Holland 


382 


181 


32 


595 


2-1 


110 


60 


90 


66 


816 


07 


54 


Scandinavia 
Earope . 


40 


220 


156 


416 


1-4 


48 


5,456 


12,273 


3,071 


80,800 


71-8 


«7 


United States . 
The World 


1,987 


5,345 


820 


8,152 


882 
lOOO 


158 


7,443 


17,618 


3,891 


28,958 


80 



E. — Steam Locomotion. 



Year. 


Railways, Miles. 


British 

Ratio, 

per Cent. 


Steamers, Tons. 


Britis • 

Raiti't, 

perCsnt 


The 

World. 


British 
Empire. 


AUFlsgs. 


British. 


I&IO . . 
1840 . . 
1850 . . 
1860 . . 
1870 . . 
1880 . . 


878 

5,231 

24,490 

67.060 

130,170 

230,238 


220 

838 

6,853 

13,6:39 

24,172 

39,221 


25 
16 
28 
20 
18 
17 


28,400 

116,000 

392,000 

820,000 

1,918,000 

5,644,000 


21,600 

95.000 

188,000 

502,000 

1,203,000 

3,108,000 


75 ■ 
88 , 

48 ' 
61 
62 
55 



F. — Remarkable Steamsuips. 









Speed, Roglish 


Name. 


Tons, Gross. 


Ilorse-power. 


Miles per 
U Hoiin. 


Bervia 


. 7,800 


1,000 


440 


Alaska 


. 6,9;i2 


1,800 


467 


Parisian 


. 5,359 


800 


384 


Arizona 


5,147 


1,200 


438 


Germanic . 


. 5,009 


760 


410 


Britannic . 


5,004 


760 


410 



The "Times" of July 18th, 1883, had an announcement 
that Messrs. John Elder & Co,, oi Glasgow, were building 
two steamers for the Cunard line, Liverpool to New York, 
with these dimensions : length 500 feet, beam 57 feet, depth 
40 feet, each being 8000 tons and 13()0 horse-power. See 
Passages, 






X 


— ToKS Made. 






Ttiou 


■udaOnlttad. 




isS" 


1B10. ]ni. 


Gxit Britun 


49 


846 1,780 


United Stats 






64 1,374 


Gvttauij . 






170 ees 


FrMc 






94 418 


AoMrik 




22 


aa 176 


Bdmu 






9 296 


BalKiiim . 






10 13S 


S«ad» . 






6 37 



B, — WOHKS AND CONVERTERB IN 1881. 






QiMt Britain 

Vaitad Statu . 

te: ; : : : 
Kn" : ; ; 


23 116 
20 36 
23 81 
10 23 
e 24 
4 18 
10 35 


Total .... 95 333 


C— Exports of Stsbi^ Tons. 

ExpoTlKltHna 
G. Biltaln. Oermuij. 
1S60 . . . 1K,000 1,270 
865 .. . 31,000 2.400 
870 .. . 48.000 86,000 
876 .. . l.'iG.OOO 122,000 
1881 .. . 894,000 361,000 


D.— Tb-nbilb Test op Stbel. 


A>r8» 
Eq.t»ch Bt«ln,Ton« B.t.ialm, 
HMUon. p« Bq. Inch. Inch«. 
1«000 13«3 -01 
-9799 16-96 '10 
■9331 23-43 '40 
-8741 27^ 1-00 


ttq. Inoh BtniD, To 
B«tiaTi. par Bq. In 
'83-J6 28-36 

■7088 2r-3a 
■6541 2S-06 


Eliitic limit .... 17-40 ton*. 
Muimam itnin . . 28'3S „ 
Brckkintlcwd . . . 25-OS „ 


CDhMioD . . . 
EiteDuoo. . . 


Taking the strength of Sn 

strength of ateel compares thn 

S-wlbhiTon ... 100 

Boilwitagl ... lis 


edisli iron at 100 

Chi.nof..teol . 
Spring .tad . 



2.S00 
2,200 
1,300 



426 



STEEL. 



A bar of chrome 8tee1, half-inch squared and 5 inchef 
long, gives a strength of 141,000 lbs. per sqaare inch, being 
37 per cent more than carbon steel. 

•The nominal strength of steel is 30 tons per square inch, 
but Professor Siemens shows that it is really 36 tons. 

E. — Transversb Strain. 

A steel bar, 1*02 inches square and 4} feet long, gives the 
following results : — 

Weight, 
I.U. 



Weight. 

Lba. 

50 

100 

200 



Deflection, 

Inchn. 

-065 

•118 

•240 



500 
1,000 
1,400 



Defleetlon, 

lDeb««. 

•611 

1^66 

2746 



F.— French Admiralty Tests. 

Minimum Brtaking Load, 

Iron Plate.. LU. ®*~l„ch**^ 

Common . . 52 0*16 to 6*24 

Better . . 62 0*24 „ 80 

Best ... 64 0'80„ 1^ 



101 
97 



The plates supplied by Messrs. Cammell of Sheffield, for 
7 French ironclads, were subjected to 36,000 foot-tons of 
energy, viz. : — 

Shot, 760 lbs.; charge, 150 lbs., fired from a 12-inch 
gun, with velocity 1425 feet per second ; range, 264 feet 

The plates in question were 11 feet long and 7 feet wide, 
by 18 inches thick. 



Ton*. 

67,000 

108.000 



G. — Steel Shipbcildixo. 

On the Clyde. 
T«ns. 

1879 . . . 18,000 1881 . 

1880 . . . 42,000 1882 . 

At the end of 1882 there wei-e 143,000 tons of steel 
vessels on the stocks, the largest being the Oregon, 7400 
tons. A steel ship can carry 20 per cent, more than one made 
of iron. 

XL — Steel por Railways. 

Consumption, Toiui p«r Annnm. 





Now Lines. 


Renewal. 


T..UL 


United SUtes . 


1,200.000 


iOO.OOO 


2,100,000 


Great Britain . 


00,000 


160,000 


220,000 


Continent, kc 


680,000 


055,000 


1.335.000 



Total 



1.910,000 1,715,000 3,655,000 




STILL-BIRTHS—STORMS. aV 

Three-fourths of the steel anntully produced is for rail- 
vays, the lines working in December 1882 being estimated 
u follows : — 



Iron . 


. 110,000 
140,000 


1*.400,000 
20,000,000 


ToUl . . 

United 3t>t«> . 
Ora>( Britain . 


. . 260,000 

iriin. 
100,000 
18.000 
127,000 


31,400,000 

TooiRdli. Tom per: 
12000,000 lis 
3.30a000 180 
19,100,000 ISO 



ToUl . . 200,000 34,400,000 137 

The life of an iron rail is 16, that of a steel one 40 years. 
Slcel eleepe-s cost ^£100 a mile less than creosoted timber. 

STILIrBIRTHS. 

A. — In Orukb oy Months, Batio. 



J.nn..7 ■ 
Febmiiy . 
M.reh. . 
April. . 


. 106 M«7. . .68 Septerabw. . 
. 106 JuD«. 98 Ootobn 

. 100 Aorui ■ ■ M DMxmber . . 
B.— Per 1000 Dirtus. 


89 
100 
101 
107 


Fnnca 
G«iTn«ny . 
Aoitria 


. 46 1 lUlT . . . 31 1 S««d«i . . 
. 11 UalUud . .43 Narwuy . 
2B 1 Belgium . . 40 1 BwiUerlind 


29 
K 
44 


The ratio i; 
1000. 


n France from 1830 to 1845 was only 30 


per 



8T0B1I8. — Tlie most destructive in the United Xin^ilom 
have been : — 

1703, November 27lh.— Damage in I^ndon, £2,CO0,O0O. 
On the coast 12 war-shipe sunk, and 1800 men lost. 

1775, October 29tfa. — Almost equal to the above. Houses 
blown down and ships sunk. 

1639, January 6th. — Many houses blown down at Liver- 
pool and Dublin, and 200 persons killed at Liverpool. 

1659, October 25th. — Great loss of shipping, including 
the " Royal Charter," near Holyhead. 

1879, December 28th.— Tay Bridge blown down; loss of 
90 lives. See Wttid'pratitn. 



428 

STRAW. 



United Kingdom 
France 
Germanj . 
Bauia • 



STRA W-^UGAR. 



Produetion, MiUiont of T<m$, 



10 
17 
16 
42 



Anatria 
Ital^ 
Spam 
Belgium 



14 

7 
7 



Holland 

Denmark 

Sweden 



STREET ACCIDENTS. 
STRENGTH. 



2 I United States 
See Cahs, 



A. — COMPARATIVB SCALB. 



Ordinary man 
Byron's Gladiator. 



100 
173 



Fameie Hercalei . 
Horse . 



1 

2 

2 

20 



.%3 
750 



R — Tensile and Transvebsb. 

A crushing force of 1000 per square inch on a bar 1 inch 
square and 12 inches long gives the following ratios of 



strength : — 














Tensile. 


Transverse. 




Tensile. 


TraniTerse. 


Stone • 


100 


10 


Cast iron 


158 


20 


Glass 


123 


10 


Timber 


. 1,900 


85 



Sec Steel and Metals, 



SUGAR 



A. — Production, Thousands op Tons. 



•Germany . . 606 

Cuba. ... 620 

•Austria . . . 460 

•France ... 390 

British colonies 340 



•Russia ... 240 

Java . . . 190 

Manilla . . 180 

Brazil ... 150 

•Holland, &c. . 115 



French colonies 
United SUtes . 
Egypt, &c. . . 
All beet . . . 
AU cane . . . 



105 
90 

285 
1.811 
1,860 



The above is for 1880, but the crop of 1885 exceeded two 
million tons cane and 2^ millions beet sugar. 



B. — Consumption : All Nations. 



Tons, 


Lbs. per 




TbouKands. 


liihab. 




United Kingdom 1,050 


68 


Spain and Port. 


France 360 


21 


Belg. and HoU. 


Germany . 430 


21 


Scandioaria 


Bussia. 240 


7 


United States 


Austria 240 


14 


Colonies 


Italy ... 90 


7 


Total 



Tons, 


Lbs. per 


Thousands 


. Xnhah. 


45 


5 


70 


16 


90 


22 


. 990 


43 


. 65 


• • • 


. 3.670 


• • • 



* Beet sugar: the rest cane. 




SUGAR— SUICIDE. 



4^ 



Ab a general rule the coneumptioii of sugar per inhabitant 
is regarded as an indication of the public wealth. The in- 
cieased consumption in Great Britain hu kept pace with 
the growth of wealth and income (q.T.) 

C — CoKBUMPnoN IN Great BaiTAiy, 

Tmr Tom. ^'^ ?" ^'' I" '^ •" 



1705 . . 


12,000 3 


£3 £70 


IT30 . . 


41,000 S 


4 TO 


17fiO . . 


im,000 11 


6 70 


1780 . . 


77,000 14 


7 70 


1801 . . 


16K,000 S2 


30 aii 


1811 . . 


184,000 23 


27 n 


1820 . . 


143,000 16 


27 63 


1830 . . 


214,000 20 


24 49 


1840 . . 


188,000 16 


24 4S 


18M . . 


310,000 25 


10 40 


1860 . . 


430.000 32 


13 36 


1870 . . 


690,000 49 


S S3 


1881 . . 


1.060,000 68 


H 


Abont 70,000 tons are annuaUy consumed by brewers. 


soiontE. 








A. 


— Ater&ok Nchbeks Yearlt. 








p«iimioDiBh.b. 






lMl-«0. I«n-TT. 


iMi-aa UTi-n. 


BngUDd . 




1.167 1,614 


66 67 


RootbDd . 




140 


40 


Inluid . 




90 


17 


UniMd EiDidom 


1.844 


66 


FnuiM . 




.1,821 S,440 


100 166 


0««pwj . 




3,820 S,878 


120 143 


RnmT^ . 




1,960 


3S 


Auitrik . 




1,306 3,203 


4S 96 






644 


303 


IMj. . 




738 99S 


31 ar 


Bd^wn . 




139 388 


46 71 


D^mirk . 




434 490 


274 280 


Sw.d«n ud NorwT 


881 486 


76 81 


AnttnlU . 




233 


106 



Among the circunutances keeping pace more or less with 
tho increase of anicide {some or all of which may be part 
causes) are notable, the inciease of milwaya and commerce, 
the greater consumption of spirits and fiesh meat, the spread 
of secular education and infidelity, the rapid growUi of urban 
and decline of rural life, the higher ratio of insanity, the 
increase of wealth, the new system of divorce, and the 
keener struggle for existence in Europe, owing to the giwter 
density of population. 



430 



SUICIDE. 



B.— Suicide in Cmsa 

Average, 1871-80, per Annum per Million InhabiianU. 



Naples . . 


. 34 


Turin . . 


. 150 


Brussels . . 


271 


Borne . . 


. 74 


Berlin . . 


. 170 


Vienna . . . 


287 


London . . 


. 87 


Florence . 


. 180 


Copenhagen . 


302 


Genoa . . 


. 135 


Petersburg 


. 206 


Stockholm 


354 


New York 


. 144 


Dresden . 


. 240 


Pitfii . . . 


422 



Tho ratio is declining steadily in London, and also in 
some other cities. 

C — Decline in London. 



Tears. 

lWl-50. . 
1851-^. . 


Annual Per Million 
ATerage. Inhab. 
. 231 107 
. 257 100 

D. — INCREA81 
France. 


Tears. 

1861-70 . . 
1871-80 . . 

s IN France. 


Annual 
Average. 
. 268 
. 306 

Paris. 


Per MiUioQ 
Inbabi 
88 
86 


Tears. 

1830 
1850 
1860 
1870 
1880 


Per If illion 
Inhab. 
51 
103 
112 
133 
178 


Tears. 

1820-30 . 
18;U-40 . 
1841-50 . 
1851-70 . 
1871-80 . 


PerMUli^ 
luhabw 
488 
649 
673 
412 
422 



In 5 years ending 1880, no fewer than 238 children, 
under 15 years, committed suicide in Franco, 



R — Suicide according to Sex. 

Percentage. 



PereenUge. 





Male. 


Female. 






Mala 


Female. 


England . 


. 73 


27 


Austria 


81 




19 


Scotland . 


. 75 


23 


Italy . 




80 




20 


Irelaud . 


. 77 


23 


Switzerland 




88 




12 


United Kingdom 


. 74 


26 


Spain . 




71 




29 


France . 


. 70 


21 


Belnum 
Holland 




81 




19 


Germany. 


. 82 


18 




84 




16 


Denmark 


. 77 


23 


Sweden 




76 




24 


Russia . 


. 70 


21 


United States . 


72 




28 




F. — According 


\ TO Religion. 












Per MUh 


on Pmoixi. 












Pn 


>tc8tant. Caiholia 


General Ratioi 


United Kingdom 




63 17 




56 




Prussia 


• • 




170 52 




131 




Bavaria 


• • 




195 69 




102 




Austro-Hungary 




140 90 




96 




Switzerlanc 


I 




262 


81 




202 





Legoyt says the Jews have even a lower ratio of suicide 
than Catholics. 




G. — AccoRDisa TO Conditiok. 



HutM. nmnUTfKL Tttti. 



FtHIM. 




M 


64 


100 


Oennuir 




43 


87 


100 


SS" 




4S 
44 


S6 


!S 


Swittnluiil 




43 


67 


too 


H.— ACOOBDIHQ TO SBASOHB. 






™^- 




Winter. 


Twr. 


United Kingdo 


3T2 2M 


228 


1,200 


FnnM . 


33S 


367 262 


MS 


1200 


tei ; 


336 


368 262 


234 


^aoo 


3« 


370 Ml 


22» 


i^aoo 


Atutrit . 


S36 


m 263 


320 


1^300 


StwiD 


313 


4X 236 




l^MO 


BclEium . 


331 


356 278 




LlOO 


D*Dmuk . 


841 


374 m 




1,200 




333 


380 263 


220 


ilaoo 


Guerry classifi 


ea the ratio for days of the week 


in Em 


u followa : — 










8.nd.r . . 




96,Thandi7 . 






UoDday . 




loa ' Fridir 






TuMd«7 . 




110 ; siturdJir 






W.d»e*l.y. . 




104 1 A»eni«e 






L— \ 


loDEa OF 


Sdicidb: Pbhcbntaob. 








Eaulud. 







par CaaC [w Ceiit. fr C< 



K — Caches of SfictDiL 






Drink . 



Caspar eatiniatea 35 per cent, caused by drink in Germany, 
[jKinik 12 pi-T cent, ill Kngland, 



432 



SULPHURS WIMMING. 



Lk — SUIOIDB IN ABMIBa. 
Per 100,000 men, per annum. 





Army. 


CiTilians 
(Age.»-W). 


Bxess 


Britiih 


38 


11 


245 


French 


61 


20 


154 


Qerman 


64 


25 


156 


Belgian 


45 


10 


350 


Austrian 


85 


15 


467 


Italian 


30 


8 


275 


Swedisli . 


45 


12 


275 



In 



tt 
»t 
ft 
«t 
f« 
»t 



M. — Suicide in British Armt. 

Per 100,000 mm, per anmim. 



Infantry 
Artillory . 
Cayalry 


31 
50 


In England . 
In Colonies . 
In India 


94 
. . 47 


Age. U. Kinnrdom. 
20-25. 20 
25-30 . 39 


Colonias. India. 
21 13 
33 39 


Age. U. Kinfrdom. 
30-35. 51 
35-40. 71 


Colonica India. 
45 84 
81 103 


SULPHUR. 








Year. 

1820 . 
1830. 
1840. 
1850. 
1860. 
1870. 
1880. 


Export fl 

Sicily, 

Tons. 

. 18,500 

. 38,100 

. 77,800 

a5,ooo 

. 140,000 
. 173,000 

. 287,000 


-om Import into 
Great Britain, 
Tons. 
4,600 

► 12,100 
34,400 
33,500 
50,200 
53,300 
46,400 


Value 

Ton. 
£10 
8 
5 
8 
9 
6 
5 



The Sicilian sulphur deposits employ 18,000 miners. S^ 
Gunpowder, 

SUNSTROKE.— Deaths in England from this cause 
average 213 per million, or 1 in 4700 deaths. 



Tear. 

186,3-70 
1871-78 



Annual Average. 

Males. Females. 
. 57 9 



88 



23 



TotaL 

66 
111 



Per MUlloa 
Deaths. 
137 
213 



SWAMPS.— Franco has 800,000 acres of swamp, which 
cause much fever in the vicinity. 

SWIMMING. — Captain Webb swam from Calais to Dover 
in 1877, but was afterwards beaten by William Beck with in 



TAILORS'-T ALLOW. 



433 



a swimming match for 90 miles in 60 hours. Lord Bjron 
swam across the Dardanelles. 



Swimmer. 
MiMB«okwiih 
Bliss Parker . 
MissDioks . 
Miss Sftigeman 
Fr. CavU . 



f» 



Distance. 
London to Greenwich 
London to Blackwall 
Shoreham to Brighton 



»♦ 



«t 



Patnej to Blackwall 
Calais to Dover • 



Miles. 

• • • 

7 
6 

•» 
16 
23 



Time. 
95min. 



4hn. 
13 ,. 



Miss Beck with was only 14 years of age when she swam 
from London to Greenwich (1875), 



TAILOB& 

A. — NuHBKR IN United Ejnodom (1871). 

Female. TotaL 

38,000 149,800 

1,100 19,400 

1,600 20,300 



England 
Scotland 
Ireland 



Male. 

111,800 
18,300 
18,800 



U. Kingdom . 148,900 



40,600 



189,500 



Per 10,000 

Inhah. 

67 

59 

38 

60 



Great Britain 
France . 



B.— Tailors' Wages (1880). 

ShilUnggper Week, 

, 25 ; Oermanj . . 15 I Italy . 
. 21 I Belgium . . 17 | New York 



18 
58 



Tanic . 
TrouMre 



C. — Armt-Clothino in England. 

Ordinarp Waget, in Pence, 

, 38 I Frock . 22 I ToweU, dos. . 

. 14 i Cap . . 2i I Belt . 

A good workwoman earna about 4 shillings a-day. 

TALLOW. 

A. — Consumption in United Kingdom. 



4 

1 





Tona. 


Price, 
Tou. 


Value Connimed. 




Britiah. 


Imported. 


Total. 


Thousands 
omitted. 


Perlnhab. 
. pence. 


1830 


33,200 


56,600 


89,800 


£46 


Jt-4,140 


40 


1840 


35,000 


56,300 


91,;i00 


43 


3,910 


35 


1850 


37,300 


62,200 


99,500 


39 


3,880 


34 


1860 


43,500 


71,800 


115,300 


56 


6,440 


53 


1870 


47.100 


77.200 


124,300 


43 


5,330 


40 


1881 


49,400 


59,100 


108,500 


35 


3,800 


27 



a* E 



434 



TALLOW'-TARIFP. 



B. — Exports of Tallow, Tohb. 

From 





Ruasia. 


U. SUta^ 


BiTtr Plate. 


▲oalnJia 


1890 


66,400 


2,200 


8,600 


• •• 


1860 


40.300 


14,100 


45,300 


6,900 


1870 


21,100 


35,200 


62,400 


25,300 


1880 


10,400 


44,300 


23,300 


32,100 



C. — Production and Consumption of Tallow in 1882. 

Tons. 









" 








Prodoo- 


Oonaamp- 
tion. 


SurplusL 


Pd&dt. 


Oonaanm> 
Uonlbaw 




wM^^mMm 


wA^#aA* 






perlaJbaU 


United Kingdom 


49,400 


108,600 


• •• 


59,100 


6i 


Fcanoe 


40,200 


93,400 


• •• 


53,200 


H 


Oemianj . 


56.400 


107.300 


• • • 


50,900 


5 


Russia 


116,000 


105,500 


10,500 


• • • 


H 


Austria 


42,000 


42,000 


• • • 


• •• 


3 


Italy . 


11,200 


11,200 


• • • 


«•# 


1 


Spain and Portugal 


i 11,500 


11,500 


• • • 


• • • 


U 


Holland 


7,000 


51,400 


• • • 


44,400 


28 


Belgium 


6.000 


15,200 


• • • 


9,200 


6 


Scandinavia 


16,000 


18.000 


• • • 


2,000 


4| 


Europe 


355,700 


564,000 


• • • 


208,300 


H 


United SUtes . 


330,000 


106,000 


224,000 


• • • 


H 


Other Countries 


60,000 


75,700 


• • • 


15,700 


••• 



745,700 745,700 
In Russia, Holland, and United States, lard is included. 

TARIFF. 

A, — Import Duties, General Average. 



United Kingdom 
France 
Germany 
Russia . 
Austria 
Italjr . 
Spain . 
Portugal 
Holland 



Ratio to 
Tmporta. 
per Cent. 



18 
5 
11 
24 
26 
1 



Sbillingn. 
per luhao. 

12 
8 
4 
3 
2 
4 

(; 

10 
2 



Belgium 
Denmark . . 
Sweden k Nor. 
Europe . . . 
United States . 
Canada . . . 
Australia . . 
Brazil . . . 



RaUoto 

Importa. 

per CenU 

9 
12 

7k 
28 

15 

13 

44 



Argentine Kepub. 37 



ShilUngS 
per inhabk 

4 

10 
8 

,J* 

13 
42 
15 
31 




TARIFF. 
E. — DuTtBB ON English Cotton Goods. 



Cbina, OalUM 
Indii, QoMDilud 

C!*p«, FmJm', '. 
Tumuia, 8. Autnlik 
tJnunkj, W. lodiei 
HBwloiuid'--' 



Beldam, OrMM , 
HoUud, Nav ZuliBd 
Aaitrik 

ViotoiU, Chiii '. 
BmU . 
ArgcDtiDa Hapnblii 



C. — Bamaa Tabipfs bikcb 1580. 
Satia of Dvlia to 7oCaI Import*, 



FirC«it| Tui 



ParCantl Tmt. 



D. — Principal Items of BRtnsa Takifp. 

DiaUs EKprttted {■ Shiilitigt. 



Blanks in the above table signify duty-free. Grain wu 
Bubject to importniueB on a eliding scale, according to market 
prices in Great Britain, down to 1846. 



4.t6 TA XES. 

TAXES. 

A. — National ahd Local Rktkhues (1881-82). 





ThD 


uaodiOmllUi 


FarlDhft- 




lUUoot 




NiUonid. 


Lo»l. 


TqUI. 


ahuiiD^ 




£85.683 










10 








144.61B 


77 


96a 




Oarmiuij 




90,320 


13,270 


103,590 


46 


850 


12 


































Sl»^' '. 




M,200 


20.100 




62 


292 






31,600 




40,700 






21 










8,200 


39 


4B 




HotI«.d 




8,*)0 


2.100 


10.500 


62 


104 


JO 


Belgiuro 




11,400 


2260 


13,650 






11 


















8wed..nd Nor. 


7,020 


3.460 


10,480 


3a 


104 




£652.627 










13 


UnileJ SUtei 


75,600 


84.200 


159,800 


61 


1.420 




TotM 




l:V,2«,12r 


i:2':4.Hl 


£8,'>2.2<;8 


46 


6,744 


121 



(For British Colonies, Brazil, &c., see Financt.) 
The national taxes for Germany include the buclgets of 
Prussia, Bavaria, &c 

B. — IXCREASE OF TaXATIO!! IN GrBAT BRITAIN AND FraM-E. 



1830 . . 
1840 . . 
1850 . . 

1860 . . 
1870 . . 

1882 . . 






Fr.nc.- 


.Vstloul. 


L«,l. 1 T.,U1. 


Mtlonil. 1 Looil 


Totjil 


£55.600 
69.360 
60,800 
71,100 

76,400 
85,700 


£10,820 £66,320 
10,240 69.600 
11,050 66.850 
14,960 86,060 
21,300 99.700 
38,100 123,800 


£39,600 
40,400 
65,200 
66,300 
72,900 

112,300 


£7.100 
8,800 
11,700 
18,100 
21.300 
32,400 


£46,700 
6.1.200 
66.900 , 

86.600 
94,20OH 
144,700 ! 


Shillingt prr InfiahilanL 



r 






iS 












4M 








22 





2ii 

27 


- i 


.•a 








40 




60 


17 1 



Til* flgixm m Uia« ol ISOV. tba jxv befon 



I 



I 






C. — Taxatioh oomfared with Eabmikgs. 



,-,. 


HUU«u£. 




TuiUoa 


B«i.l>g.. 




nnltad 


Fiuca. 


kSSKI 


p™. 


»°^ 


»»n^ 


IMO. . 


70 
100 
121 


6S 
M 
US 


540 
9S0 
1,247 


480 
SOS 

9efi 


130 
104 
10« 


ll'B 



D. — Taxes and Revbnuks op United Kikodom. 



Tltaiitandt OmiUfd. 



< 



Ciutiitiw 
Eiciu. 
Stun pi 
Tu« . 
Poat-Offlce 
SaDdriei 


£12,062 
30,140 
7)080 
8.870 
1,140 

ins 


7,016 


£M.461 
20,361 

8,044 
12.828 

3,310 


£21.629 
21,763 
9.248 
14,544 
4.770 
3.680 


£19,326 
25,300 
11.300 
U.900 

5,669 


Nutiiuitl 
Lue.1 . 


9;450 


£59,365 
10,240 


£71.090 

mIbso 


£76,434 
241300 


£8U2ee 
38,100 



Total . £71,064 £09,609 £86.040 £99,734 £119,385 
R — Incidebcb op Taxahon (1880). 

RtTQDuA, TbouUDdi Omitted. Auflued iDpldBDM 

■ ■nperlnL Loal. TouL lUlllDnaX Tuitlaik. 

Englimd . . £61..1I6 £31.060 £92.376 486 188 

Scotluid. . 9.990 3.663 13.663 66 S4'4 

InWd . 8.676 3.368 11.943 36 33-2 

V. Eingdom £79,881 £38,091 £117,972 678 20'3 

The real incidence of all taxation b better shown by com- 
parison with the people's earuings, viz. : — 



Engliind 
Bcotluid 

InUnd . 



i,04r' 



Uoittt] Kingdom . 118 1.247 9-6 

The above does not include " sundiiea," which belong to 
Imperial reveaue. 



438 



TAXES. 



F. — IifPERiAL Taxation AcooRDnro to 

United Kingdom (Thouiands Omitted). 



Class. 





Rich. 


Middle. 


Working. 
£16,244 


TOUO. 


ExqIm . 


. £1,620 


£9,310 


£27,174 


Customs 


. 1,201 


6,808 


11,287 


19,896 


Stamps . 


6,490 


5,136 


730 


12,356 


Taxes . 


. 7,010 


5,025 


720 


12.755 


Post-office . 


860 


6,380 


1,060 


8,300 



Total. 
Batio 



. £17,181 £32,659 £30,041 £79,881 



21-5 



40-9 



37-6 



1000 



Jnddcnee on the Rich. 



Ratio 



England . 
Scotland . 
Ireland . 

U. Kingdom 



NumDer* Thousands. MllUon i. Per Head. 

966,000 £14,190 286 £14 14 

121.000 1,816 30 15 2 

72,000 1,175 14 16 6 6 



On Income. 
4-96 
6t)5 
840 



England 
Scotland 
Ireland . 



U. Kingdom 



1,159,000 £17.181 330 £14 16 2 516 

Incidence on Middle-eloM. 

xr,..nVw>«. Taxea, Income, 

Numbers Thousands. Million £. 

7,654,000 £25,324 381 



Ratio Taxes. 



967,000 3,930 

860,000 3,405 



49 
34 

464 



England 
Scotlaud 
Ireland . 



9,481,000 £32,659 

Incidence on Working-class. 

Vi.»«Vw>M Taxes, Income, 

xsumDera. Thousands. MUIion£. 

17,490.000 £21,802 374 

2,646,000 4,244 46 

4,228,000 3.995 36 



Per Head. 

£3 6 2 
4 14 
3 19 2 

£3 8 10 



On Income. 
6-70 
8-02 
10 02 



7-03 



Ratio Taxea. 



Per Head. 

£1 4 10 
1 12 1 
18 9 



On Inoonae. 
581 
9*23 
1110 



U. Kingdom 24,364,000 £30,041 456 £14 7 6*63 

The numbers of each class are determined according to 
the results of Legacy-returns for 1877 in the three kingdoms. 
The lightness of taxation on the working-class in England is 
very remarkable. 



G.— ] 





Amount, 


Year. 


Thousands 




Omitted. 


1688 . 


. £780 


1701 


. 1,083 


1730 


. 1,380 


1770 


. 1,690 


1780 


2,070 


1790 


. 2,420 


1803 


5,348 



LE8 OP 


England and Walks. 


ShiUinga 




Amount, 


per 


Year. 


Thousands 


luhrtb. 




Omitted. 


3 


1813 . 


£8,647 


4 


1830 . 


9,540 


5 


1840 . 


8,020 


.5 


1850 . 


8.910 


5 


1862 . 


12,210 


6 


1868 . 


16,100 


11 


1880 . 


31,060 



Shillings 
per 
Inhah. 
16 
14 
10 
10 
12 
15 
24 




TAXES. . 



439 



H. — Ekoland and Walib sihck 1817. 
lioulmd* OmiUeiL 

Rata, As. ISIT-M IHO-ei. IMS. ISTR. 1K1. 

Htibnj . . £1,230 £1.410 £l,»aO £1.707 £1,821 

Poor . . . 6,000 S.3S0 7,418 7.943 7,070 

SonitUT, fte. 1,230 3^000 7,320 21,1S9 32.M3 

ToUl. . . £8,S00 £9,760 £16,«I8 £30,899 £32.434 

L — PooR-RATffl iM England and Walks. 

Bantal Poor-nU Fuar-nia 

Vi^wtlaD. par & par Inb*b, 

£14,aiO,000 16d. 41d. 
94,M0i00O 
30.300.000 



PartuL 
1702-14 
1760-78 
1783-83 
.1M3 . 
IBIS . 
1816-20 
1830-3S 
1842-M 
1861-60 
1861-70 
1871-80 
1880 



euo!Sob 

1.020.000 
2,060,000 
4,060,000 
6,100,000 
7,310,000 
6.742,000 
K.290,000 
10,000 



36,100,000 
63,800.000 
68,200.000 
76,900,000 
90,400,000 
IO9.60O.00O 
134,300.000 
167.300.000 
191,lS0l0OO 



27d. 
27d. 



I2d. 



116d. 
74d. 



6,740.000 
7,710,000 

e,oin,ooo 
The sboTQ shows only the rates expended o 
the Foot'»te often rose 00 per cent, higher, aa it included 
police and other items. The valuation includes many items 
of real estate not liable to Poor-iato, and is therefoi« much 
higher than the nominal Poor-law assedsment, since it is made 
up thus in millions £ :' Houses, 964 ; lands, 61j ; railways, 
24J; mines, 10^; gasworks, &c, 8\. 

K. — Pook-Rates in Scotland. 





Per 




Prwr-Rat 




Pnupar. 


RanUl. 


porit. 


. £134,000 




£io,iao,ooo 


lOid. 


. 699,000 


£6 "i 


12,030.000 


nil 


. 767,000 


6 2 


16.320,000 


111 


. 806,000 


8 10 


21.240.000 


9d. 


. 849,000 


SCO 


22,330.000 


H. 



The above is the poor-law valuation. 

L. — Local Tasks in Scotland (1881). 



Toll! 



KipandlEnra. 

£Z882,000 Bargh board! . . i:3, 406,000 

1,349.000 Pirochul boudi . 1.022,000 

. 1,444.000 School, &■>. . . 2,247,000 



Total . . £5,676.000 ToUl . . £6,670.000 

Rates avenge 21 shillings, against 26 shillings in England, 

Er inhabitant, and 31 pence in the £ against 01 pene* >n 
igland. Local debt in 1882 (see Appendix) 
millions, or XS per inhabitant 



440 



TAXES— TEA. 







M. — Block's Ratio of Taxes. 








Percentage. 




Pereentag«L 




DiTectw 


Indirect 


Direct 


Indirect 


Great Britain . 15 


sa 


Spain .... 


44 


56 


FraDca . . 


. . 25 


75 


Switserland . 




:i4 


66 


Gennany 




. 34 


66 


Holland . . 




33 


67 


Bmtia 




. 20 


80 


Belgium . 




31 


69 


Amtria 




. 46 


64 


Portugal . 




30 


70 


Hungary . 




. 78 


22 


Denmark 




28 


72 


Italy . . 




. 61 


49 


Sweden . 




24 


76 


Greece 




. 48 


62 


Norway . 




• •• 


100 




N.— Russian Poli^Tax (1882). 










ThousandM Omitted. 




Peneeper 
HeML 


Clan. 




Number. Tax. 




Serfs 




21,602 £5,203 




ff7 


Proprietor 


■ . 


693 140 




48 


OotMcks 




663 170 




72 


Baschkirs 




484 100 




60 


Besaarabia 


nt . 


300 80 




65 



Total 



23,542 



£5,693 



58 



Year. 

1806 
1&J7 
1864 
1882 

TEA. 



O. — Local Taxes in France. 

Thoivands Omitted. 



Paris. 
£736 
2,760 
5,370 
9,805 



30 Cities. 
£401 
1,490 
2,461 
4,230 



Communes. 

£801 

4,034 

12,300 

18,403 



ToUl. 
£2,028 

8,290 
20,131 
32,440 



China . 
Japan . 
India . 
Java . 
Paraguay 



A. — Production. 

Millirin Lbs. 

290 

35 

52 

7 

10 



Total 



394 



Vslna. 

£11,600,000 

1,600,000 

2,800,000 

300,000 

100,000 

£16,300,000 



n.— 



Great Britain 
United States 
Australia . 
Ku.>8ia 
Various . 



Consumption. 

UUUon Lbs. 

167 
72 
14 
37 

114 



Os. per 
Iiii.aU 

73 

21 

81 
7 



Total 

See Food^ Table B. 



394 




TELEGRAPH. 44 

C — COKBUHPTIOH IN UhITSD KiNODOM. 

Uk., n_ Duty Pri»» 

Thou™d. ?^ir p.rLV, per Lb., 



!S : 


370 


1740 


1.003 


1750 . 


a.B68 


1780 


4,072 


1770 


7!h9 


1780 


S,1S2 


1790 


14.693 


1800 


20,359 


1810 


1».(»3 


1820 


32.492 


1830 


30.047 


1840 


32 253 


lew 


49,872 


1860 


78.340 


1870 


118.200 


1881 


167.700 



In 1878India supplied us with 17 per c«ni, and in 1682 vith 
23 per cent., of the total consumed in the United Kingdom. 



A.— Miles 


AND MBSSiOBS (1880-81). 




MaHvM. 








HllM Tl 


jSiSSd 




HUml T 


BitfS 


V. Kh«d™ . 26.500 


11,400 ' 


Hnico. . 


9,100 


700 


?r.nc«. . . 43,900 


19,900 


Biuil . . 


4.600 


300 


airni>n7 . . 44,600 


17,400 


R.Pliit« , 


6,300 


300 


fioHi. . . . 69;700 


7,300 


Cbili . . 


t^fiOO 


300 


Auitrin . . 34,200 


8.900 


P«n. . . 


lieoo 


100 


Itidj . . . 16,400 


6,600 


OcntnlAmor 


6,400 


soo 


SpuDUulPart. 12,900 
HolLBndbelg. 5.800 


2900 


Weit Iiicliei 


3,200 


300 


5,700 


Aoitnlui . 


26,900 


6,100 




2,800 


Indik . . 


22,200 


1.600 


Switmlwd . 4,300 


2600 


J.pu> . . 


Tsoo 


1,300 




1,000 


Jm» . . 


3,600 


400 


Bulg.*S«rrt. 2,300 


300 


Peni* . . 


3,300 


600 


QrKca. . . 2.500 


300 


CMhin.CI>ti.a 


1.200 


100 


Turkaj. . . IS.IOO 
United SUtei 121.200 


1.200 
34.300 


ffi.: : 


6,500 
4,300 


TOO 
800 


Cu>d>. . . 11,300 


1.200 

Sumr 


dpa Colonr 
lary. 


2,700 


100 






""* T 


b>j£rsi^itt*A. 


Eatop* . . 




284,100 


108,200 




An>riM. . 




168,300 


38.200 








26.900 


6,100 




AiU 




33,100 


3,900 




Alrie* . . 




12^500 


1.600 




CMn . . 




106,300 







442 


TELEGRAPH. 








B 


. — International Comparison. 








Maes of telegraph. 


Home y**** 
JJ«J5 Permlle. F 


a 




^ Per 100 


Per 100^ 


•riob 




•q. milee. 


inbab. 


pence. 


Inbabw 


tFnited Kingdom 


. 22 


74 


12 


1200 


89 


France 


. 22 


117 


6 


450 


63 


Germany 


21 


99 


14 


400 


39 


Buuia . 


3 


76 


38 


120 


9 


Auatria 


13 


90 


16 


250 


84 


Ital7 . . . 


14 


65 


14 


400 


23 


Spain . 


5 


61 


15 


240 


16 


Portugal 


7 


60 


16 


2160 


16 


Belgium 
Holland 


30 


60 


6 


750 


46 


12 


60 


6 


1280 


77 


Denmark 


16 


112 


16 


450 


60 


Sweden 


3 


115 


16 


190 


22 


Norway 


4 


250 


15 


160 


40 


Switzerland 


22 


160 


6 


620 


94 


Greeee 


13 


140 


9 


140 


20 


Europe 


7 


88 


13 


380 


33 


United SUtet . 


4 


240 




256 


00 


Canada 


1 


252 




106 


28 


Argentine Repnbl 


ic . 1 


280 




61 


15 


Brazil . 


1 


54 




66 


4 


Australia . 


1 


990 




190 


188 




C. — Telegraphic Cables. 






Date. 




Between 




Milea. 




1860 . 


Dover and Calaii 


• • 


25 




1852 . 


Holyhead and Dublin . 


65 




1866 . 


Ireland and Newfoundland . 


1.896 




1869 . 


France and West Indiee 


2,584 




1871 . 


Singapore, China, 


Australia , 


4,980 




1874 . 


Liabon and Braail 


• . 


6.840 





There are 330 submarine cables with a length of 105,000 
miles. There are 5 between Europe and North America, 
capable of transmitting altogether 100,000 words daily, but 
the traffic seldom reaches 50,000 words. 

Atlantic cables show a total average cost of £550 per 
mile, but others have not exceeded £200. Subterranean 
cables have been laid in Germany, 330 miles, at £450 per 
mile. Ordinary land telegraphs have cost £80 per mile. 
The total outlay on land and sea telegraph lines to December 
1882 was about 88 millions sterling. 



Year. 

1848 
1868 
1880 
1882 



D. — Remarkable MBSSAGEa 



Between 


Words. 


Minutas. 


Obaerrmtionft. 


London and Liverpool 


700 


65 


Queen's speech. 


Cork and San Francitco . 


10 


2 


• • • 


London and Aberdeen . 


800 


6 


• • • 


Birmingham and London 


7.300 


42 


Bri«ht*tapMdL 




TELEPHONES— TEMPERATURE. 
£.— Ikcbxui in Uitttbd Kikodom. 

1S51 . . . . 7,393 

1S62 . . . . E7,ST9 1,«16 2,676 

1S72 . . . . 87,719 6,179 16,909 

18SI . . . . 12I,U32 6,637 31,346 

TELEPHONES.— In April 1S82 the United States BeU 
Telephone Co. had 189,300 instniments working, with 
49,000 milea of wire connecting G92 ex ' 

TEUSOOPES. — See OUenatoriea. 
TEHPEBATTTBE 

A.— Thb Ska. 



B.^MODNIAINS (Ul'uboldt), 



FHt. 




3,724 M-07 1 


6,740 23-31 


9,029 30-07 i 


C— Boiling-point and Ba 


„ „ Pert 


8«>-l>Tal ... 


Bomo. . 




161 


HUu. 




420 


IIOKX.* . 




984 


OenaT* 




1,221 


Munich . 




1.765 


KMliid 




1.995 


Briuton . 




4,286 


St. Bcmii . 




6,266 


8t Oothim) 




6.808. 


Uoiiu 




7.471 


Bop.U 




8,731 


Quito. 




9.641 


Antimft . 




Ut466 



10,790 
16,744 
19,286 



28-64 
27-96 
2771 
26-39 
24-46 
23-07 
23-63 
2t42 
S0T6 
17-87 



TtiermomtUr. 
34-72 
49-63 
67-38 



213-0 
211-6 
211-1 
3J0-2 
209-6 
308-6 
S06-O 
S03-9 
2021 
199-2 
198-1 
195-6 
194-2 



444 



TBXTILES^THEA TRES. 



D. — Subterranean. 



A(«af«la 


_ ««j_. 


t>i\mm\«mtA 


..» %ai 


Well in Torksbire. 




xiOaeonoKo JKiii«. 


Depth, 
Feet. 


Fahrenheit 


Depth, 
Feet. 


Fhhr. 


Depth, 
Feet. 


Fahr. 


April. 


Jane. 


De& 


300 

600 

1.200 

1,650 

4,600 


48-8 
507 

61-2 
1200 


480 

600 

1,800 

2,200 

2,450 


64-5 
66-0 
80-0 
88-5 
94-0 



100 
200 
300 
350 


60 
45 
45 
43 
42 


70 
65 
65 
52 
46 


38 
41 
43 
45 
43 



See Meteorology, Thermometer. 
TEXTILES. See Manufactures^ Operatives. 
THEATEEa 

A. — Number and Ratio to Population. 



Great Britain 
France 
Italy . 
Spain . 



Number. 

. 152 

. 3:^7 

. 348 

. 160 



Per Million 

Inhab. 

4-4 

8 9 

12-5 

9-8 



Germany .191 4*2 

Russia . . 44 0*6 

Austria . .152 4*2 

United SUtet .550 10 3 



B. — Theatres of London and Paris. 



London 
Paris . 



Gross Receipts 
per Annum. 
£1,320,000 
845,000 



Expenditure, London, 

Pay to actors 

„ authors 

Rent 

Lighting, sundries, and profits 

Total . 

Paris theatres employ 3200 performers. 



Per 

Inhabitant. 
7 shillings 
8 



f» 



£725,000 

79.000 

119,000 

397,000 

£1,320,000 



C. — Number and Ratio Burnt, sincb 1800. 







Ratio to 






Ratio to 




Number 


Present 




Number 


PreMBt 




BuruL 


Number, 
per Cent. 




Burnt 


Numbrr. 
per Ont 


Great BriUin 


. 68 


46 


Germany . 


. 49 


26 


France . 


. 63 


19 


Russia 


. 25 


57 


Italy . 


. 45 


13 


Austria 


. 26 


17 


Spain . 


. 17 


11 


United SUtes 


. 176 


32 




THERMOMETER— TILLA CB. 

D. — LOM or LlFB FROM FlRt 

















46 




CmrlKUh* 






Singouft 






Leghorn 


101 


1794 


Chpo d'litrU 


MS 


1867 . 




1 13 
















Sc. PatonboT) 








7B0 


JS45 




l,B60 


188J . 


VinDIW 


1,460 


1S46 


Qu.l«o 


359 


1883 . 


amoluuk 


380 


THEBUOUETEB. 
















^v 




^SfKX. ; 







S2 




8 


10 
















il . 


24 


30 


87 


H 


Whing oggi . 




32 


40 


10* 



Water boil* . , . . t 
8ee Meteorology, Temperature. 
TILLAGE. 



A. — Abb4 fWDBE Crops. 










a™ 






Grata. 


Othtr 
Croi-. 


ToUl. 


k. 


Tilled. 


UnHllnd. 


United Kingdnm . 


10.SB6 


ia,M3 


22.878 


66 


29 


71 




















27,890 




m 


47 


93 






22,400 




•iTi 




87 


Auitria 


36,500 




B7.100 




:« 


67 
















Spain and PortOEat 

Belgium and HoUiiiid 




10.700 


29.600 


142 


21 


79 




1,700 


6,800 


61 


■/9 


Tl 
















Sweden .... 




8.200 


11,800 


262 


12 


88 








2,800 


159 


4 


96 
















Bonmaula, Ac . . 




3.100 


13.600 


190 




TO 


3W.R25 


ui.ao.'i 


483.028 


151 


lit 


81 






33,600 


1C6,»» 








Canada 


6.100 


e.ioo 




385 


] 


99 


Bras! 


400 


4,250 


4,650 


48 


1 


09 


Armntine Republic 


850 






84 


1 


99 


800 


1,060 


l.SfiO 


80 


2 


98 




4.400 


6.200 


10.600 


370 


1 


99 


Aleeria 

Tolal .... 


4,100 




7,2C0 


240 


21 


79 


477,.176 ' a)l,C33 ' 679,008 170 


6i 



446 



TIMBER. 






B. — Crops 


OP UNirKD States. 




MiUions. 








1850. 


1860. 


1870. 


Grain, Imiheh . 


868 


1,240 


1,388 


Potatoes „ 


66 


111 


143 


Yama „ 


38 


42 


22 


Bie^ lbs. ... 


215 


187 


74 


Tobacco „ ... 


200 


434 


263 


Hopt „ . . , 


3 


11 


25 


Hay, tons .... 


14 


19 


27 


Cotton, lbs. . . . 


1,162 


2,558 


1,460 



1880. 

2;699 

170 

33 

no 

473 

27 

35 

2,738 



For other countries see Agriculture, 



A. — Production and Consumption of Timber. 





Millions 


of cubic feet per annum. 


Annual 
Consumptioii. 










^^ 




Produc- 
tion. AU 


Consumptit 


!>n. 


Value 
(tbouMuds 


CnUo 
ft p«r 




Fire- 


Build- 


Total 




kindt. 


wood. 


lug, Ac 




omitted). 


Inhabw 


United Kingdom . 


140 


60 


395 


455 


£20.250 


12 


France . 


1.080 


850 


430 


1,280 


21,400 


33 


Germany 


1,450 


760 


COO 


1.450 


24,500 


32 


Buuia . 


6,400 


2,770 


3,:^60 


6,120 


56,300 


76 


Austria 


1,980 


1,120 


700 


1,880 


30.100 


51 


Italy 

Spam and Portugal 


480 


230 


280 


510 


12.300 


18 


200 


110 


210 


320 


9,400 


16 


l^lgium and Holland 


70 


20 


90 


110 


4.700 


12 


Sweden and Norway 


900 


320 
6,240 


345 
6,550 


665 


11,300 
£190,250 


102 


Europe 


12J00 


12,790 


41 


United SUtes . 


3,100 


1,420 


1,680 


3,100 


77,400 


58 


Canada . • 


310 


140 


80 


220 


5,400 


49 



Total 



16,110 7,800 8,310 16,110 £273,050 44 



B. — Consumption in United Kingdom. 



Tear. 


Millio 
BiiHnh. 


ni of cubic feet. 


Cubic feet 
per Inbab. 


Per load 
Duty. 


(50 cob. ft) 


Imported. 


TotiJ. 


Price. 


1790 . 


106 


11 


117 


8 


7a. 


70«. 


1803 . 


110 


12 


122 


8 


25a. 


90s. 


1811 . 


110 


14 


124 


7 


55s. 


185*. 


1^20 . 


115 


22 


137 


7 


65s. 


160c 


1830 . 


115 


28 


143 


6 


55s. 


150a. 


1840 . 


115 


41 


156 


6 


55s. 


150s. 


1850 . 


120 


85 


205 


8 


78. 


70s. 


1860 . 


120 


145 


265 


9 


4s. 


68s. 


1870 . 


i:«) 


252 


382 


12 


• • • 


66s. 


1881 . 


140 


290 


430 


12 


• • • 


62s. 








TIMBER. 






447 




C. — Prinoipal Kinds. 




Pj,W, 

Pin. . . 
Aldn- . 


DaDdV. 1 Cohadon. 
. . 0-477 1-97 
. . 0-493 4'U 
. . 0-6S9 3-48 
. . 0-«a 4-M 
. . 0«)3 7-10 
. . OVH 8-68 


Aowia. . 
Oak. . . 
Knh . . 
Baach . . 


Daaatty 
0-693 
a697 
0717 
0-S08 
0-811 
0-633 


Cobatton. 
6-16 

a-78 

7-93 
6-49 
4-30 
S-67 




D.— CoMPABATin STRlNOTtt 




K 


. . WO Bireli 673 Aab. . . 
Oii ... 1.000 


^ 


Falm. 

It 


Taan. 

. 2S0 

. aes 

. 388 

. 448 
. CIS 


Umon . . Sn 
Fl«» . . 720 
C«d«r . . 800 
Cbaitnut . 860 
Wal-ut . 900 
Lima . . 1,076 


apmoa . 
Oik 

OUT* 

Tew 

Baobab . 


Taan. 

. 1,300 


E- 


Scale pob asotbtaikino tbs Ag« or Thkes. 






locbaa DianMtor. 





Eacalyptns, or Australian gnm-trae, flometimes grows 24 
feet in 3 months ; bamboo, 2 feet in 24 hours. 

G. — RbXABCABLB F[.AIfTATION& 

FUnlar. Lsalltr. 5a. oltrmt. Ana, Aeraa. 

Dake of Athdl , Dnnkald . 38,000,000 16,600 

Kttl of Saallald iDvenieH . 60.000,000 40,000 

Fnneh OonnimtTit AJgari* , 13,700,000 130,000 

Among recent planters in Ireland is Lord Powerscourt, 

who began in 1869 and has now 2^ million larch and fir 

(some 20 inches girth and 40 feet high) in an area of 1000 

acres. The plants cost £2300, and the total outlay has been 

66 shillings per acre. He expects no retnm till the 26th 

year, and thenceforward 8 shillings an acts : the plantation in 

its 15tb fear will represent a, standing crop worth £50 an acre. 



44» 



TIME— TIN. 



TIMR 



At London, Noon. 







Forenooti, 






Boston • 


. 715 


Hayanna . 


. 6-30 


Quebec • 


. 71f 


Buenos Ay res 


. 8-06 


Lima 


. 6-52 


Quito. . 


. 6-45 


Caracas 


. 7*32 


Lisbon 


. 11-24 


&io Janeiro 


. 9-or 


Chicago 


. 6-26 


Madeira . 


. 10-48 


San Francisco 


. 3-51 


Demerara . 


. 8*06 


Madrid • 


. 11-46 


Sandwich Islands 1*28 


Dublin 


. 11-35 


Mexico 


. 5-24 


Sierra Leone 


. 11-07 


Edinburgh . 


. 11-47 


Montreal . 


. 7-06 


Teneriffe . 


. 10-52 


Falklandlslands 8*04 


New Orleans 


. 6-00 


Trinidad .* 


. 7-55 


Gibraltar . 


. 11-38 


New York 


'. 7-06 


Valpaxmiso. 


. 7-13 


Glasgow 
Halifax . 


. 11-44 


Panama • 


. 6-42 


Washington 


. 6-52 


. 7-44 


Philadelphia 


. 7-50 










Afternoon,* 






Alexandria 


. 2-00 


Genera • 


. 12-25 


Pekin 


. 7-46 


Algiers 


. 12-13 


Jerusalem 


. 2-21 


Borne. 


. 12-50 


Amsterdam 


. 12-20 


Lyons 
Madras • 


. 12 20 


St Petersburg 


. 2-04 


Berlin 


. 12-54 


. 6-21 


Singapore . 
Stocknolm . 


. 6-55 


Bombay 


. 4-51 


Malta 


. 12-58 


. 112 


Buda-Pesth 


. 116 


Manilla . 


. 8-03 


Sydney 


. 10-05 


Cairo . 


. 207 


Mauritius 


. 3*48 


Tunis. 


. 12-40 


Calcutta . 


. 5-64 


Melbourne 


. 9-40 


Venice 


.12-50 


Cape Town 


. 112 


Moscow . 


. 2-30 


Vienna 


. 1-06 


CoDstantinople 


. 1-56 


Naples 


. 12-57 


Yokohama . 


. 9-20 


Dresden 


. 12 54 


Paris • 


. 12 10 







TIN. 



A. — Production of Tin. 

Tons. 



Great Britain 
Australia 
Java . . . 

Total . 



Tin Ore. 

13,700 
24,000 
15.000 

52,700 



Tin Metal. 

9.200 

17.500 

9,000 



Value of Ore. 

£670,000 

1,250.000 

700.000 



35,700 £2,620.000 



Metal Ratio, 

Per Cent. 

66 

74 

60 

69 



B. — Production and Consumption in Great Britain. 



1 

Years. 


Tons, Tin Metal. 


Value 
Per Ton. 


Consumption. 


British. 


Net 
Import. 

• • • 

• • • 

450 

• ■ • 

810 
6,550 


Total. 


Tons. 


Lbe. p*r 
UH)Inbab 


1800-20 aver. . 
I 1821-40 „ . 
1841-60 .. . 
18H1 .... 
1871 .... 
1880 .... 


2,510 
4,180 
5,910 
7,450 
10,900 
9,200 


2,510 
4,180 
6,360 
7,450 
11,710 
15,750 


£76 
70 
107 
122 
1.36 
91 


1,260 
2.900 
6,360 
7.240 
11,710 
15,750 


15 
26 
51 
65 
84 
99 



" Dresden, for example, 12*54, signifies 54 minutes past noon. 




TITHES— TOBA CCO. 449 

TITHES. — In England and Walea 11,764 clergymen coI< 
lect ^054,000, of which £962,000 go to laymen. 

TITLES. — The fees in Great Britain for letters-patent 



Daka 




£3S0 


1 Bui . 


. £2W 1 Buon . . £160 


lumiu.. . 




TOBAOOO. 


A.— PRODUOnOM, 




United SUlM 


. . . eiwioo smobo 


Value of Crop. 
£10,600.000 


WMt Indie. 






isa,000 22,000 


3,300,000 


BnuU . 






10S.O0O 38,000 


1.400,000 


J*{«» . 








100,000 «i000 


1,600,000 


jSH . 








110,000 48,000 


1.700^000 


Iiidi> . 








680.000 170.000 


8,100,000 


Boaia. 








110,000 7B.000 


2,600,000 


AlUtTW 








140,000 6B,000 


3.300.000 


Tnriiey 








90,000 3S,000 


2,700,000 


airni*D7 








(3,000 32,000 


1.600,000 


FnuKW 








28,000 16,000 


900,000 


HuiiU>,JK. 






64.000 20,000 


1,100.000 


Total 


. 2.029,000 768,000 
B. — CoNsuumoN PER A^fHuu 


£36,700,000 




^"^ "SuK' 




'■»• '^i^ 


United EiDidom 


23,000 23 


Tnrk*7 . . . 


22.000 70 


Fnnc. . . . 


32,000 29 


Sviturbuid . 


7,000 82 


Oenou; . . . 


91,000 72 


Bnropa . . . 


383,000 44 


Buidk. . . . 


M.00O 24 


United 8ut«i. 


86,000 69 


Anilri. . . . 


8fi,000 80 


Indi. . . . 


166,000 30 


IUI7 . . . . 


18,000 22 


J»|>.n . . . 


38.000 30 


Bpain and Port.. 


18,000 32 


Bnuil . . . 


20,000 70 


B.I1I. uul HoU. . 


23,000 84 


Coloni-, Ao. . 


77,000 ... 


BMi>din>Ti> 




1 


1,000 


40 


The World . 


788,000 ... 



C. — Exportation fhom Unitsd States. 



1T90 

laoo 

1810 



L6S0 

1,100 
1.920 
3.610 



45Q -^ 



TOBACCO -TRADES' UNIONS. 



D. — ^Tobacco Crop op Unitkd Statbs. 



Aeret 

Crop, million lbs. 
Per acre, lbs. . 
Valae of crop . 
Per acre, ibillingB 



isn. 

580,000 

426 

734 

£8,760,000 

292 



1880. 

610,000 

460 

754 

£10,520,000 

344 



About 55 per cent of the crop is exported 



10 T« 

634,000 

473 

747 

£8,910,000 

281 



E.— CJONSUMPTION IN UnITBD KiNQDOM AND FrANCS. 





MiUionLbik 


Oaa. per Inhabitant 


Duty, Pence per Lb. 1 




United 
Kingdom. 


Prance. 


United 
Kingdom. 


France. 


United 
Kingdom. 


Fnuwe. 


1801 . . 


17 


• • • 


16 


• •• 


20 


■ • • 


1811 . . 


21 


20 


18 


11 


27 


6 


1821 . . 


16 


22 


12 


12 


48 





1831 . . 


20 


24 


13 


12 


36 


12 


1841 . . 


22 


36 


13 


17 


36 


12 


1851 . . 


31 


44 


18 


20 


36 


24 


1861 . . 


35 


56 


19 


24 


36 


30 


1872 . . 


41 


61 


22 


26 


36 


40 


1881 . . 


51 


70 


23 


29 


42 


1 *^ 



TRADES^ UNIONa 

A,— Bevans's List of Strikks (1870-79). 



Trades. 




Districts. 


Towns- 


Builders . . 


. 698 


Scotland. . . 473 


London . 


Colliers . . 


. 339 


York .... 338 


Manchester 


Textile . . 


. 277 


Lancashire . . 149 


Leeds 


Carpenters 


. 187 


Northaml)erlaud 138 


SheflSeld . 


Masons . . 


. 151 


South West . i;« 


Glasgow . 

Edinburgh 

Newcastle 


Various . . 


. 800 


Various . . . 1,119 


Total . 


. 2,352 


Total . . 2,352 



56 
44 
73 
66 
85 
65 
63 



B. — Howell's BalanceShket (1851-81.) 

Payments. 

Sick operatives .... £1,004,000 

Out of work do 1,979,000 

On strike do 274,000 

Pensions 330,000 

Funerals 319,000 

Accidents 120.000 

Loans 67,000 

Total . . . £4,093,000 




TRAMWAYS-TRANSPORT. 





A.- 


-British. 


»• 




SI. . . 


■xr 


amtlwd. 
60 


Inland. 
G2 


U.Kl,^ 














l-96d. 


l-34d. 


S'46d. 
























Da.pariDila 
Pnfit ou eipiUl . 


fi»l 


£1.440 






4-30 


»'40 


3-16 


4-91 



Capital, per nula £13,700 19,300 16,900 14,300 

B. — French. 

(1880.) Bam. FvrlUla. 

Bwtipti £1,080.000 £4,003 

BipoiiM* 1,039,E0D 3,851 

Profit 41,000 ISl 

Cental 4,330,800 16,040 

Net profit on capital less than 1 per cent 

C — Ahbbioak (tTNirm) Statbs and Canada). 

Lin 415 I HonM 100^000 

llil« . 3,000 MillioQ p>Mens>n 1,814 

Offlculi . . . 36,000 I Capital . . £31,000.000 

The liotses, last 4 years, draw 18,000 cars, and cousume 
uinaalljr 150,000 tons hay and 300,000 tons grain. 

trajitsfokt. 

A.-~Ska-borne Mebobamdisb (the World). 







"■""L"5B.Sr 


Omiltsd, 


- 1 




iMi-m 


im-M. 




itao. 
8-9 

SI 

0-6 
26-8 
3-9 
2-0 
2-4 
0-6 
20tl 
34-6 


Onin. 
Cotton 
Wool. 
HMt . 

Cotl . 
Iron . 
Bugmr. 
Clothins 

Tinbw 
BuuUia 




121 

12S 

14,200 

1^980 

i^aeo 

r,4io 

346 
16,170 
13,807 


10,078 

eos 
asi 

3S0 
23.100 
3,490 
£066 

2,m 

452 
21.216 
26,778 


10,530 

■•s? 

660 
30,400 
4688 
8.350 
2,816 
627 
23,550 
40,876 


8-1 
0-9 
0-3 
0-3 
263 
3-6 

a-3 

2-6 
0-6 
29-7 
25-6 


Tot» 




H.220 


80,340 


117,766 


lOOfl 


100-0 



"Suodiies" includes passengen' baggage. 



4Sa TRANSPORT. 

B. — Sea-borhi Uerchandisk asd Valub {tbx Woslo). 



In 1880 the freight earned averaged 16 sliilliiigs per ton. 
Bay 8 per cent of value. 

C. — Goods Tkafpio on Rulvatb. 







BiUlon T™* 


lab>biU?L 


TnffloofltM. 1 




1«0 


isio. 


im. 


isw. 


t™.p« 


pa- Tea 


United Kingdom 




107 

52 

m 
g 

25 
6 

4 
2t 

3 

4 


21S 
70 
137 
35 
47 
10 
7 
30 
4 
8 


103 
29 
49 
3 

14 
5 

98 
12 
12 
33 


124 
36 
Gl 

2fi 
7 
7 
lOS 
20 
20 
44 


13,400 
4.700 
6,600 
2.490 
3,900 
1,900 
1,*00 

11.B0O 
1300 
1.5S0 
3,700 


38 

80 
48 

106 
116 

M 


Germmnj . . . 


Au«ri» . . . 


Spain &nd PortusH 
BBlgium . . . 
Holiund . . . 
BciDdinnviu . . 
SwitterUnU . . 

Enrope . . . 
Uniled Bin let . 
Canada . . . 
Aagtrolia . . . 
Intlit .... 
South Americic 


398 
4 

I 


fiCO 
2;'o 

10 

4 
9 


27 
81 
25 

19 


35 

108 
45 
30 


3.2>M B3 

i.eso 1 ... 

900 
1.600 


T:M . . 




5C8 1 »il^ 






3,870 


« 1 



I'tiu freight cliaq,'e, "pcncu per too," in irre.'pcctive of 
distance, but in most countries it averaged one penny ptt 
mile (see Freight), the gross result being equal to 1 10 pence 
for 100 miles per ton. See Railways, Shipping. 



D. — Goods Traffic in France (18"7). 







Highnadi 




Bulvaji 


. 13,100 



>In^ 




TRA VELLERS. 453 

The above does not show the actual weight carried, but 
its equivalent, countiuf; 60 miles as a jonroey. " Highroads " 
are only the main roads, without counting 214,000 miles of 
other roads. 

TBAVELLEKS. 
A. — The railways of the world cany 146 million paseengeiB 

monthly : average fare, 19 pence ; average journey, 

21 miles. 
B. — The tramways of Great Britain, France, and Xorth 

America carry 130 million passengers monthly : 

average fare, 2 pence. 
C. — The steamers between Europe and North America carry 

70,000 passengera monthly : average fare, £5. 
D. — The steamers between Great Britain and the Continent 

cany 120,000 passengera monthly. 
E. — The monthly average of travellera arriving in Paris 

(not counting Banlieue or local traffic) is 1,200,000 

persona. 
F. — The French highway traffic, that Ib, of persons travelling 

in coaches, is 900,000 per montli. 
G. — ^The local traffic averages 21 million persons monthly in 

Paris, and 2S millions in London. 

H. — Paris Local Teaffic. 

ToiT. HDiitbly A'unse. lUtta to PopuIitloD. 

ISM ^,840,000 240 to 100 

1860 G,1K»;000 36fi „ 100 

1872 9,260,000 D30 „ 100 

U80 20,810,000 tttS „ 100 

L — Travellers in Switzerlahd (1679). 

KumlHr. Bun Spnt. Fir Hud. 

AnMrieani. . 210,000 Al,e80.000 £8 

KunUni . 160,000 1,600,000 10 

Oormua . . . 3SO.O0O 700,000 2 



K— Tbavxllers in Bossia (1870)i 



Total .... 388^000 
See Conveyaaeet, Paatmgen, RaUwayt. 



454 



TR UFFLES—TUNNELS. 



TBUPFLES. — Perigord produces 1500 ions per annuxD, 
worth £1000 per ton; 90 per cent are consumed in France. 

TUGKBOATS. — One tug on the Mississippi can take in 6 
days, from St Louis to New Orleans, boats carrying 10,000 
tons of grain, which would require 70 railway trains of 15 
waggons each. 

The tugs in Suez Canal tow a vessel from sea to sea in 44 
hours, and charge £200. 

TULIPS. — One root of the " Viceroy " sold at Amsterdam 
for £2600, and when a law was passed against paying over 
£500 for a root, a *' Semper Augustus " fetched £460, with a 
carriage and pair of horses. Holland has 600 acres under 
tulips, and exports the value of £110,000 per annum. 

TUNNELS. 

A — Existing Tunnels. 



Date. 

1827 
1835 
1843 
1870 
1879 
1881 



Tunnel. 

Harecastle 

Kilsby 

Thames 

Mont Cenifl 13,540 

Baltimore 10,800 

at. Gotbard 16,390 



Length, 

Yards. 

2,926 

2,070 

560 



Cost |>or 
yard. 

£154 

1,100 

201 

• • • 

152 



maJcing. zcet. 

TeUord 3 14 x 16 

Stephenfon . 27x24 

Brunei 11 38x22 

Grattoni 13 10x8 

Favro 8 9x8 



There is a tunnel of 5200 yards on the Sheffield and 
Manchester Railway, the longest in the United Kingdom. 



B. — In Construction. 



Tunnel. 


Length, 


Estimated 


Per 


Projfress, 


Aperture, 


BesruB 


yards. 


cosr. 


yard. 


feet tiaily. 


feet. 


y.ar. 


Channel 


40,000 


£3,200,000 


£80 


60 


• • • 


1882 


Mersey 


1,740 


350,000 


200 


30 


27x20 


1883 


Schemnitz . 


26,400 


• • • 


• • • 


3 


8^x7 


1782 


Hooaac 


7,900 


■ • • 


• • • 


. 


24x9 


IhTO 


Aarlberg . 


11,300 


1,800.000 


165 


38 


• • • 


1865 


Hudson 


l,aH3 


2,000,000 


1,100 


4 


18x18 


1880 


Com stock . 


6.160 


1.000,000 


ICO 


15 


10x14 


■ ■ • 


Panama 


7,000 


5,r<x),ooo 


800 


• • a 


100x150 


1881 


Messina 


14,800 


2,000,000 


180 


• • • 


• • • 


1883 


Hamburg 


800 


139,000 


160 


« • • 


• • • 


1883 



The only tunnel in Australia is the Belmore, 6 x 4J feet, 
progress one foot daily. The Schemnitz, in Germany, which 
is in progress since the eighteenth century, is expected to bo 
finished by 1890. The works of the Channel tunnel are 
suspended (August 1883), owing to opposition in Parlia- 
ment 






TURNIPS 


-TWINS. 




C- 


-BOBIHQ EnQIMBS. 






etimkH 




Ilm<L 


Inttntor. 


.& 


JMt. 


1813 


. Twrttbick 




1873. 


1803 


. BuUett . 




1873. 


1867 




400 


1873. . 


1863 


. S«li. 


400 


187B. 


1868 


. DaboU . 


300 


187S. 


86a 


. Frmncoii . 


300 


1876 . . 


869 


. BarLigh . 


400 


1876. 


869 




220 


187T. . 


1S73 


: M'kS^''. 


500 


1S77. . 



DtrlingtoD 
Famrax . 
Inganoll . 

TJUaChoms 
Bmanroal 



D. — Ubihods and RsBtn/n. 



Thunn . 
UoDt CdDil 

ScheniDlti 



Brunei 
Sommeillc 
H'Sean . 
Saehi 
Bnileigh 

Daboii 
Du-liagtoi 



*nanm Tun* 
>. ilq. In. BiaTmtad. 
4B.O0O 

90 340,000 

90 

60 46,000 

70 



Hndun . 
Boueluuiip* 
BdmoM 
SLOotbanl 

The Channel and Mersey tunnels employ Beaumont's 
compressed-aii boier. The cost of excavation was ^13 per 
ton of day in the Thames Tunnel, £11 per ton of rock in 
Mont Cenis, and .£9 per ton in St. GothanL Seo Diamond- 
drilL 

TUBKIF8. — The United Kingdom had in 1881 an area 
of 2,341,000 acres under turnips, yielding a crop of i7 
million tons, equal for cattle-food to 16 million tons hay. 

TUSEEYH. — There are 2,400,000 in United Kingdom. 



Bntfud . . 


. U-3 


B>Tuia . . 


SootUixl . . 


. 17 


RauM . . 


iTdud . . 


. 7< 


Anitiu . . 


FnQM . . 


. 01 


lUlr . . . 


PnuU . . 


2-6 


BwitMrlii..d 



. 141 

. lai 


IS™: : 


. 13-4 


Dtnnurk. . 


. 11-5 


Bwcden . . 


. la-o 


Norwaj . . 
iMUnJ . . 


8-4 



Twins give 108 males to 100 females. 



456 



TYPES^UNI VERSITIES. 



TYPES. — The Times uses 2^ million, the other morning 
papers not quite a million each in their daily impression. 
See Letters, 

TYPHUS. — Deaths from typhus in Vienna averaged 734 
per annum in the years 1865-71, but since the sanituy 
improvements of 1872 the average has been only 291 per 
annum : the general death-rate has declined 2 per cent rela- 
tively. See Diseases and Appendix, 



u 

UMBRELLAS. — The progress of this manufacture in 
France has been as follows : — 



Tear. 
1830 
1847 
1882 



Makers. 
160 
903 
890 



Valua. 
£280,000 
405,000 
1,180,000 



At an average of 4 francs it would be 7 J million umbreUas 
for 1882, or nearly one for each inhabited house in France. 

UNIVERSITIES. 

A. — General Summary. 











Students 




Universities. 


Professors. 


Students. 


per Million 
luhabitMUta. 










United Kingdom 


11 


344 


13,400 


390 


France . . . 


1 


180 


9,300 


250 


Germany . . 


21 


1,920 


25,084 


545 


Russia . . . 


8 


582 


6,900 


82 


Austria . . . 


10 


1,810 


13,600 


360 


Italy . . . . 


17 


600 


11,140 


405 


Spain . . . , 


10 


380 


16.200 


990 


Portngal . . . 


1 


40 


1,300 


405 


Belgium . . , 


4 


80 


2.400 


440 


Holland . . , 


4 


80 


1,600 


400 


Denmark . . 


1 


40 


1,400 


700 


Sweden. . . , 


2 


173 


2,010 


310 


Norway . . , 


1 


46 


830 


460 


Switzerland . . 


3 


90 


2,000 


700 


Greece . . . , 


2 
96 


40 


800 


560 


Europe . . . 


7.025 


106,964 


320 


United States . 


360 


4.240 


69,400 


1,280 



ToUl. 



• • • 



456 



11,265 



176,364 



480 




UNIVERSITIES. 



B. — UsivBBMTnts OF THx IJkitkd KmaDou (1876). 



Oxford . 

OuobrUgs 
I>>iblin . 
EdiDbufU . 
GUi^ow . 

St. Andnw' 



ADniul BapiBdltuta. 
£411,000 
340,000 
160,000 
S00,000 
90,000 
30.000 
17,000 



Besides the above, theie am the univeisities of London, 
Durham, Manchester, and the new Koyal Unirereity of 
Ireland. 

C. — Incomsb or Oxford and CAHBRmoK. 





Vo. 


"— 


-"« 


Oitord. 

24 
40 

480 


brtd^ 


Oilord. 


Wdgl 


Oxford. 


Qun- 
hrid«,. 


Plllldp.ll . 

Profanon . 

Sehoten. . 
Libnri«i,&o. 


IT 
36 
430 
7W 


£33,000 
24,000 

102.000 
44,000 

211.000 


£20,000 

33.000 
172.000 


280 
92 


E1.200 
330 
240 
42 


T..U1. . 


904 


1,273 


£414.000 


£340.000 


1220 


£135 



The endowments are £260,000 per annum in Oxford, and 
^£235,000 in Camhridge, the rest being made up of varions 
levenaes. 

D. — CaHBBIDOI KA. GKADnATIB. 

T«r. Ko. I Ttu-. No. i Tw. Vo. 

IMO . 7 1620 . .271 1830 . . 324 

U30 . 40 162S . . 316 1836 . .314 

ISQO .60 1618 .174 1840 . 330 



E. — Imdum CoMrBTirrrx ExAUBATioNa (Winnkbb). 

PvCml 
Oxford itndaDta . . , . ,28 

Ounbridfa itadwiti ..... 24 
Dnblin Xadanti ..... 17 

Scotch UiuTenltiia ..... 14 
Lcadou, Cork, l». . , , . .17 



458 



UNIVERSITIES— VEGETARIANS. 



F. — Labobst Univsbsitibb. 



Founded 
A.D. 


Univenity. 


ProfeMon. 


Stttdanta. 


1206 


. P&ris 


180 


9,300 


1365 


Vienna . 


. 160 


3,976 


1810 


Berlin 


. 142 


4,100 


1409 


Leipsio . 


. 120 


3,110 


1224 


Kaplet 
Buda-Pesth , 


. 110 


2,960 


1635 


141 


2,375 


1582 


Edinburgh 


43 


2,320 


1472 


Munich . 


82 


2,017 


1257 


Cambridge 


36 


1,920 


1280 


Oxford . 


40 


1,860 


1765 


MOMOW . 


117 


1,620 


1476 


Upeal . 


104 


1,480 


1479 


Copenhagen 


60 


1,400 


1303 


Borne 


60 


1,300 


1240 


Salamanea 


40 


1,300 


1638 


Hanrard . 


■ • • • 


• •• 



The University of Paris has 2500 law students, 2800 
medical, 1500 science, and 2500 belles-lettres. 



G. — German Univbrsites. 



Berlin 

Leipsie 
Munich 
Breslau . 
Halle 
Tubingen . 
Bonn 



4,300 
3,100 
2,300 
1,600 
1,400 
1,400 
1,200 



MairictdaUd in 


1883. 






Oottingen 


1,100 


Greiswold , 


. 710 


Wurzburg 


1,100 


Erlangen 


. 690 


Heidelberg 


1,020 


Jena . 


. 620 


Konigsberg 


910 


Kiel . 


. 410 


Marburg. 


820 


Greiisen 


. 400 


Strasburg 


800 


Munster 


. ;i20 


Freybnrg 


780 


Kostook 


. 2'JO 



111 the German universities the students are 89 per cent 
Germans and 1 1 per cent, of other nations, Americans being 
1 per cent. 

H. — Russian Univebsities. 





Profs. 


Students. 




Profa. 


StudentSL 


St. Petersburg 


. 45 


1,200 


KieT . 


. 92 


780 


Moscow . 


. 117 


1,600 


Kazan 


. 67 


620 


Warsaw . 


. 76 


1,020 


Kharkov 


. 62 


540 


Dorpat . 


. 66 


710 


Odessa 


. 54 


390 



VEQETABIANS.— Death-rate in India is 205 among the 
vegetarian population, per 1000 persons per annum, and only 
1 '89 among non-vegetarians, a difference of 8 per cent 




VIADUCTS—VITAL STATISTICS. 



LtnttO, No. of Bpan, eiight, Wfillh, .J?f?~. 

i-t A.ch«. i^ i-wL r^t. f^f" 



Tb^tot 




Btotkport. 


1.792 














LUogoUen 










1.286 


Kinni.(N.T.) 2,050 







The KinzoB, built b; Mi. Barnes, aeeina to have coat about 
30 pence per cubic yard, employing 2000 tons iron and 7000 
tons masonry, supported by 20 iron piera, and costing alto- 
gether £62,000. The Cantal, under the direction of M. 
Eiffel, approaches completion : estimate, £120,000. 

VnnBTA&Da See Winea. 

VITAL STATISTICa 

A. — Decadb KHDmo 1880. 

P»r 1000 labtMUala p«r Annum. Midlam PopL, 



Engluid . 
Smtlind . 
InUad . 
U. Eincdon 

OcmuuiT. 

BuDgUT . 

lUlf 
DaDEDU-k 



Omttted. 

24,110 
3,613 
6,343 

32,»6S 

42,727 



B. — UnITID KlKODOlf. 



1841-M 
lSSl-60 
1861-70 
1871-M 

lSW-60 
IWI-TO 

isri-80 



BItthi. Baatbi. 



18.940 
21.8SO 
34,110 

3,030 
3,202 
3,613 



46o 



VOL UNTEERS^ WA GES. 



C. — French Rates since 1800. 



Yean. 


BirthA. 


Deaths. 


Increaae. 


Uarrfaffea 


1800-10 . 


. 31-9 


27-7 


4*2 


7-6 


1811-20 


. 317 


26-0 


67 


7-9 


1821-30 . 


. 30-9 


25-0 


6-9 


7-8 


1831-40 . 


. 29-0 


24-8 


4-2 


8-0 


1841-50 


. 27-4 


23-3 


41 


8-0 


1851-60 . 


. 26-3 


23-9 


2*4 


7-9 


1861-70 


. 26-6 


23-0 


3-6 


8-0 


1871-80 . 


. 25-6 


24-3 


1-3 


7-9 


D. — ^United States Natural 


Increase. 




Yaara. 


Percent 


Years. 




Per Ceni. 


1790-1800 . 


. 34-1 


1841-50 


• • • 


28-2 


1801-10 


34*4 


1851-60 


• • • 


24-2 


1811-20 


. 32-5 


1861-70 


• • • 


15-4 


1821-30 


. 31*8 


1871-80 


• • • 


22-8 


1831-40 


. 281 









The above shows tlie net increase after deducting for 
immigration : see page 361. 
See Birtlis, Deaths^ MaiTtages. 

VOLUNTEERS IN QREAT BRITAIN.— The foUowing 
table shows the roll and number of efficients : — 





Roll 


Efficient. 


EfTectiTea in 1882. 


1860 


. 160,300 


106,400 


CaTalry . . 600 


1865 


. 226,700 


133,800 


Engineers, &c. . 8.800 


1870 


. 245,000 


170,700 


Artillery . . 37.800 


1875 


. 238,300 


168,700 


Infantry . . 159,500 


1880 . 


. 243,500 


196,900 





Total 



206,700 



WAGES. 



W 



A. — Diocletian's Tariff (a.d. 303). ' 

Englith Pence Daily, without Food. 



Shepherd . 


. 10 


Labourer . 


. 10 


Painter 


• 30 


Ass driver . 


. 10 


Mason 


. 20 


Smith. 


. 20 


Baker . 


. 20 


Carpenter 


. 20 


Stonecutter 


. 25 



The pay to a brickmaker was 12 pence per 100, to a 
sheep-shearer 80 pence per 100, to a common schoolmaster 
30 pence per month, to one who taught Greek or geometry 
100 pence per month for each pupil, and a lawyer's fee was 
600 pence. The tariff was for the empire. 






B 


— Waqeb in Eholand, pkb Ahhdm, NomsAL. 








WOOJM. 


«,"?•. 


uoo 




£10 £0 16 


£013 


£0 8 


MO 






ICO 10 


016 


12 


8 


«W 






112 16 


10 


14 


10 


HO 






116 1 10 


16 


16 


13 


600 






2 6 I 16 


113 


10 


018 


ew 






SOD 40 


2 10 


112 


14 


700 






6 SO 


4 


3 


2 10 


7» 






8 6 10 


S 


4 


3 


800 






ao 16 


12 


8 


6 


860 






40 £6 


30 


10 


BOO 


1880 






63 36 


30 


16 


10 




C 


— Saub Table in Weight op Silvxb. 








BilUff. BheplMn]. 
■3 6 6 £117 






Boy. 


lOO' 


f 


£18 


£0 18 6 


eoit 


BOO 




3 9 3 


1 11 


12 


IS 6 


600 




3 11 3 


116 


13 


10 


700 




6 6 B S 


4 4 


3 3 


2 12 


800 


'. i 


10 16 16 


12 12 


S 8 


6 6 


1880 


. B 


3 36 


30 


15 


10 




D 


—Same Table in 


PtJRCHASINO VaLDK 










I-b«ir«r. 


Woman. 


Boj. 


i«o' 


£ 


7 7 £8 18 


£4 S 


£3 


£3 4 


IBOO 






» 12 7 16 


6 


4 4 


3 


1600 






7 10 6 


6 6 


S 6 


3 


1700 




1 


3 10 


BOO 


6 


5 


1750 




1 


8 12 


9 10 


7 10 


6 14 


ISOO 




2 


8 22 8 


16 16 


11 4 


8 8 


1880 




S 


3 30 


30 


16 


10 






E.— Artisan's Waqeb is Esqland. 








ShUlinai 


perWret 








Ymr. 


BlMkmlth. IC 


«D. Cupimtor 


Pluiobw. £5^^ 




1740 


16 


6 16 


18 


13 




1780 


17 17 IB 


IS 


12 




1830 


24 211 20 


25 


16 




1840 


31 23 SO 


22 


18 




1860 


. . 28 30 26 


30 


20 




U 


BO 


32 35 30 


3B 


24 



F. — EABMiKas OF British Workimo-Clabses (1862). 

M"-""- sst^' ^rr™ 



EngliiHl 
ScoCluid 



6,131.000 

929,000 

1,483,000 

U. Kincilom . 8,642,000 



£61 2 
49 10 4 
24 7 



46a 


WAGES. 






G.— Waqbb in France, Pbncb Dailt. 






1700. 1750. 17»0. 1810. 


i»a 


IM. 


Printer . 


18 20 25 SO 


25 


35 


Painter . 


15 18 20 85 


22 


33 


Carpenter 
Tailor . 


15 18 20 35 


22 


35 


10 15 18 30 


20 


28 


Blacksmith 


15 18 20 30 


25 


35 


Builder . • 


15 18 20 35 


22 


35 


Bootmaker 


10 16 18 30 


21 


28 


Plumber . 


15 18 20 35 


22 


33 


Baker 


10 15 18 30 . 


20 


33 


Milliner . • 


6 8 9 10 


13 


20 


Laundress • 


5 6 8 10 


13 


18 


Farm-labourer . 


8 10 12 18 


20 


25 


Woman „ 


4 5 6 9 


10 


15 


Buy 


2 2 3 4 


5 


7 





H 


• ^ 


-BiSE ( 


OP Agricultural Wages. 






Day-Laboorer, 


In-Door, per 


Female da, per 




Pence. 


Annum. 


Annum. 






1835. 


1880. 


1835. 


1880. 


1835. 


18S0. 


England . , 


20 


30 


£12 


£20 


£6 


£9 


Scotland 






16 


28 


9 


18 


5 


8 


Ireland . 






8 


18 


5 


10 


2 


4 


France . 






15 


25 


8 


12 


3 


6 


Germany 






8 


18 


4 


10 


2 


5 


Russia . 






6 


12 


3 


8 


2 


4 


Austria . . 






10 


20 


8 


12 


2 


4 


Itely . . 






4 


10 


2 


6 


1 


3 


Holland . 






9 


20 


6 


10 


3 


5 


Belgium 






9 


20 


6 


10 


3 


5 


Scandinavia 




8 


14 


4 


8 


2 


4 


United States 




• • • 


• • • 


20 


27 


15 


22 





I. 


Artisans' Wages in 


1880. 






1 
1 
1 


Shillings per week. 


1 

i 

1 


Great 
Britain. 


France. 


Belgium. 


Qerniany. 


Italy. 

1 


New 

York. 


CliicAga 


Printer . 


32 


20 


19 


20 


16 


54 


62 


Painter . 


32 


21 


18 


16 


19 


54 


38 


Plumber . 


33 


23 


25 


15 


16 


G2 


66 


Tailor . 


25 


21 


17 


15 


18 


58 


50 


Shoemaker 


31 


20 


14 


13 


18 


62 


56 


Carpenter 


33 


23 


23 


16 


17 


44 


42 


Mason 


35 


17 


25 


15 


15 


56 


33 


Smith . 


31 


23 


18 


15 


16 


50 


44 


Tinsmith 


28 


18 


20 


16 


15 


50 


44 


Baker . 


27 


23 


18 


15 


16 


• • • 


i'2 


Collier . 


24 


15 


14 


16 


• • • 


• « • 






K. — Wagbs IK Ukitbd States. 





limK».ofIN>Un. 


PwOpmUT,, 


In^BMrlios.) 


MM. 


IWO, 


mo. 


isao. 


IW). 


IBKL 


isro. 


IBM 




7 


8 


14 


14 


fil 


47 


63 


U 




e 


8 


14 


16 


46 










3 


3 


ft 


b 


62 


HI 


61 


68 






9 


Ifl 


n 


BO 


67 


C6 


67 




















N*« York . . 


12 


57 


118 


vm 


49 


66 




73 


74 


IW 


210 


227 


49 


66 


72 


70 


49 


66 


Hfl 


19S 


62 


63 


72 


79 






16 


M 


m 




nn 


80 






37 


60 




134 


S2 




74 


TO 


D«U>ua . . 


1 


2 


4 


4 


60 




70 


62 


WddU . . 


7 


7 


13 


» 


60 


62 


68 


64 


103 


160 


320 


402 


61 


68 


72 


76 


S 


» 


9 


n 


35 


m 


49 


41 




2 


3 


R 


5 


44 


6ft 


62 


42 




6 


















2 


3 


n 


A 


34 


60 




47 




2 


4 


K 


4 


B6 


7H 


36 


60 


Vuioo.. . . 
Sonth. . . 


4 


S 


12 


16 


44 


62 


48 


60 


20 


» 


45 


S3 


fiO 


67 


45 


47 














65 




IlliDrii . . . 


3 


8 


HI 


67 


60 






76 




3 




21 


99 


69 


<n 


60 


77 




















Miuoari . . 





7 


HI 


V4 


64 


7« 




70 




4 


6 


IK 


n 


68 


60 


B7 






















lMinii«TCt>. . 






4 


« 






60 


70 


Varioiu. . . 


8 


38 


3S 


38 


68 


60 


63 


70 


W«i . . . 


38 


M 


210 


270 


S8 


60 


64 


70 


■nwDniuii . 


235 


382 


786 


661 


61 


68 


69 


73 



L. — AuERicAN Wages and Makufactdsbs Couparbd. 

Batio o/ Watie* U> Manv/aetura pTodnad. 

auiM. IBM. iseo. liTo. 1*80. i^^^JJSJ; 

NawEugUnJ . . 26 22 21 21 22 



South . 
Vnioii . 



464 



WAGES. 



M. — ^Relation bbtwskn Wages and Food. 







BhilUngs p«r weak. 


BaUo. 1 




WagM. 


Food. 


Smrplna* 


WilffM. 


Fbod. 


Bmplni^ 


Giwl Britain 


31 


14 


19 


100 


45 


55 


Fnnoe . 




21 


12 


10 


100 


57 


43 


G«niuuij 




16 


10 


6 


100 


02 


38 


Belgium 




20 


12 


8 


100 


60 


40 


ItalT . . 
Spun . 
XTnitadStatM 




15 


9 


6 


100 


60 


40 




16 


10 


6 


100 


62 


38 




48 


16 


82 


100 


33 


67 


Anitralia 




40 


11 


29 


100 


28 


79 



N. — Cotton Mill Operatiyis' Wagbsi. 

ShiUiHffi per wedt. 
Bngkad. 



Sisen . 


. 36 


Wearen 


. 30 


Picker* 


. 15 


Strippers 


. 17 



United 
BUtet. 




KngUnd. 


Vnlled 
StMea. 


40 


Oardboji . 


14 


10 


35 


Doffen 


15 


16 


28 


Warpen 

Winders . 


15 


16 


28 


15 


16 



O. — Woollen Operatives. 

ShiUingsper Week. 







England. Fkance. 


BelKlnm. 


Germany. 


U. States. 


Sorter 


24 22 


10* 


5* 


44 


Carder 




24 11* 


S* 


8* 


25 


Spinner 




12» !!• 


— 


12 


26» 


Dresser 




24 16 


12 


7» 


54 


Weaver 




30 24 


18 


12 


35 


Fireman 




26 19 


15 


— . 


35 


Carpenter 




33 27 


15 


— 


52 


Engineer . 


40 27 


18 


16 


75 


P.—Vi 


^AGEB IN Massachusetts 


(1882). 




Ifanufactura. 


0P«"*'^«^ ^^uSS. 


Earned, 
per Head. 


Pencet 
perDaf. 


Cottons . 


59,700 


306 


£54 


42 


Boots 


37.100 


271 


79 


69 


Woollens . 


22,600 


301 


65 


52 


Metals 


18,300 


294 


88 


72 


Machines . 


11,600 


303 


102 


81 


Clothing . 


11,500 


294 


73 


no 


Sundries . 


47,100 


•281 


89 


63 


Tota 


1 . 


. 207,900 


291 


75 


62 




' Female*. 








WAGES— WARS. 465 

Q. — Wages or Wobuno-Clabbbs, UHinn Kihodoh (Lkti). 



TaxUlM 
Building 
Clothiag 



Shipi and lUilnj* 



TotU ... 311 43 6B 419 

The above was for the year 1862, and ia no longer appli- 
cable. See TabU F. 





A.-WARa Since 1793 










Eipmditnn. 




Data 




MUUone. 


HUllona 
puADDum 


irJ' 


1TS3-18IS 


EDgUndudFnnoa 


. 1,260 


60 


1.900,000 


1828 . 


BDHik and Tarlte; 


20 


30 


120,000 


1830-40 


Spain and Portugal (e 


111) GO 


6 


160,000 


1830-(7 


Fnnea and Algeria 


38 


2 


110,000 


1848 . 


Buropa (flivil) . . 


10 


10 


6^000 


1861- OS 


England. Franu. Bouia . 306 


146 


486,000 


1869 . 


FiiDM and Aaitria 


46 


46 


63,000 


18e3-€A 


Unitsd Btatai (ai»il| 


740 


350 


656,000 


1866 . 


Pniiiia and Auitria 


20 


20 


61.000 


1866 . 


Fianu and Hcxieo . 


IB 


1ft 


66,000 


1884-70 


Bfaiil and Panguaf 


48 


8 


3:».000 


isro-71 


Fianna and Oannanjr 


3U 


■316 


290.000 


187ft-77 


ItoMiaandluikej . 


. 190 


190 


18(^000 
















3,04T 


36 


4,470,000 






P« 


.nnym. 


V«VA. 




LoaolLifa. 






1790-1820 


1,2S0 


1,W0,000 


42 


63,000 


laZl-lHSO 


118 


40aooo 


4 


16.000 


1891-1860 


390 


648,000 


3S 


66,000 


1861-1880 


. . 1,329 


1,672,000 


66 


79.000 



466 



WARS. 



Date. 

1599 « , 

1642-48 . 

1688-97 . 

1702-63 . 

1769 . . 

1776-80 , 
1793-1816 

1854-66 . 



Locality. 

Ireliuid . • 
England and Ireland 
Ireland and Holland 
Germany, Spain, ke, 
Canada • 

United States . 
France, ke. 
Crimea . 



B. — British Wars. 

Expenditure. 



IfillionajB. 

4 

67 

33 

182 

62 

121 

831 

69 

1^ 



Perlohah. 
£1 
11 

6 
24 

8 
13 
65 

2 



Commander. 



CromwelL 

William IIL 

Bfarlborougb, ke, 

Wolfe. 

Comwallia. 

Wellington. 

Baglan. 



Took field 



C. — French Wars. 



Date. 


Reign. 


i-«"*^- "i^rr* 


Commandar. 


1664-1713 . 


Louia XrV. . 


Flanders, ke. . 164 


Turenne, kc 


1733-63 . . 


Louia XV. 


.. . 82 
United States . 22 


Saxe. 


1778-83 . . 


Louis XVI. . 


Laf&yetteL 


1791-1815 . 


Napoleon . . 


Europe, &o. . . 266 


Buon&parte. 


1830-47 . . 


Louia Philippe 
Napoleon III . 


Algeria ... 38 


Bugeand, Ac 
Pellitsier. 


1854-56 . . 


Crimea ... 93 


1859 . . . 


i» • 


Italy .... 18 


IdacMahon. 


1866 . . . 


n » 


Mexico . , . 16 


Baxaine. 


1870-71 . . 


»l » 


Rhine .... 316 


Lebeof. 




D, : 


Russian Wars. 




Date. 


Reign. 


i-""'y- ^iSSf^'r IrJ!' 


1828 . . . 


. Nicholas 


. . Balkans . . 15 


86,000 


1854-56 . . 


• »» • 


. . Crimea . . 142 


330,000 


1876-77 . . 


Alexander II 


. . . Turkey . . 133 


110,000 


1878-80 . . 


11 


. . Khiva, kc. . 45 


21,000 



52 years 



335 



E. — War in the Crimea (1854^56). 



EngliBh. French. Turk. Russian. 

98,100 309,400 165,000 888,000 



Killed in battle . 
Died of wounds 
Died of sicknesn 
Returned home . 



By 
English 

French . 

Russians 



2,840 

2,700 

18,300 

74,260 



10,330 

11,100 

75,400 

212,570 



10.100 

10,800 

24,500 

119,600 



30,600 

42,000 

374,000 

441,400 



547,000 



ToUL 
1,460,500 

53,870 

66,600 

492,200 

847,830 



Shots Fimi. 

Blillions. KUIed. 

15 21,000 Russians 

29 61,000 „ 

45 48,000 Allies 



ToUl 



89 



120,000 men 



Si.otn to KUI. 
700 
590 
910 

740 




ffotjritol Btport. 



IHad. BwarwC 



ToUl . . 638,160 107,490 430,670 10 80 

F.— AmewcAH War (1863-65). 

Norlhent Jrmf. 
One«n. Whlla Han. Coloured. ToUL KMo. 

Took fleld . M,000 S;073,000 179,000 9,330,000 100 

Killed 3,930 38,790 1,S20 44,2M 1« 

Died of wonndi S;070 30.S90 1.046 34.00S 1-S 

„ ookDOH 1.730 121,110 86,100 149,030 6-4 

Mining . . 1,600 60,910 4,614 67,124 3-9 

Baturawl bolM 74,680 1,821,300 146,610 3,041,600 8T'3 
G. — CAMFAiaN OF Sadowa (1866). 

PmiaUna, Anitriuu. Tutal. 

Took field . . 309,000 330,000 £19,000 

KiUad .... 2.660 11,100 13.7S0 

Wonoded . 14,820 29,310 44,130 

Uiuing . 3,304 43.T90 47,004 

HDr»d*H»mbat . 10.774 84,160 104,934 

Ratnniad home . . £88,226 346,840 Ul,0e6 

The Prussians had one officer killed or TOtinded for 21 
men, the AoGtriaos one for 18 men. 

H.— Fha^co-Ckrkax Wab (1870-71). 



Took fidd . 

B«il>f0T<»Hl . . 


rrmch. 
. 430,000 

. sSftooo 


Oermuii. 
780,000 
223,000 


ToUL 

1,200,000 

613,000 


ToUl 


. no,oDo 


1,003,000 


1,713,000 






18,000 
UOOO 
12,000 
80,000 




D»dofwonna» . 

Dlubled 
Pruonen 


. 36,000 

4H00O 

. 116.000 

. 446/»0 


47;000 
67,000 
306,000 
446,000 


Hon-de-eombftt . 


. 684,000 


130,000 


814,000 




Kilttdand Wounded. 




Woerth 

OniT«lolt«. 
Puii . 
Orleuii, fc«. kr. 


. 32;000 
. 26,000 

. 30,000 
. 76,600 


11,000 
16,300 
10^100 
13,300 
67.400 


SSSb 

43,300 
48.600 
43,300 
133,900 


ToUl 


. 193,000 


118,000 


311.000 



468 



WATER^WATER SUPPLY. 



The Germans fired off 30 million musket cartridges and 
363,000 rounds of artillery, with which they killed or mor- 
tally wounded 77,000 French, being 400 shots to kill, as 
compared with 740 in the Crimean war (q. v.). See BaitlcM. 

1 cubic foot s= G2^ lbs. or 6^ gallons. 

Da sea-water = 64 lbs. or 6^ gallons. 

1 imperial gallon = 10 Iba or 277 cubic inchesL 

224 gallons « 20 cwt or 36 cubic feet 

A column of water, 12 inches high, 1 inch sq. = 0'43 llx 

A similar column, 1 inch diameter >- 0*34 lb. 

1 cylindrical foot = 4'9 gallons or 49 lbs. 

An inch rainfall = 144 million gallons per square mile. 

8 cubic feet snow produces 1 cubic foot water. 

Current requires minimum fall, one-lOth of inch per mile. 

WATER-POWER 

Niagara =10 million cubic feet per minute, say 3 million 
horse-power nominal, or 9 million real. 

Ticino (Italy), fall 530 feet, turbines 300 revolutions per 
minute, with static pressure 230 lbs. \yQX square inch. 

United States have 51,000 water-wheels, with 1^ million 
horse-power aggregate. 

WATEE-SUPPLY. 





MilUon 


Gallons 


Water 


Cost per 


Works, Cost, 




Gallons 


per 


per Ton, 


Annum 


Ihouasnds 




Daily. 


Inhab. 


Pence. 


per Inliab. 


Omitted. 


London . . 


. 145 


3S 


1-60 


9 


£12.100 


Paris . . . . 


88 


39 


1-02 


4 


2,100 


New York . 


88 


70 


• • • 


• •• 


2.500 


Chicago . . 


60 


120 


045 


7 


• • • 


Aneient Rome 


. 330 


100 


• • • 


• •• 


• •« 


Modem „ 


. 200 


670 


• • • 


• •• 


• « • 


Glasgow . . 


26 


48 


• • • 


• • • 


1.550 


St. Louis . . 


. 25 


70 


0-75 


7 


• •• 


BfarseiUes 


18 


50 


• • • 


• •• 


• •• 


BufiFalo . . 


17 


120 


0-40 


7 


■ ■ • 


Manchester . 


11 


20 


• •• 


■ •• 


1,320 


Liver|K>ol . . 


11 


20 


• •• 


• •• 


1,650 


Boston . . 


10 


27 


• • • 


• •• 


600 


San Francisco 


10 


42 


1-60 


22 


• •• 


Newark . . 


10 


80 


0-25 


7 


• > • 


Edinburgh . 


10 


33 


• • • 


• •• 


510 


Dublin . . 


7 


22 


• • • 


• •• 


610 


Melbourne . , 


7 


25 


• • • 


• •• 


1.600 


Hamburg . . 


5 


12 


• •• 


• •• 


. 170 



1 


||||ij|Ris^ig^a 


piiSI 


1 


■ 


pilgsssi^sss-- 


g23SS3 Is 


1 


gss--"— --""S i» 


§SB:i-!g 


1 

2 


S|gsas=;aE"'— — 


ES«g-s g 


ll 


|3SS3»il^SS2S"S- 


|S58sa 1 


ll 


sjgsgggssssiaassi 


53 ~ 


1 


1 1 il|lg|SSS5«ss5 


IpSHS 


a' 


ii s|?gss8issg=ssa- 




1 


If 1 EiSigSS=SRSa"s 1 


||B2SS 1 


1 


§SsS§s-=«^asas= 




|ij 1 |i|||iggg§s5saa 


§i§BBH § 










i;:;:;:::::::,; 

iiliiiiiliiii 


.2 


1 






B. 


- 


WiiLTH OF 


United Statis. 








UlUona£. 


lWlnlxUtut.A 1 


1B». 


UOO. 


ino. 


im 


IM. 


UMl 


IMt 


HkllM 


38 


~i» 


72 


90 


60 


110 


143 


New Hunpihire 






SS 


33 


03 


79 


96 


lao 


335 


Tannont . . 






18 


» 


49 


73 


77 


147 


816 


BbodabUnd . 






17 


S8 


63 


103 


160 


375 


365 








3S 


93 


161 


148 


WI 


298 


210 








lU 


168 


443 


495 


135 


303 


>7S 


ITa-fin^ud 






ZIS 


3S9 


840 


_ 987 


122 


8«0__ 


M7 


HtwYork . . 






224 


384 


1,3S2 


1.726 


99 


304 


338 










a 


98 


196 


IBl 


147 


215 


170 










IGD 


29S 


792 


1,188 


101 


226 


280 


D«Uwu« . 










9 


ao 


31 


80 


165 


ISO 


Huyluid . 








M 


79 


134 


158 


115 


168 


J6« 
S8fi 


Uiddlo SUtei 


466 


865 


3,SI4 


3,384 


_10B_ 


258 


VJrginiii. . . 






89 


166 


120 


130 


106 


75 


61 


North CmoUd. 








75 


M 


77 


7S 


M 


55 


South Cirolin. 






60 


114 


44 


41 


163 


62 


41 


Georgia . . . 






70 


134 


E6 


7S 


126 


47 


4!l 


Florida . . 










15 


9 


g 


105 


47 


33 


AUh»ma . 








48 


103 


42 


50 


107 




44 


HiHiuippi . 








48 


127 


14 


43 


159 


.'.3 


40 


Lomiium . 










120 


67 


El 


IHO 


91 




Teiiu . . 








11 


76 


M 


IDS 


IM 


40 


an 


Arknniai . 








8 


46 


32 


35 


104 


65 


4t 


Kentuoky . 








63 


138 


126 


133 


120 


V6 


to 










_^42 


loa 




117 


92 


83 


78 


The South 








540 


1,223 


~73C 


883 


USl" 


65 


58 


Ohio . . . 








1U5 


21£> 


4C5 


651 


107 


174 


2M 


Jlliouii . . 








32 


Ifil 


44! 


608 


1(S 


173 


199 


Hiuouri . 










104 


267 


SWI 


S8 


155 


128 


Indiana . . 








4-' 


110 


264 


;iw 


82 


'« 


153 










b 


01 


149 


198 


77 




123 


Michipin : 








12 


63 


149 


3!(8 


70 


122 


231 










9 


67 


110 


205 


71 




ISO 


Alinnciota . 












48 


127 


OG 


100 


1.S2 


KuiHJ . . 










6 


40 


77 


b5 


110 


77 


N.brMkft . 










2 


14 


33 


70 


115 


73 


Colondo . 












4 


15 




98 


™ ' 


The W»l 








SW 


824 


1.987 


Ml 


~90" 


IM 


170 


California . 








6 


43 


133 


272 


113 


aw 


3SH 


Oregon . . 








1 


G 


11 


IM 


120 




ion 


NsTtda . . 

Pacifie . 
Territorici . 










-^ 


6 


8 


lio~ 

82 


151 


\:ir. 


6 


21 


IW 
47 


2;i8 
52^ 


215 
103 _ 


2:o_ 


Nominal total 


1 <»r 


3.3i» 


e.W4 


8.393 


107 


liM 


"li» I 


Rundi, lnn.1), ti. 


"aoo 


BOO 


800 


1.100 


16 


21 

ISt 


»-' 


TuUl . 








l,C8ti 


3,SCG 


7.074 


9.49.-. 


123 


tm 



470 








WEALTH. 










B. — WsAttH OF United States. 








MiUlMisA 




I860. 


U0a 


1870. 


1880. 


180a 


U7a 


U80L 


IbiM 


96 


89 


72 


90 


60 


110 


143 


New Hampthire . 




22 


32 


53 


79 


96 


160 


225 


'Vcmoiit • 




19 


25 


49 


72 


77 


147 


216 


BhodelilAnd . . 




17 


28 


62 


103 


160 


275 


866 


Gmnecticot . . 




S9 


92 


161 


148 


201 


29B 


240 


llMnohiuettf 

KewfingUnd . 
New York . . . 




119 


169 


443 


495 


135 
122 


303 


272 
247 


235 


885 


840 
1,362 


987 


240 


224 


884 


1,726 


99 


304 


338 


New Jenej . 


1 




42 


96 


196 


191 


147 


215 


170 


PenmylTania . 


« 




150 


295 


792 


1,188 


101 


22S 


280 


Delaware • . 


i 




4 


9 


20 


21 


80 


165 


150 


Maryland . . 


t 




46 


79 


134 


158 


115 


168 


168 


mddie SUtea . 
Virginia. . , . 


466 


865 


2,514 


3.284 
130 


105 


258 


286 


89 


166 


125 


105 


75 


61 


North OaroUna , 




47 


75 


64 


77 


75 


50 


55 


Soath Carolina 




60 


114 


44 


41 163 


62 


41 


(Georgia .... 




70 


134 


56 


75 


126 


47 


49 


Florida • . 






5 


15 


9 


9 


106 


47 


33 


Alabama . . 






48 


103 


42 


56 


107 


42 


44 


Bfiaaiuippi . . 






48 


127 


44 


43 


159 


52 


40 


Louisiana . 






49 


125 


67 


61 


180 


91 


i'A 


Texas . . . 






11 


76 


33 


106 


126 


40 


ec 


Arkansas . , 






8 


46 


32 


.^5 


101 


65 


44 


Kentucky . 






63 


138 


126 


133 


120 


96 


80 


Tennessee . , 






42 


103 


104 


117 


92 


83 


78 


The South 
Ohio . . . 






540 
105 


1,222 
249 


736 
4G5 


883 
651" 


119 
107" 


! 65 


58 


1 ^'* 


20G 


Illinois . . 








32 


181 


441 


608 


105 


173 


199 


Missouri 








28 


104 


»i7 


281 


88 


155 


128 


Indiana . , 








42 


110 


264 


304 


83 


160 


153 


Iowa • . . 








6 


51 


149 


198 


77 


122 


12;i 1 


Michigan 








12 


53 


149 


388 


70 


122 


234 


Wisconsin 








9 


57 


146 


2a-> 


71 


139 


156 


Minnesota . 


a 






• • • 


11 


48 


127 


66 


109 


1.52 


Kansas . . 








• • • 


6 


40 


77 


65 


110 


77 


Nebraska 








• • • 


2 


14 


33 


70 


115 


73 


Colorado 








. . • 


• ■ • 


4 


15 
2,at7 


• • • 

90 
113 


98 
155 
2r»9 


76 


The West 
California . 


_2:« 

6 


824 


1.987 
133 


"1:0' 


43 


272 


32.S 


Oregon . . 






1 


C 


11 


18 


120 


122 


105 ' 


Nevada . . 

Pacific . , 
Territories . 


1 




• • • 


• • « 


6 


8 


• • • 

116 

82 

107 


151_ 
2i5_ 
lCtt_ 

ir.0 


i:« 


6 


49 
21 


150 


2l»8 


2:0 1 


. 6 


47 
6,274 


56 
8,395 


72 


Nominal total 


1.48>> 


3.3('.6 


ir« 


Roads, lands, &c 


200 
1.686, 


500 


800 


1,100 


16 

123 

1 


21 

; 181 


22 


Total 


4 


4 


1 • 


3,866 


7.074 


9,4*") 


i 1S8 




C — Batio or Ambrioam Wbaltb. 



New Eo(lMid 
Hiddia . 
Sonth 

WMt 

Padfid . 



D. — COMPOHKNTB OF AUBBICAX WsAAjTB, 



. Susdrisi. Tolml. 

3<I2 987 

1,DTS 3.2M 

97 883 

196 2,SS7 

M SM 



. 2,150 37S 1,190 2,780 1,841 
£. — Australian Wealth. 







HilUouiB. 






lUO. 1 1870. 


1*81 


18«. 


iBia 


im. 




62 
£9 
7 
63 
49 


89 
47 
27 
90 
67 


192 
66 
6S 
162 
113 


£41 
Z3 

42 
39 


14 
46 
S4 


£04 
22 
19 
64 
38 






HoBMt and faTDJiara 
llarchuuUM, ko. 




ToUl . . 




190 320 


m 


£161 


ei63 


£198 









11UII«» 






















Ishtb. 




t^d. 


Cttl. 


n™. 


wmyi 


8undH«. 


TO.U 


New South W»lci 


63 


w 


6t 


1ft 


36 


190 


£241 


Tietorik . . . 


69 


11 


67 


17 


38 


178 




















South Aiutralu . 


26 


A 


13 


6 


11 


69 


97 








B 


(1 


6 


40 




















WMtAoitnOU . 
ToUl . . . 


1 


1 




1 


1 


5 


48 


192 


66 


162 


68 


112 


GOO 


£IW 







F.— Growth 


or British Wxalth. 




T-r 


HUliuDi £. 


Par 






















1660 . . 


144 


48 


60 


aso 


£45 


EogUod. 






270 


87 


133 


490 


79 




17T4 




668 


184 


348 


1,100 


136 




1800 




sso 


S40 


6S0 




168 


O. BriUin. 






1,008 


358 


769 


3,190 


127 


D.Kingdunt. 






1,680 


770 


i,Bao 


4,030 


150 




ISM 






l,ld4 


S,&56 


B,560 


191 






1.880 


B,280 


4,MiO 


8,720 


249 


" 





Villlaiu£. 


Aliquot Put.. ( 


■"' 


IBM. 


ISM 


isn. 


IBII. 1 IM). 


IMO. 


in>. 


Lmd , . . 


1,066 








487 


417 


331 


SI -8 






















368 


770 


1,164 


■/■Ml 


16-2 


lil-1 


20 -S 


261 






33 








n-x 


6-3 






15 


23 


44 


1211 


07 




0« 


1-4, 




60 


70 


190 


3MI 


2-3 


17 


3-4 


4-0 1 


Furniture . 




390 


880 




8-2 




10-4 


131 




















Loini. . . 


105 


SSO 


420 


IIWI 


4-8 


57 


7-5 


1-2-2 ; 


Sundrie.. . 
ToUI. , 




.■193 


409. 563 


6-2 


9-8 


7-4 


6-0, 


2,190 


4,030 1 5,660 8,720 


100-0 


lOOD 


loo-o 


100-0 




— Distribution 


OF British ■Wealtii. 




UUUoiK 


£i»]S 




UIU.oii>£iiilB81. ^ 


3: 


Uod' 


iJId. 


"dfm* 


Em- ' Scot- 
Ui.d. , lii.d- 

1,403 207 
143 40 

2.007 213 

1,0« lOtt 
636 98 

1.9S5 320 

7,178 990 


I»- 
Und. 

270 
62 
60 
30 
35 

105 

M2 


O^K^B-, 


"IS 
80 
240 
120 


103 
10 
30 
15 

53 

210 


170 
15 
36 
18 

■57 

296 


990 
la^ 
sou 

153 
476 


l,8fi0 , 
2.2>« 

'« 

2.416 ! 


1.524 


2,030 


8.7-» 



Tho wealth ratios of the three kingdoms appears thus : — 



acotluirl. Iniluiii U. 



lOO'O 1877 

100-0 1880 

lOO'O IKS 
lOOo 




H. — CLuamoATON or Wui.th amc 
According to the legacy and Baccessiou returns for 1840, 
" n appean to have been held 



WorluDg . 
Total . 







par FtmOy. 


as, 883 


2,B07 


23,820 


782,100 


1,126 


1,439 


4.8*1.067 


191 


4t 



S,S!4 



. 5,210,000 

Accoiding to the retnnu for 1677, a great diffusion of 
wealth had taken place : — 

Cltn. PimiliK VlUluimX. P*r Fkmllr. 

Rich 232.600 G,72S 25,803 

Middle . 1,824.400 1,834 1.005 

Workii^ . . 4,620,100 398 86 

TdUI , . 6,676,000 7,910 1,194 

The average wealth per inhabitant in the three kingdoms 
rose between 1840 and 1877 aa follows : — 



I. — Wealth, Dkbt, and Taxation Cokpared. 




MUllgn.* 




BoUo. 1 




W-llh. 


D.bt. 


T«.tl™ 


Wialth. 


I..W. 


T^Hun. 


U. Kingd™. . 


8,720 


763 


124 


100 


B-7S 


1-43 


Kr««». . . 


8.060 


911 


145 


100 


n-so 


1-80 


Germtaij , . 


6,823 


220 


104 


100 


803 


1-65 


Kn»i.. . . 


4,343 


653 


85 


100 


i2'7n 


1-96 


Aii«tri» . . 


8,613 


419 


74 


100 


11 '64 


2-05 


i^ : : : 


2.351 


682 


71 


100 


22-22 


315 


1,598 


890 


41 


100 


24-53 


2-56 


S^ ■ ■ 


371 


04 




100 


25-40 


2-16 


U(>Cd ; 


808 


62 


14 100 


7-70 


174 


987 


80 


10 100 


8-DS 


1-01 


Deniuuk . . 


36S 


10 


4 


100 


2-80 


1-09 


Swei ft N.T. 


977 


80 


10 


100 


2-04 1 1-02 


Greece. . . 


211 


IS 


3 


100 


8-60 1-43 


UoitcdStatea 
Total . . 


88.721 1 4,071 


698 


100 


10-52 , 1-80 


9.495 833 


160 


100 


3-49 1 1 88 


43,216 4,404 


856 


100 


e-14 I 178 



I 



474 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



In ihe table of Wealth, Debt, and Taxation on the preeed- 
ing pa^ the debt does not include local debta, but the taxa- 
tion includes all taxes, lates, and zevenues^ national and locaL 

WELQiHTB AND MEASUBES. 



Aon, 4,840 iqiiare ynrcb. 
Almod, Tarkiih, 1*14 gaUont. 

„ Ptirtugiiete, 3*74 gillons. 
Amphont, Ronuui, 7 gallons. 
Ardeb, Sgirptiui, 280 Ibi. 
Arpent, 0*86 acre. 
ArrolM, 25 lU., 3) galloni. 
Bala, AnMrieaa, 485 Iba. 
Bruilian, 156 „ 
ttian, 600 



•t 






In^uan, 876 \\ 



ft 

»» 



*> 



•» 

ft 
f> 



>f 



•I 
ft 



*• 



Barrel, 36 galloni. 

Amerioan, dOgallona. 

Datoh, 41 

Frenoh, 32 

German, 39 

flour, pork, 200 Ibi. 

applet, 150 Iba. 

fish, 1000 number. 
Bonnier, French, 3 acrea. 
Bushel, barley, 54 lbs. 
„ oats, 40 „ 
„ rye, 59 „ 
,, wheat, 61),, 
Catty, 3 = 4 lbs. 
Chetvert, 5) bushels. 
Cord, wood, 125 cubic feet, 2) t. 
Cnartillo, 9 = 1 gallon. 
Cubit, 18 inches. 
Dessiatine, 10 = 27 acres. 
Eimer, 12 gallons. 
Fanega, 4 bushels. 
Fanegada, 10 = 16 acres. 
Fathom, 6 feet. 
Foot, cubic, 52 = 1 ton. 

„ „ water, 62 lbs., 6} gals. 
Furlong, 220 yards. 
Gallon, 277 cub. inches, 10 lbs. water. 
Grammes, 453 = 1 lb. 
Hectare, 2*47 acres. 
Hectolitre, 22 gallons, 2} bushels. 
Hogshead, 63 ^dlons. 
Joch, 1*43 acre. 
Kanna, 100 Swedish = 58 gallons. 

„ 100 German = 44 
Kilogram, 2*20 lbs. 
Kilometer, 100 = 62 milea. 
Klafter, 2 tons woo<I. 
Knot, 2000 yards. 



»f 



Lui, Gennaii. 3 tons. 

„ Norwegian, 3|toiia. 
League, Dateh, D,8807ud>* 

„ SpMiiah, 6,160 „ 
litie, 100 a 1 heetolitn. 
Load, brieki, OOOl 

„ oom, 40 Iraaheli. 

„ bay, 20 ewl 

„ atraw, lOewt. 

„ wood, 50 enbie feet« 
Maand, IncUan, 80 Ibe. 
Metre, 3*28 feet. 
Meinn, 3 = 5 bualiela. 
MUe, 1760 yaida. 

„ German, 8,140 yarda. 

„ Swedish^ 11,770 „ 

„ Turkish, 1,870 „ 
Blorgen, 5 = 3 acrea. 
Oke, 4 = 11 lbs. 
Palm, 3 inches. 
Parasanff, 4 milea. 
Peck, i bushel. 
Perch, 5| yards. 
Picul, 133 Iba. 
Pint, 8 = 1 sallon. 
Pipe, 126 gallons. 
Pood, 36 lbs. 

Pott, Norwegian, 100 a 21 gallona. 
Pound, 16 ounces. 

„ Roman, 12 ounces. 
Quarter, 8 bushels. 
Quintal, 110 Iba. 

„ metrical, 220 lbs. 
Salma, 4) acres. 
Scheffel, 1*45 bashel. 
Septier, 4 = 17 bushela. 
Sextarius, IJ pint. 
Span, 9 inches. 
Stadium, 120 yarda. 
Stere, 35 cubic feet wood* 
Stoup, 4 gallon. 
Toise, 6) feet. 
Ton, 2240 Iba. 

„ American, 2000 lbs. 
Tunnland. li acre. 
Tunna, 4 bosnels. 
Vedro, 10 «:= 27 gallons, 
y erst, 100 = 66 milea. 




WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 



' BetiilM. H*ti«i. ChatKi 

CaUo Bctra SS's 27-60 343 lo'ao 16-30 16-SO SW 

Biuhal .1-3 I -00 0-13 0-36 0-TO 0-60 0'18 

Qurtw . lD-4 8-00 1-00 2-90 fiGO 4'SO 1'44 

Ton , . 620 40-00 600 14'60 28-00 24-00 7-20 

HMtolltra . 3-5 2-76 O-Sd 1-00 1-93 1-<B 0«0 

Sehafld . 1-9 1-46 018 0'G3 1-00 088 0-20 

Uitun . 2-2 1-06 0-21 0-60 I'lO 1-00 0-30 

ChatTirt . 7-0 6'» 070 2-00 3-90 3-30 1-00 



KdoI Ilfla. KUom. Tmtj Knot Hll*. KUcm. Tint 

. 0-88 1-00 1-61 1-50 Eilaio. 0-U 0-63 1-00 0-«3 



1-00 1-14 1-s: 



171 I Vsnt. O'GS 



0-66 1-07 1<0 







D 


— Liquids. 










Ua. 


Tttt. 


L««- wST 


Eln«. 


BunL 


Hoj* 


Oillon . 


10 


014 


45 0-046 


0-080 


01127 


0-016 


Litra 


2-2 


0-03 


1-0 0-010 


0O18 


0-006 


0-004 


UtctolilN 


220 


3-10 


100 i-ooo 


1760 


0-600 


0-350 


Eimer . 


124 


175 


66 0-660 


1-000 


0'340 


0-200 


Bunl . 


3r* 


6-00 


160 l-OOO 


2-880 


1-000 


0-576 




630 


8-80 


284 2'83G 
-SCKDRIK. 


6O00 


1710 


1000 




LU. 


Cwt. 


French Amcricmn g£,j- 


Pood. 


Piciil, 


EoglUh ton 


2,240 


20 00 


1<I18 1°I20 


1,018 


62-20 


le-RO 


cA. , . 


.112 


1-00 
0-98 


0061 0066 
0-050 01)65 


61 
60 


3-11 
306 




QainUl. . 


. no 


082 


n^obtoD 


2,204 


19-64 


1-000 1100 


1.000 


61-00 


16 50 


Amnioui ton 


« 


IT '86 


0-910 1-000 


910 


66-40 


15 00 




00-02 


0-001 0-001 


10 


0«6 


0-016 


Poof. . . 


. 36 


0-32 


0-017 0-018 


163 


1-00 


0-27 


Pienl . . 


. 133 


1-20 

r.- 


0-oei 0-067 

SUPERPICUU 


GOfl 


3-67 


IflO 




SqTd.. 


Ac«. 


Morgen, Hocta™. 


DoaU- 


kS™. 


X. 


Act.. . . 


4,840 


1-00 


1-66 0-406 


0-367 


OiXMO 


0-0016 


Motsn. . 


3,123 


0-65 


1-00 0-2CO 


0-236 


0-0026 


0-0010 


Jooff. . . 


6,S14 


1-43 


2-23 0-576 


0-620 


00057 


00022 


HMton 


12; 000 


247 


3 84 1-000 


0-910 


ODIOO 


0-0039 


Dawi»tiii« . 


13,100 


2-70 


4-20 1-093 


1-000 


0-0091 


0-OOM 


Sq. kilom. . 1 


190.000 


2S0 


390 100 


91 


1-0000 


0-3900 


Sq. mile .3 


087,600 


640 


1.000 260 


2:15 


2-00 


1-0 




G.- 


Old Enousb Mbasures. 






H»mt 


DmU. WlMw"™, DhtcxIIod, 


Comnllun, Bunb*; 




LiblotnehM. euUclnclwt. 


cubUlDe] 


«■. OlblOllwhM. 


>b«i» Chart. 


225 " 


217 


266 


266 




2,130 




353 


219 


268 


268 




2J18 


H*niT VII. . 


496 


224 


280 


280 




2.240 


Usnrr VIII . 


531 


231 


283 


383 




3.2.^6 



476 



WHEA T. 



WHEAT. 



A. ^Produgtiov and Conbuiittion. 

MmkmaorBariiela. 





Crop. 


Oonsump- 
Uon. 


Boiploa. 


Sefldt 


Um. 


United Kingdom 


76 


206 


• •• 


180 


830 


Fnooe 


270 


820 


• •• 


60 


465 


Germany . 


100 


140 


• •• 


40 


166 




210 


160 


60 


••• 


120 


Austria . 


116 


105 


10 


••• 


160 


Italy 

Spain and Portngal 


140 


145 


• •• 


6 


282 


140 


185 


6 


• «a 


860 




\ 24 


54 


• •• 


80 


280 


Scandinavia 


7 


12 


• • • 


5 


80 


Turkey, kc 


85 


70 


15 


« •• 


340 


Enrope 


. 1.167 


1,847 


• •• 


180 


235 


United Statet . 


440 


290 


160 




805 


Canada . 


46 


86 


10 




370 


Australia 


35 


20 


15 




3S0 


India 


270 


240 


SO 




60 


Egypt . 


15 


10 


5 




110 


Various . 


40 


70 


• • • 


80 


■ • * 






ToUl . . 2.018 2,018 
For acreage, see Grain, 



B. — Prices in England (580 Tears). 



Period. 


bhillings per Quarter, 8 Bushels. 


Year*. 




1 








> . 


Avenge. 


Maximum. Minimum. 


Highest 


. Lowest 


1301-50 . . 


18 


48 10 


1316 


1338 


1351-1400 






16 < 32 9 


1369 


1392 ! 


1401-50 . 






15 ' 62 : 6 


1434 


1404 


1451-1500 






10 1 35 


4 


1497 


1454 


1501-50 . 






20 


38 


6 


1521 


1509 


1551-1600 






22 


63 


15 


1597 


1568 


1601-50 . 






42 


SO 


27 


1648 


1604 


1651-1700 






47 : 7u ; 24 


1662 


16S7 


1701-50 . 






39 


74 


23 


1709 


1744 


1751-1800 . 






66 


83 ' 27 


1796 


17S1 


1801-50 . . 






61 ! 114 1 39 


1812 


1885 


1851-81 . 






51 64 39 


1867 


1661 



The above prices are according to weight of silver. 




c- 


KOMINAL PRICBB IK JrXSC*. 




PenctptrSivliASu^l 




Fnlnd. Pan 




FBTiod. FBuee. 


P«lod. F 


lZfiO-1300 . . i 




1561-1600 , 17 


1761-1800 . 


1801-1*00 . . 6 




1601-1850 . 39 


1801-18:;o . 


1401-1500 . . 8 




16B1-170O . 23 


1881-1860 . 


ieOl-1660 . . E 




1701-1760 , 88 


1861-1880 . 


D.— All World Prices (60 Yxarb). 




Ftnct ptr EngtM Biuhd 








GNktBribOn 


» 84 80 ' 


82 78 


Fnaoe. 


« 67 69 


78 76 




M 4« 6S 


70 63 


Aiutn* 


39 35 45 


68 78 




47 44 42 


65 68 




SS B5 58 


72 78 


United States 


60 68 68 


79 75 


R—^Va 


[AT Supply of Ukitbd Kinodoh. 




BuibaV Priea, Conram 



Pirlod. 


181 


-8f» 








-BO 


186 


-70 


187 


-80 


188 





[mporUd. ToUL per i 



74 '' 258 



F. — Ihportatior into Unitbd Kingdom {AsranAL). 



^ 


lIilli™olBu.h.l^ 


lUtio. 1 


lMI-10. 


ISTl-W. 


18«1. 


mi--o. 


iKi-eo. 


mi. 


Anraie* . . 

IndusAc . 

Total . . 


22 
19 
32 

78 


55 
23 
36 

114 


85 
10 

40 

135 


SO 
26 
44 


48 
20 
82 


63 
7 
30 

100 


100 


100 



G. — AVZRAOB YlBLD IS USITM) KlHaDOM. 



Pmiod. 


A en*. 


1850-60 
1861-70 
1871-80 
1881 . 


. 3,754,000 
3,770,000 
3,470.000 

. 3,070,000 



Dedacting 2 bushcU per acre for seed, the reit wu uvoil- 
■ble ior food. 



478 WIDOWED'-WILD BEASTS. 

WIDOWED. 







Feroantage In Population. 


Pernontagein 




Wldowa 


Wldowen 


Both. 


WUawb 


Wldowwe 




among 


among 


OoDMal 


■■ ^«^ 


aa 


1 


FomalM. 


MalM. 


Avenge. 


■■ ^nwwKb 


bnabaadu 


Englmnd 


7 




6-8 






FrMioe. 




11 




8-4 






Germany 




8 




5-8 






AottriA 




7 




6-8 


11 




Italv . 




9 




6-6 






Spun . 




9 




6*8 


11 




Switmrlmnd . 




9 




7-2 






Belgium 
HoUMid 




7 
8 




5-6 
61 






Scandinavia 


7 




6-2 






Average 


8 




5-8 


8 





WILD BEASTa 

A. — In France 1225 wolves were killed in 1882, for 
which the Government paid £6000. Game licences, 
347,000 per annum. 

B. — Grame licences in Germany, 146,000; slaughter, 
20,000 foxes, 30,000 deer, 2,000,000 hares, 3,000,000 
partridges. 

C. — Annual " Battub" in Swkden. 

1827-30. 
Bears .... 135 
Lynxes . 248 

Wolves ... 542 
Foxes .... 7,882 

D. — The Russian forests contained in 1880 over 170,000 
wolves, which devoured 200 children or travellers per 
annum. 

£. — Austrian Large Game Killed per Annum. 

Bears . 160 ! Wolves . . . 1,200 

Lynxes 200 | Foxes .... 8,000 

Besides 3000 ti*,'er-cats and various other kinds. 

F. — In Java there are 270 persons killed by tigers and 
180 by crocodiles yearly. 

G.— In India 21,000 persons and 53,000 cattle are killed 
yearly by tigers, snakes, <S:c The Indian Government pays 



1850-59. 


18«7-T«. 


118 


110 


140 


91 


162 


63 


5,896 


•*• 




WIND. 



479 



jCIO.OOO pet umnm for killing 20,000 wild beasts and 
120,000 SBakea. 

H. — In Cochin-ChiiiA th« Frencli killed is 1882 no fewer 
than 109 tigen and 26 panthen. 



A. — VBLoaiT AKD Pbessurb. 



p«rS«oi>d 


HI1«a 

PW H..i.r 


^i~>a 


60 


Gl 


16 Iba. 


»0 


61 


aoi „ 


100 


es 


£G . 


110 


76 


301 •■ 


ISO 


ss 


86 ., 


180 


88 


421 .. 


140 


96 


49 „ 


ISO 


102 


6fl ., 



Willi). 



The averse pTeasaro in England ia 257 miles doily, or 10( 
per hour, uy, IK feet per second, eqnal to 10 oz. per sq. foot 



R — Mean Velocity at PLTMonrn {18il-42), 



JuitiM7 . . 1276 I M»y . . 11-60 I September . I5'42 

Pebnuiy . . 13-97 Jnna . . 10-90 October . . 16-29 

Much. . . 14-03 Jul; . . 9-00 NoTeniber . 14-96 

April . . . l&OO I Aagnit. . 1337 | DmsmbeT . 12-64 



C. — MxAH Amodkt of Wind, Plimouth 1841-43. 



B.S.W. 

aw. 

W.N.W, 
NW. 

M.K.W. 

Total 



2,108 1,083 1,088 1,224 6,10S 



48o 



WINDMILLS^WINDO IVS. 



D.— London Winds, 1813-30. 

2>ayt. 



N. toE. 


S.to& 


8.toW. 


W.toN 


60 


5-6 


71 


10*0 


4-2 


5-0 


7-8 


9*5 


5-8 


4-9 


83 


10-5 


6-5 


6-5 


6*4 


9*9 


7-9 


6*8 


6-8 


7-9 


7-2 


4*8 


67 


10-5 


4-4 


8-6 


8-8 


12< 


5-2 


8*5 


8< 


13-0 


6-3 


6-5 


8*8 


8-3 


6-5 


6-6 


8*4 


^-5 


4-5 


4*4 


9*8 


107 


5*4 


5*5 


9-5 


9-8 



January 

February 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July. 

August 

September 

October . 

November 

December 



Total . . 68-9 62*2 106*5 121-0 

WINDMILLS.— Holland has 10,100 windmills, represent- 
ing a value of 20 millions sterling, with an aggregate force 
of 52,200 horse- power. Cost of drainage, 10 pence per 
acre, with a lift of 3 feet ; 20 pence at 6 feet, and so on. 
The average area drained by each mill in Holland is 310 
acres, each lifting 150,000 tons or 33 million gallons water 
daily. See Fiimjys, 

WINDOWS. 

A. — Great Britain (wiTnoiT Ireland). 



ThouMindB Omitted. 




Windows per 



Population. Hoose Inhabitant 



10,501 
20.960 
30,720 



6-8 
6-0 
8-4 



0-98 
1-05 
1-51 



r>. — Window Duty in Great Britain in 1850. 



Windowii. 



8 to 10 
11 to 20 
21 to 30 
Over 30 



Uoui^s. 



Dutj per Annum, £. 



Englnn<i. Scotland 



Groat 

liritain. 



England. 



156,000 , 15,000 

216,000 1 15,000 

48,000 I 4,000 

30,000 , 1,600 



171,000 ; 167,000 

231,000 1 687,000 

52,000 i 366,000 

31,600 1 404,000 



^Scotland. ' 



CjPC.Ht 

Hntain. 



15,000 
48,000 
25,000 
37,000 



182,000 
735,000 
391,000 
441,000 



Total . 450,000 35,6001 485,600 1,624,000 ' 125,000 1,749,000 




WINDOWS— WINE. 481 

— WiKDow Duty in Enoubh Towns (1650). 



IJveipool 

Bath . 
Brighton 



£33,000 

32,000 
S2,000 
18,000 
10,000 



Brutol . , £15,000 
PI;iii<}tith . 12,000 
Newcartle . 8,600 
Leedi . . 8,100 
I Norwich . 7,000 



D. — Windows in Frasob. 



,~. 


ThouwHUOmlttMl. 


Wtod™p.r 1 


Oou« 


Wlndoirt 


PiTuUU<m. 


HOUM. 




1828. . . . 
188S. . . . 
1810. . . . 
18SS. . . . 
1S86. . . . 
1881. . . . 


9,iU 
0,806 
7.140 
7,033 
7.811 
8.818 


28,680 
80,1*4 
86,211 
38,440 
43,116 
49,394 


31,120 
33,410 
36,100 
30.640 
38,830 
87,672 


4-4 
4 6 
4-9 
G-O 
S-6 
SO 


0-92 
0-90 
100 
106 
112 
1-81 





A.— Pboddotios. 




Act™, 

ThOUWKlt 


MllUau 
Odlsiu. 


FrmoM 


. 6,160 


720 


ItalT. . 




680 


^ 


. 2,720 


820 






80 




. 1,680 


310 


Gctnuny , 




70 








Enropo . 


. 14.836 


2.099 


United St«te» 


130 


21 


Algeria . 


61 


9 


South Africa 


18 






16 


2( 




^ 









The ptodaction is declining in Europe, but increasing in 
Algeria, XTnited States, and Arfrentine Republio. Good 
artificial wine is made in France, 10 degrees alcohol f^ 



482 



WINE^WOOD. 



B. —Consumption. 



U. Kingdom 
France 


Hflllon 
Qallons. 

. 15 

. 780 


Gemuinj . 
Russi* 


. 120 
24 


Austria 


. 800 



Onlloiit 


MHUoB 


ptrlnbAb. 


Qftllona. 


0-44 


Italy . . 480 


21-00 


Spain . . 220 


270 


Portogal no 


0-80 


Fnlted SUtet 27 


7-90 


Varioai . 120 



Gulloai 
pw Inbah* 

17-40 

lS-00 

I3-M 

0-51 



Budesheimer is worth £20 a gallon. Prince Woronioff 
sells his Tokay, 220 years old, at £9 a bottle. Champagne 
vintage averages 20 million bottles, of which France exports 
17 millions. The Xeres vineyards, 15,000 acres, prodnce 
4 million gallons yearly of sherry. "Vl^e loses strength 
after 200 years. 



C. — French Vintage and Winb Tradk 







Annu 


ltd Average. 






Period. 


Thousandu 


Vlntnge, 
Million 


Import, 
Million 


Export, 
Million 


Consnmp. 
Gmllons 


Price. 
Pence p«r 




Omitted, 


Gallons. 


Gallons. 


Gallons. 


per Inlutb. 


Gallon. 


1810-12 . 


. 4,064 


455 


• • • 


8 


16 


14 


1830-32 


. 5,015 


502 


• •• 


18 


16 


17 


1840-42 . 


5,230 


790 


• • • 


24 


23 


16 


1860-52 


. 5,450 


920 


• • • 


88 


25 


21 


1860-62 


. 5,510 


703 


• • • 


48 


18 


23 


1870-72 


. 6,560 


1,010 


• • • 


70 


25 


20 


1880-82 . 


5,150 


720 


140 


55 


21 


27 



D.— CoNSUMPTiox IN United Kingdom. 



Gallnns 
Tear. Thouiuuids 


Omitted. 


1801 . . . 6,877 


1811 






5,630 


1821 






4,702 


1831 






. 6,220 


1841 






6,185 


1851 






6,282 


18C1 






. 10,693 


1871 






16.145 


1881 






15,550 


K)D. i 


See : 


rim I 


cr. 



Duty. Shil- 
lings per 
Oiulon. 

10 

14 

14 

6 

6 

6 

1 

1 

1 



ConMimption, 
Gallons per 
Inhabitant. 

0-45 
0-32 
0-23' 
0-26 
0*22 
0-23 
0-36 
053 
0-41 




A.— An>dai, Clip (1880). 



Vilua of Viliu ot 



United Kingdom 
Oerman; 



8p^ mod Fortunl 82 
Bdgiiun, HdlUn^ & c 47 



Enropa 




ess 


193 


3-4 


39-0 


4> 


United SUtn 


210 


41 


6-0 


117 


70 


Rirer Plato . 


260 


76 


8-4 


64 


20 


Cuadk 




12 


3 


4-0 


07 


64 






SSO 


36 


5'9 


19-G 


72 


SX*^"': 


52 
26 


11 

3 


47 
8-3 


28 

IG 


eo 

4G 


Alg«ta 




82 


e 


8-6 


17 


47 


Total . . 1,6J7 


407 


41 


sal 


60 




R— IN0RKA8B OF 


WOOL^ROP. 






XSlioru 


of Ut., Annual aip. 






T«r. 


Kurnpa. V. BUih. B. Plata. 


Cipa. Aiutnltt. 




1800 


420 8 


1 






429' 


1830 


490 18 


e 


2 


3 


G19 


1S40 


610 G2 


15. 


10 


14 


601 


isn> 


680 eo 


25 


la 


43 


806 


iseo 


716 112 


G6 


28 


70 


981 


1870 


807 161 


167 


46 


1B7 


1,871 


ISSO 


ess !10 


260 


G2 


390 


1,677 


Tbia 


does not 


include Canada, 


India, Ac 


See Table A. 



r.— ItlEssits BowEs's Tables. 

AnntaU dip, MlUitnu of U*. 







Unnafaad 




Bqia«l«BtW« 


bad. 1 


\m. 


187*. ] IMl. 


ISM. 1 IK.. 


HBl 


Anrtnlia . 
Cape. . 
Hirer Plato 

Total . 


60 

26 
40 


222 
49 
207 


362 

G4 
240 


85 I 124 
15 84 
IS 1 72 


197 
88 
84 


126 


478 


646 


65 230 


31. 



Th« figures for 1860 are too lov, the shipments from 
Austnlu that year exceeding 69 million lbs. 



484 



WOOL. 



D. — Consumption in Manufacture (1880). 





Mfllion 
Lba. 


Lbs. per 
Inbab. 


XurabctQ 


ZMpTllOIUUH] 


toOmlttad. 




lEzportML 


Horns Uaa. 


TutiO. 


Unitad EiBgdom . 


888 


0-8 


£20,600 


£26,600 


£46,100 


Fnaoe . 


888 


8*8 


18,600 


29,700 


43,800 


Gennany 


190 


4-2 


7,600 


18,800 


26,800 


Boaii* . 


170 


2-2 


• • • 


28,000 


28,000 


Amtrift 


80 


21 


1,100 


9,600 


10,700 


lUly . . 


88 


1-8 


• • • 


4,800 


4,800 


Spain and Portngal 


70 


8-4 


• • • 


8,600 


8,500 


Belgium 


08 


20-5 


8,800 


4,600 


7,800 


Other oocmtriea 


20 
1,380 


• •• 

4-2 


••• 


2,100 


2,100 


Europe 


£46,100 


£124,600 


£170,500 


United SUtea 


820 


6-8 


••• 


48,000 


43,000 



Total . . 1,660 4*6 £46,100 £169,600 £213,600 

One pound of washed wool produces a yard of cloth. 



K — Consumption op Woollen Manupactures. 







Per 






Per 




MilUons £. 


Inhab., 


Millions £. 


Inl.Ab.. 






ShillingR. 






8hillin^ 


U. Kingdom . 


. 26 


15 


Spain and Port 


9 


9 


France . . . 


30 


16 


Belgium . . . 


4 


15 


Germany . . 


19 


9 


Holland . . 


3 


15 


RuBsia . . . 


23 


6 


Scandinavia 


6 


14 


Austria . . 


10 


6 


United SUtes 


. CO 


19 


Italy . . . 


6 


4 


Colonies, &c. 


. 28 


• ■ B 



r. — Woollen Industry in Great Britain. 





Wool Consumed, Hillion Lbs. 


Tear. 


British. 


Porolgn. 


ToUl. 
65 


1780 . 


60 


5 


1800 . 


70 


9 


79 


1820 . 


75 


10 


85 


1830 . 


80 


80 


110 


1840 . 


85 


44 


129 


1850 . 


110 


48 


158 


1860 . 


120 


104 


224 


1870 . 


138 


171 


309 


1880 . 


112 


226 


338 



Value of Maiiufactureit, Millions £. 
Exported. Home Um). ' TutaL 



2-6 

G-9 

5-6 

4-8 

5-8 

101 

16-0 

31-4 

20-6 



9-2 


11-8 


8-8 


157 


14*2 


19-8 


17-8 


22 ■« 


20-7 


26-5 


19*6 


29-7 


21-5 


87-5 


23-3 


54 7 


26-5 


461 



P m 



WORK— WRECKS. 



Walkiue 1 miU - . 
CaiTjiog 60 Ibi. 1 mile 
FedlAT'i da/i work . 



A. — FooT-ToNB OF Enekot. 

. ... 17) Dock-lxboarer'idaj'iiroTli. 32S 

. 70 Pile-driTing 333 

. 2G pBvior 362 

. 100 Turning » winch . . . .374 

. 303 Uu'a ordinur work . . . 300 

. 310 Very hud do 400 



B, — ENKRor OF Nations (1885). 





lUlUou or l^Bl-Toiu Dallj. 


Fooi- 

Ton. 

.r^ 

1,380 
720 
716 
710 
620 
230 
340 
205 
670 

602 
630 

708 
1,440 

802 


CoitQl 

6-1 
142 
11-6 

ia-9 

101 

17-8 
13-8 

21 2 
11-3 
101 
14-7 

10-3 

121 

9 '8 

120 


n.nd. 


Har» 


at«m. 


ToUl. 


Udt«J Kingdom . 
Fr»n» 

K=".' ; : 

Au.tri» 

IS, : : ; : : 

Portug»l .... 

Belgium .... 
HolUnd .... 
ScudinavU . . . 

Enropa . . . 
United SUlu . , 

Total .... 


2.310 
2.970 
8.330 
S.300 
2,850 
2.160 
1,360 
S60 
210 
420 
800 
630 


8,700 

8,600 

10.1 no 

48.600 

11,300 

2.040 

1.SS0 

210 

SSO 

850 

84D 

2,aOD 


38.860 
18,150 
18,800 
6,3J0 
6,800 
2,220 
2,210 
280 
1,300 
3,410 
920 
1,830 


4S,970 
27.620 
33,230 
81,240 
19,950 
6,420 
E,4S0 
850 
1,840 
4,680 
3.060 
E,360 


■23,100 
3,t80 


99.3S0 
32.100 


09,220 
42,160 


218,670 
77,740 


2S.5ao 


128,460 


141,380 


296,410 



— ToNKAQB Lost Ybarlt. 















eicuii. 






»;«;• 


BriU>h. . . 


90,000 


170,000 


260.000 


3-60 


French. . . 


7,000 


22,000 


29,000 


8-60 


Oernutn . . 


0,000 


40,000 


46,000 


380 


RoniMi . . 


3,000 


18,000 


21.000 


4-00 


Aiutruui . . 


3,000 


9,000 


12,000 


4-00 


It>liui. . . 


1,500 


27,600 




2-90 


SFM.i.h . . 






17,000 


3-70 








17,000 


(■OS 


United SUtM 


16,000 


112.000 


128,000 


4-90 


Vnriaui . . 


59,000 


130,000 


189,000 


t-oo 



^^ 



WRBCKS^YACHTS. 



B. — ^Llotd'8 BrasviB. 



Veoeli miniiig 
Sunklij ooQItion 
Burnt • 
Stranded 
Wateriogg^ fte. 



Avaiafftk 


Ttar 


laoMV. 


UBIl 


M 


101 


isa 


S06 


191 


829 


l.»l 


1,108 


584 


650 



Total 



2MI 



8,198 



C— IXMHi OF Y^LUB AND LlF|B B7 SbIPWBBOKB (fHI Amux). 

Britlph £18,900 S;090 

French . ^100 S80 

Q^fVian 8,400 400 

Rnaaian 1,500 200 

AuBtrian .... 800 110 

Italian 2,050 250 

Spanish 1,200 160 

Dutch 1,200 150 

United States 9,400 1,100 

Various 6,300 700 

Total . . £46,850 5,400 

The total value of shipping and merchandise sent over the 
sea annually is almost 1400 millions sterling, and the loss is 
about 3^ per cent, or less than 1 per cent per voyage. 



YAOHTS. — The increase of yachting in Qreat Britain in 
30 years has been as follows : — 



Year. 


duba. 


Tachta 


Tear. 


Clubt. 


Taobta. 


1853 


18 


1,046 


1873 . 


40 


2,805 


1863 


. 18 


1,848 


1883 . 


. 55 


4,030 



France has 9370 yachts, averaging 3 tons, and £61 in 
value : of the whole number only 103 are steamers. 



YACHTS— YARN. 





A.- 


-Loo 


OF TQE "SUKBKAK." 


Mmtb. 


KilM. 


BM««D 










BMmh. 


StU. 


ToU). 


Latltod*. 




July 1876 . 


672 


1,967 


2,839 


48 N.— 14 N. 


4 W.— 26 W. 




ess 


2.835 




14 ,. — 24 a 


18 „ - 43 „ 




711 


1,011 


1.722 


24 3.-41 „ 


43 „ — 60 „ 


October. . 


1.753 




2,559 


54 „ —32 „ 


80 „ — 77 „ 




632 


*,1B9 


4,801 


32 „ —15 „ 


73 „ -148 „ 




752 


2,123 


2,875 


18 „— 21N. 


148 „ -167 „ 


J«t 1877 . 


664 






16N.— 33 ., 


IM .. -137 E. 


PBbnu«y . 


986 






33 „ -22 „ 


137 E. -116 „ 




2,070 




S,Sil 


22 „ — 2 „ 


118 „ - 81 „ 


April . . 


3,262 


551 


3,B1S 


7 „ -28 „ 




M*7. . . 
ToUl. . 


a.S9S 




a,a29 






I1,4S5 


20,312 


34,777 




... 



The average temperature of water was as followa : — 
lara. isrs. i isn. inr. 

July . . 7S-2 I October .517 3*immrj . 76-8 I April . , 82-3 
Aogort . 75-3 November 76'3 Febrvur; 66 6 May . . 05-0 
September 69-7 | December 80'I | March . 79'4 [ 

The "Sunbeam" had i3 sools aboard, iDcluding the Brasses 
family ; she was 157 feet long, 27 beam, 631 tons, 70 horse- 
power, steamed 8 to 10 knots, and consumed 4 tons of coal 

Mr. Lambert's yacht "Wanderer" also circumnavigated 
the globe in 23 months, 1680-82. She was larger than the 
" Sunbeam," and carried 63 souls ; her log summed up 
48,490 miles between steam and sail, but she was only 260 
days actually at sea. 

TAKN. 

A. — British Tabs Eipobtbd. 

















r«r. 










OmitUd. 


sta 


Cotton. 


WoolllD. 


»ndJut«. 


Tota 


1821 . . 


22 






22 


£2,306 


11 




64 


2 


1 


67 


4,270 


2-8 




119 


4 




141 


8,362 


6-2 


1861 . . 


)44 


14 


19 


177 


9,071 




1861 . . 


178 


28 


28 


234 


14,488 


81 


1871 . . 


194 


44 


60 


293 


23,841 




1881 . . 


266 


80 


88 


821 


17,898 


9'3 



488 



YARN^ZINC. 



1831 
1841 
1851 



B. — ^Pricis of Yarn, per L& (Pxscb). 



Cotton. 
22 
14 
12 



WooQen. 
26 
29 
26 



Lin«a. 
19 
12 
12 



1881 
1871 
1881 



Oottoo. 
13 
19 
18 



WooHcii. 
80 
S4 
26 



14 
15 
14 



C — ^Importsius of Yarn (All Ejndb). 

Minion Lbi. LbR. pm- InhaK 

Fnnoe 24 0*7 

GemiMiy 70 1-6 

Roanft 82 0*4 

Atutri* 88 0-9 

lUlT 

SiMiiii • 

BtoIlMid 

Chin* 



21 
14 
20 
21 



VwiouB 162 

897 



07 
0-8 
5^ 
0-1 



The exporters are — 






Million Urn, 




Million IJ 


Great Britain . . 820 


France ... 


20 


Belgium .... 42 


Switxerland . . 


15 


Total . . 897 Million Lba. 




zmo. 




A. — Annual Production (Tons). 




Ora. MotaL 


TleM. 
per Cent. 


Great Britain 57,000 15,947 


28 


Prussia. . 650,000 102,000 


16 


Belgium . 250.000 45,000 


18 


Sweden . 24,000 4,000 


16 


Russia, ftc. . 50,000 8,000 


16 



Total 



1,031,000 



174,947 



17 



Year. 



1831 
1851 
1871 
1881 



B. — Zinc Industry of Great Britain. 



Produo- 
tion. 



700 

3,900 

4,960 

15,950 



Tons. 



Imported.! Tbtal. Exported. 

I ; 



3,800 
18,600 
20,930 
46,100 



4,500 
22,500 
25,890 
62,050 



Hi •ma 
Um. 



Taliie. 
per Too. 



I 



3,100 


1,400 


£14 


4.500 


18.000 


21 


8,060 


17,830 


18 


10,700 


51,350 


15 



APPENDIX. 



AGE.— The ratios of the following 


aatioDB stand thai : — 


T«n. 


Onltod 


liUtH 

(IS80). 


(ISTOX 


(18?0)7 


w>u* 


BcotLiHl 
(IMI). 


UndwB . 
6to20 . 
21to«) . 
411060 . 
O»«r60 . 


131 
331 
29-2 
lti» 

77 


137 
S4-2 
31D 

6-6 

^■0 


12-5 

207 
31-0 
IS'4 
8-4 

lOO-T 


138 
29fl 
31 D 
16-6 
B-0 


13-6 
328 
297 
16-9 
7-2 


137 
831 
29D 

16-5 
77 

100-0 


lOOD 


lOOfl 


1000 



AOBIOULTUSI!-— The kr^teet una under tillage in the 
Unvted Kingdom was in 1871, aincu which dale there has been 
ft decline of 2,300,000 acree, tay 14 per cent, viz. : — 



a, OOCa Oultlad. 



iMob 

11.833 
1I>5 



16,813 
17.338 
16,9Ce 






4,894 



Beaidei the ordlnaiy green cropa, flax and hops are inclu 
aboTe, but not clorer. 
The agricultoral prodncU of the United Eingdoni in 1 

QunUtT. Viliia. 

70,300.000 jE2I,100,000 

81.800.000 18.400.000 

132.300,000 23.800.000 

27,'J00,000 3.450.000 

10,400.0W 11.600.000 

4,44(^000 14.600,000 
43,200,000 

£136,130,000 



Wkeat, boihcU 
Bark; „ 
Oata 

Btra«, tou 
PoUtM* „ 



490 



APPENDIX. 



The product of meat, dairy, hide& wool, &c., waa 127 millioni 
£, forming with the above a total ot 263 milliona. 

The value of Irish crops in 1885 was j^l,724,000, or 34 times 
the rental of land. In Great Britain the crops average 4* times 
the rent of land. The rental of Ireland ought not to exce^ 7 mil- 
lions j£ per annum. 

The United States crops for 1885 showed — 

MiUiona. 



Aere«. 

Wheat 34 

Maize 73 

Oats 23 



Bushels. 

357 
1,936 

629 



Total 



130 



2,922 



As regards agriculture in relation to food-supply for mankind, 
it is found that the product of 100 acres in various forms is as 
follows, per annum : — 

Sheep-farming 

Wheat .... 

Potatoes 

Bananas and oranges . 



6,000 lbs. meat will support 50 persons. 
2,500 bushels „ „ 250 
SOOtons ,, ,. 520 

320,000 bushels „ ,,995 



9f 



>9 



»» 



ASSES AND MULES. 

France .... 

Italy 

Austria .... 

In the United States there are 1,914,000 mules and a&ses, not 
distinguished. 



Aftses. 

389,000 

674,000 

70,000 



Mules. 
274,000 
294,000 
24,000 



AUCTION-MAET.— Sales of real estate in London show :— 



1882 
1883 



£6,164,000 
5,148,000 



1884 
1885 



£5.977.000 
4.454,000 



BANKS. — The National Banks of Spain and Italy showed as 
follows in December 1885 : — 



Idillions £. 



Capital . 
Reserve . 
Issue 



B. of Spain. B. of Itoly. 
GO 6 

0-6 1-4 

. 18-3 221 



Millions £. 

"§. of Siuin. B. <.f Italy. 
Deposits . 11-6 206 

Discounts . 33 18 4 

C:ish . . 6-2 10*5 



The rates of interest in December 1885 in open market were : — 



Paris . . 

Hamburg 
London , 



2-7 
3-0 
31 



Vienna 
Madrid 
Rome . 



Issue 
Bullion 



. . 40 
. . 4-0 
... 4-2 

li. of Kngl iiid. 
£24.513,000 
20,115,000 



Stockholm . . 4 5 
Lisbon .... 6 -0 
Petersburg . . 6*0 

B. of Frauce. 
£116.720,000 
81»,700,OO0 



A PPENDIX. 



491 



BIOYOLE.— Mr. Prince, in the United States, made 890 miles 
in 6 days. 



BUND. 

(1.) The ratio in the United Kingdom is said to be :• 

1 to 3300 inhabitants over 20 yean of age. 
lin 770 „ „ 40 

1 in 200 ,, ,,60 

lin 50 «. .,80 






(2.) Blind in the United States 

Tear. Number. 



1850 . 
1860 . 
1870 . 
1880 . 



9,790 
12.660 
20,320 
48,930 



Per 100,000 
Inhab. 

42 
41 
63 
97 



If 



Ratio of Sexes. 



Male. Female. 

55 45 
58 42 

56 44 
55 45 



BLOOD. — The heart beats 74 times a minute, sending each 
time 10 Ibe. of blood through the veins and arteries : the human 
system of an adult averages 28 lbs. of blood. 

BOOKS.— Mr. Quaritch paid £1600 for a Bible dated 1462 at 
the Duke of Marlborough's sale in 1881. 

BULLION.— The current of precious metals in 1881, 1882, and 
1883 has been in the aggregate as follows : — 



Great Britain 
France . 
United SUtat 
Australia 
India, &o. 



MillioDS £, Gold. 
Imported. Exported. 



MiUions £. Silver. 



82 
25 
31 

7 
48 

143 



34 
24 
9 
19 
57 

143 



Imported. Exported. 
26 25 

24 19 

6 11 



85 
91 



36 
91 



The imports and exports of specie (United Kingdom) in 15 
years show thus : — 

M iUiont £, Gold. 



1871-76 
1876-80 
1881-^ 



Impnrted. Exported. 
102 89 

83 82 

56 57 



HiUiona £, SUrer. 

Imported. Exported. 
63 55 

65 68 

44 44 



Total. 



241 



228 



172 



167 



492 



APPENDIX. 



OAHAL, SUEZ. — The nominal capital and Bums actnally 
xeaiised were — 



Year. 
1860 . 
1868 . 
1871 . 
1880 . 


IUQ6. 

£9.960,000 

6,667,000 

600,000 

240,000 


At 

100 
60 
80 
67 


RoUlMd. 

£9,380,000 

4,000,000 

480,000 

100,000 


Total . 


. £16,867,000 


83 


£14,000,000 



The capital consists of 8 millions sterling in origioal bhares, 
and j£8,867,000 in debentures : the dividends on the former haw 
been about 15 per cent, per annum in recent years. 

OATTLR— The numbers in 1870 and 1884 show thus, thou- 
sands omitted : — 

Cows. Honea. Bheepi 






1870, 


1884. 


1870. 


1884. 


1870. 


1884. 


T7. Kingdon 


1. 9,235 


10,423 


2,631 


2.878 


32.787 


2^.^77 


France . . 


12,227 


11,676 


3,027 


2,845 


28.160 


•^'.303 


Germany . 


. 16,390 


15,785 


3.271 


3,522 


26,508 


19,185 


Kussia . . 


. 22,770 


27,323 


16.160 


17,590 


48.132 


51, «3 


Austria . 


12,702 


13,184 


3,545 


3.283 


20.103 


13.0Jr2 


Italy . . 


3,490 


4,783 


478 


600 


6,l«S0 


H.-IIW 


U. States . 


. 23.820 


42.547 


7,145 


11,170 


28.478 


50. tW 



Total 



99,034 125.621 36,257 41,948 191,148 195.001 



Increase, 26 per cent in homed cattle, 16 per cent, in horse?, 
and 2 per cent in sheep ; popiilution ro.se from 285 to 335 millioTiit, 
eay 18 per cent If we count 10 sheep as 1 cow, the cattle for 
meat-supply rose 22 per cent, but in Europe the increase uds 
only 5 per cent., while population increased 12 i>er cent. 

The United States Agricultural Report for 1883 was as 
follows : — 





Number, Thousandd 
Omitted. 


MillioDs 8. 


8 per Uead, 

Value. 


Milch C0W8 . 




13.125 


397 


30 


Other „ . 




28,046 


611 


0.1 


Horses . 




10,838 


7t5 


70 


Mules . 




1.871 


149 


W) 


Sheep . 




49,237 


124 


2i 


Piga . . 




43,270 


292 


1 



Tlie export of cattle from Ireland in 18S5 was 29,000 horses, 
040,000 cows, 641,000 sheep, and 398,000 pigs. 

CENTENARIANS.— Acconling to Dr. Farr'g tabh-s, of one 
million male and female per.-ions bom, 77 males and 147 females 
will reach l(K) years, but the newer tables of Dr. Ogle give uuly 
41 males and 112 females. 



APPENDIX, 



493 



GOAL. — In Great Britain the average earnings of colliers in 
1884 were 49 pence a daj, being exactly the same as in 1870, 
but the output of coal per miner rose in the same interval from 
230 to 318 tons per annum ; that is, the wages paid for extracting 
a ton of coal were 65 pence in 1870 and 46 pence in 1884— a 
saving of 30 per cent 

OOMMEBOE.— The trade of the United Kingdom in 1885 
was as follows : — 

Amount, Millions £. 



fmport« Exports 



United Statei 
India . 
France . 
Australia 
Germany 
Holland 
Belgium 
BuMia . 
Canada 
Other oonntries 



Total 



from. 

83 

31 

35 

26 

23 

25 

15 

18 

11 
107 

374 



to. 
32 
31 
24 
28 
28 
16 
15 
7 
10 
80 



Total. Ratio. 



115 
62 
59 
54 
51 
41 
30 
25 
21 

187 



17-7 
9-7 
9-2 
8-3 
7 9 
6 4 
4-7 
3-9 
33 

28-9 



271 



645 100 



The principal articles of trade in 1880 and 1885 were : — 



Imports, Millions £. 



Exports, Millions £. 



Grain . . . 

Cotton . . . 
BCannfactures 

Meat . . . 

Wool . . . 

Sugar . . . 

Sundries . . 

Total. . 



1880. 

70 

43 

34 

27 

27 

23 
187 



411 



1885. 

53 

36 

53 

24 

25 

19 
164 

374 



Cotton goods 
Woollens . . 
Other textiles 
Hardware 
Coal . . . 
Sundries . . 

Total. . 



1R80. 

76 

21 

12 

49 

8 

120 

286 



1885. 
56 
19 
29 
46 
11 

110 

271 



Colonial goods are included both in imports and exports. 
00N80L8. — Highest and lowest quotations since 1801 : — 





Highest 






LowoAt. 


1817 . 


84 




1803 . 


. 50 


1824 . 


. 97 




1821 . 


. 69 


1838 . 


95 




1831 . 


. 75 


1852 . 


. 102 




1847 . 


. 79 


1867 . 


96 




1866 . 


84 


1883 . 


. 103 




1874 . 


. 91 


COTTON.- T 


he United State 


?s cc 


itton crop ^ 


ras as follows 


Tear. 


Bales. 




Tear. 


Bales. 


1882 . 


. 6.436.000 




1884 . 


. 5,714,000 


1883 . 


. 6,992,000 




1885 . 


. 5,669,000 


A bale weighs 


485 lbs. See / 


^ihre 


• 





494 



A PPENDIX. 



DEBT.— The National Debt in March 18S5 wns as follows :— 



Consols 

Terminable annuities 
Unfunded . 
Due to banks, ko. 



Total 



Assets 



£640,182,000 

86,115,000 

14,033,000 

6,450,000 

£746,780,000 
35,924,000 



Net debt £710,866,000 

The debt of the Australian colonies amounted in Jnne 1BS5 
to 122 millions £, having increased 25 millions since 1882. 

The United States debt^ December 31, 1885, amounted to 
exactly 300 millions £. 

The French national debt has been caused as follows : — 

Millions £. 

Crimean var 93 

Italian and Mexican wan .... 41 

Franco-Oerman war 316 

Boads and bridges 188 

Hallways 41 

Sundries 234 

Total debt 912 

The local debt of France has quadrupled in 20 years : — 

Year. Paris. Communes. TotaL 

1862 . . £13,702,000 £13,680,000 £27,382,000 

1882 . 85,300,000 30,290,000 115,500,000 

The Russian national debt has been caused as follows : — 



Redemption of serfs 
Railways and telegraphs 
Crimean war . 
Turkish 
Sundries 



»» 



Total debt 



Millions £. 

85 
156 
142 
133 

37 

553 



DRINK. — OflBcial returns for liquor consumed in United 
States : — 



Year. 



Gallons per InhabttAnt. 



Wine. 



1840. 
1850. 
1860. 
1870. 
1880. 
1884. 




Boer. 



I 



14 
1^ 
3-2 
6-3 
8 3 
10-2 




The eonsnmption in the United Eingdoi 
follow> : — 

HiUloru of 



The total reduced to alcohol amoanls to 66^ tnillioD gallonK, 
OT I'8S per inhabitant, lepresenting a value of &5 ghilliiigs. The 
conaamption in the three kingdoms was : — 

Oiillnna par Inbablta&t. 



Engluiil . 32 6S3 1-90 

ScotUod . . 13 ]'93 1-60 

IraUnd . . 16 1-00 1-27 

Deaths nsuUiog directly or indirectlr froin drink are said to 
exceed 60,000 yearly, or 10 per cent, of the total in the United 
Kinn^om. 

EDDOATHHf.— Tha primair tchoola of the United Kingdom 
show aa followa : — 

T„. 8cb«.l.. *™fS=' E^d«u«, ^^^^^ 

18M . . 3.SS5 461,400 £326.000 14 

1S64 . . 14,203 1,33:1,200 996,000 16 

1874 . . 32,928 2,386,800 1,958,000 17 

1884 . 29,724 4,214,300 4,B46,ODO . 22 

The degree of iiutniction in the French armyhaa been :— 

Tau. Conid Bad. [ Tor. CooU RMd. 

1B30 . . . 64 per cent. 1860 . . 74pwcaDt, 

1840 ... 6] „ 1876 ... 79 „ 

1850 ... 68 „ I 1881 ... 83 „ 

BOOS— In 1884-89 Great Britain imported every week 20 
millions, and the United States 6 million* : the consumptioa in 
Qnat Britain is 8& yearly per inhabitant, of which &7 were 
natire and 26 imported. 



U. K)i)gdnm. 
3.497 
!;187 















Unirmitr . 





496 



APPENDIX. 



The different parties were ^distributed according to Toten 
thus (coo's omitted) : — 







Ireland. 


Scotland. 


Coontj. 


Borough. 


UnlvanitTk 


Liberal . . 
CooserratiTe 
Nationaliat . 

Total . . 


1,843 

1,663 

10 


28 
115 
867 


286 

109 

3 


1,293 

1,128 

323 


874 

794 

44 


8 

15 



8,516 


610 


448 


2,744 


1,712 


18 



In the above table all tuiopposed elections are put down as if 
half the registered constitnency had Toted for the party of the 
person elected. The ratio of voters to population and registered 
electors shows as follows : — 



England . 
Scotland . 
Ireland • 



TotenperlOO 
InhaUtanta. 
13 
12 
10 



ToteraperlOO 

JElaetora. 

80 

79 

67 



The elections resulted as follows : — 

Members* Yoten. 

Liberal. ^34 2,157,000 

ConservatiTe 250 1,9:^,000 

Nationalist . 86 380.000 



Ratio of Vi 
1 to 6,450 Totes. 
1 to 7.850 
1 to 4,420 



*f 



»t 



670 



4,474,000 



1 to 6,710 rotes. 



ELEOTBIO SCIENCE. 

(I,) The Magcuin du Louvre at Paris finds the cost of ligutinp: 
to be— Gas, 100; Edison light, 75; Jablochkoff, 65. 

(2.) The first electric railway in the United King<loni was 
opened from Belfast to Giants' Causeway in September 18S3. 

(3.) The first electric screw-boat made a trip on the Thames nt 
Greenwich, July 1883 ; speed 9 miles an hour. 



EMIGRATION.— The returns for 1685 show :— 

Destination. 



English 

Scotch 

Irish 



U. states. 


CanAda. 


73,900 


14.900 


13,300 


2.300 


50,700 


2.700 



Australia. 


Tarioiiii. 


23,800 


9.300 


4,800 


1,100 


6,400 


400 



Tofal. 
12l>,900 
21,.yK) 

oa^ioo 



United Kingdom . 137.900 19,900 40.000 10.800 208.600 
There was a decline of 34,000 us compared with previous year. 

PIBBB.— The production in 1883 was as follows :— 

Million lbs. 

Cotton 4.778 

Wool 1,716 

Flax, jute, &c 2,540 



9,034 



APPENDIX. 497 

FINAVOE&— The British revenue in 1884 and 1885 was 
(COO'S omitted) :— 

1884. 1885. 

CuitomB £19,950 £20,1S9 

Excise 26,527 25,695 

Stemps 11,700 11,710 

TAxei 13^178 15,510 

Pott-office .... 9,595 9,806 

Sundries 4,560 4,719 

Total . . £85,510 £87,678 

FIREMAN. — There are 286,000 men in the various fire- 
brigades in France. 

FI8HEBY. — The Scotch fisheries have multiplied 14-fold 
since the time of the Napoleon wars, viz. : — 

1805-10 . . Cured 90,000 barrels fish per annum. 
1881^88 . „ 1,250,000 „ „ „ „ 

The ordinary value is 40 shillings per barrel. 

uvma, COST of. 

Expenditure of Paris in 1826. 



Per Inhabitant. 



Food 

Taxes 

Bent 

Cflothing. 

Funiinre 

Fuel and light 

Serrants. 

CSabs and hones 

Initruetion 

Waahing. 

Sundries. 



£ «. 


d. 


14 2 





5 9 





4 11 


3 


2 16 


6 


2 14 


6 


2 14 





116 


8 


1 15 


6 


1 11 


8 


1 8 


9 


1 9 


5 



Total 
The chief items of food were : 



Bread, Iba. 
Wine, gallona 
Meat, lbs. . 
Dairy 
Sugar, lbs. 
Sundries 



Total 



Amount, £ 
(000*8 Omitted). 
12,860 
4.760 
4,000 
2,470 
2,400 
2,880 
1,610 
1.540 
1,870 
1,260 
1,290 



. £40 8 9 


£36,430 


re : — 

For Inhabitant. 


£«.«{. 


400 


2 12 6 


25 


8 2 


166 


8 19 


I e • • • 


10 6 


26 


10 


1 • •■• 


2 8 




. £14 2 



♦> 



493 



A PPENDIX. 



LONDON.— In 18S5 London had 555,000 hoii?cs, with 4, 1 20 0.0 
inlKilHtant««, covering an area of 117 square niile^, or 75,000 acn.'.-, 
that is, 56 persons per acre. There were 400,000 foot-passengers 
and 80,000 vehicles passing daily over the bridges, and 370,000 
passengers in the Underground Railway. There were 1830 miles 
of streets, and 2300 miles of sewers, the latter rangins: from 1 ft 
to 12 ft diameter. The sewage reservoirs (12 miles below Lon- 
don) dischar^L^ed 150 million gallons daily into the Thames at 
ebb-tide. Water-supply was 140 million gallons daily, or 34 per 
inhabitant, for which tne companies charged £1,500,000, or 1^. 
(1*60) per ton. Qas consumption amounted to 20 milliards of 
cubic feet, at 3 shillings per 1000 ft., say £3,000,000 per annum, 
consuming 2 million tons coal and conveyed by 2500 miles of 
pipes, some 4 ft. in diameter. Fire-brigade had 58 engines, 124 
escnpes, 580 firemen, costing £100,000 per annum, and using 17 
million gallons water. Police, 13,000 men, or 1 in 316 ; cabs, 
11,000; and 2000 busses. Parks, 42, covering 4490 acres. 
Market?, 14^ covering 15 acres. 

MATCHES.— Sweden and Norway export 20,000 tons of 
wooden matches yearly, being nearly one-tnird of the quantity 
consumed in Europe per annum. The tax on matches in Fiance 
averages fourpence per inhabitant 

MEAT. — Full-grown animals in England average as follows : — 





Meat 


Fat. Ac 


Hide. 


Tout 


Cattlo . 


680 


356 


84 


1,120 Iba. 


Sheep 


91 


43 


18 


152 .. 



Cows j;ive from 70 to 160 lbs. tallow. The Liebig factory at 
Fray Bentos makes 1 lb. beef extract from 34 lbs. meat. 



— In addition to table on p. 312, we have 
of temperature, in Fahrenheit : — 



METEOROLOGY 

the following readings 

Mean Ann mil. 
Melville Island 
Yakutsk . 
Hudson Bay . 
Nertschinsk . 
Algiers . 
Hong-Kong 
Ferozepoie 

The greatest cold ever known in the British Islands wa^ at 
Blackadder, Berwick, namely, 23 below zero, on 4th December 
1879. The most severe winters in England have been aj 
follows: — 





Extremes above 


Extremes bclovT 


1 


Zoro. 




Zero. 


12 


London . 


. 98 


liondon . .10 


18 


Moscow . 


. 90 


Moscow . 4r> 


25 


Sydney . 


. 102 


Chicago . . ;J0 


60 


Cairo 


. 119 


Montreal 42 


75 


Bagdad . 


. 120 


Melville Island 52 


85 


Murzouk . 


. 132 


Wcrchojonsk . 80 



1813 


1820 


1844 


18r.O 


1870 


1S79 


1819 


1838 


1855 


18CI 


1878 


1881 




APPESDIX. 499 

In that of 1838, durinfi the are at the Boj-al KicliauRe, the 
water pamped on the building formed icicles of grand dimeniiiotis. 

Tlie earliest snow recorded near London vaa SGth September 
1885. The greot snowstorm of January 1881 has seldom been 
■nrpassed, (he snow in parts of Suneex lying 10 feet deep. 

Tlie average sunshine througliout the year is 2^ houri daily at 
Loudon, 4 at Kew, 6 at Hastings. 

UETEOBS.— Greenwich Observatory counted 3000 lietween 
e and 11 p.m. on 27th November ISSS. At intervals, in the llrat 
hour, there were 40 a miuute, 

miLES.— See Aiet, p. 490. 



OOOVPATIOHS (1881). 



ICilM (OW. OmUtcd). 



PnrfMdoD*! 
Damuitc . 
Commertiil 
Acrioultnrnl 
luduttikl . 



. 6C'9 



58-0 



29-0 



Klniidi.iii. (OOO'i I 



624 



100-0 



lOO-O 



15,135 

The above does not include vagrants, undefined occupations, 
(chool-children, inntutea of asylums, &c According to I'rofMsor 
Levi, there were in 1884 in the United KinKdom 12,200,000 
wage-earners, as follows, among the wurking-claitscs only ; — 

i\T 1 1 tad. 




. 12.200 11.000 



$00 



APPENDIX, 



He classifies the workers and earners according 
follows : — 



to aj^o as 



Earners, 
000*8 Omitted. 



Earnings, 
Millions £. 



Males under 20 
„ 20 to 65 
Femalea under 20 . 
20to65 . 



»» 



1884. 

1,650 
6,530 
1,300 
2.720 



1807. 

1,200 
5,900 
1,300 
8,600 



1884. 

29 

363 

30 

99 



Total 



12,200 11,000 521 



18«7. 

28 

293 

27 

T5 

418 



Per Head. 
£18 £19 



56 
23 
37 

43 



60 
20 
29 

88 



According to the three kingdoms thus :^ 





Worken. 


Eiu-ninga, 
Millkmsl. 


ApM-B 


England 
Scotland 
Ireland 
Undefined 


8,600,000 

1,500,000 

1,800,000 

300,000 


401 
62 
43 
16 


47 
41 
SS 
63 


Total 


. 12.200.000 


521 


43 



Trofessdr Levi estimates the earnings of the whole popoUtioa 
thus, in millions £ : — 



Upper class 
Middle class . 
Working class 

Total 



England. 
477 
98 
401 

976 



Scotland. 
59 
14 
62 

135 



Ireland. 
86 
8 
42 

86 



U. Wtnrlom. 
572 
120 
605 



1,197 

See my own tables, p. 28 ; also Professor Levi's, p. 465. 



OBQAN. — Riga, 66 feet high, 7000 pipes, 4-hor8e power. 
Haarlem, 38 feet high, 8000 pipes. 

PAPER-MONEY.— The value of 100 francs paper in Italy 
reduced to gold was — 



Tear. Avcrago. 


Lowest. 


Year. 


Average. 


Lowest 


Tear. 


Arcrnge. Lowest. 


1866 


. 1)3 


83 


1871 


. 95 


93 


1876 


. 92 91 


1867 


. 93 


88 


1872 


. 92 


87 


1877 


. 91 88 


1868 


. 91 


87 


1873 


. 88 


85 


1878 


. 91 90 


1869 . 


. 96 


94 


1874 


. 89 


85 


1879 , 


. 90 87 


1870 


96 


89 


1875 


. 92 


90 


1880 . 


91 88 



PARIS.— Population 2,240,000, 80,000 houses, 30 square miles, 
say 116 persons per acre. Streets 580 miles, sewers 440 miles, 
tramways 80 miles. Area of streets 2800 acres or 13 million 
square yards, of 40 feet avferasje width ; scavenj^ing £330,000 
per annum. Rainfall 22 iuches. Water-supply 82 million 



APPENDIX. 



501 



gallons, or 36 per inhabitant Sewers cost £4,000,000, vaiy from 
5 to 18 feet aiameter. Streets lit hy 44,000 gas-lamps, which 
consume 77 million cubic feet of gas, cost £130,000 per annum, 
or 40d. per 1000 feet. Busses and tramcars 1150, cabs 8000, 
steamboats 500, police 6000. 

PABLIAMISNT. — In the new House of Commons 111 
members were educated at Oxford, 82 at Cambridge, 72 at 
Eton, 46 at Harrow, and 27 at Rugby. The changes znade in 
1885 in the distribution of members in the House of Commons 
are seen as follows : — 





Ooimtj. 


Borough. 


Unireraity. 


Total 


1884. 


1885. 


1884. 


188& 


1884 


1886. 


1884. 


1886. 


England . . 
Wi;iet . . . 
Scotland . . 
Ireland. . . 

0. Kingdom . 


172 
15 
32 
64 


234 
19 
39 
85 


282 
15 
26 
37 


226 
11 
31 
16 


6 

2 
2 


5 

• • • 

2 
2 


459 
30 
60 

103 


465 
30 
72 

103 


288 


377 


960 


284 


9 


9 


652 


670 



PAUPERS.— The returns for 1884 were— 

Expend!- No. to 1000 Cost. Pence per 

Knmber. ture. Inhabitants. Inhabttuii. 

EngUnd. . 784,000 £8,400,000 29 74 

Sootlaod . 91,000 870,000 23 53 

Ii«land . . 107,000 1,345,000 21 64 

United Kingdom . 982,000 10,615,000 27 70 

PLAGUE.— The cholera of 1884 in Italy attacked 27,030 
persons, of whom 14,299 died ; that of 1885 at Palermo carried 
off S969 persons, of 5535 cases. That of Spain in 1884 was 
faUl to 110,000, out of about 200,000 cases. 

POPULATION. — The Qerman Empire in 1880 comprised 
(000^1 omitted)— 

Pnulia 87,251 

Bararia 6,272 

Baxonj 2,970 

Wartembnrg 1,970 

Dnohiet, ko 7,731 

45,194 

In Bavaria and most of the small states the ratio was under 
SMX) persons, but in Saxon j it reached 510 per square mile. 



• • 



502 



APPENDIX. 



RAILWAYS.— Traffic returns of United States^ taking Jnr 
unU 100 miUB, showed as follows : — 



Vaav 


Million 


milfoil 


F«r«per 


Ftreper 


zflsr* 


FuiMDgen. 


Tons. 


Paneuger. 
8 oenta. 


Tuu. 
• centk 


1882 


75 


S92 


2 51 


1 24 


1883 


85 


441 


2 42 


1 24 


1884 


88 


447 


2 36 


1 12 



Passenger fares fell 6, goods tariff 10 per cent 

Britisli railway companies pay £1400 a day for indemnities, 
60 per cent, of which is for damage to persons, 40 per cent to 
coous. Passenger locomotives earn 53 pence, those for xneivhan- 
disc 74 pence, per mile run. The life oi a locomotive is 15 yearsL 
State railways in Europe cost 60 per cent in working expenses, 
those of companies 53 per cent 

New York Elevated Railway took 8200 tons of iron per mile, 
and cost £44 per yard, against £500 for the London Metropoliutn. 

BAINFALL. — The wettest place in England is Seathwaite, 
146 inches; and in the world Cherrapun;:i, in S •ulh-'Westt-m 
Assam, where the average for 15 years is 493 inches, reaching in 
1861 up to 905 inches. 

EIVERS.— The Amazon faUs 2 feet, the EIIh; 10 feet, and the 
Parana (from Corricntes to Buenos Ayres) 22 feet X)er lOi) miles. 

SHIPPING. — The new vessels hiiilt in the United Kinj;.lom, 
and the tonnage lost or broken up since 1880, have been ui 
follows : — 



Yew. 



1880. 
1881. 
1882. 
1883. 
1884. 



New Built, Tong. 



Steam. 



329,000 
4;^,000 
519,000 
58:^,000 
373,000 



2,243,000 



BaU. 



Broken Up, Tuna- 



Steam. 



83,000 
123,000 
196,000 
169,000 
177,000 



117,000 
158,000 
188,000 
1!K),000 
157,000 



Sail. 

I 

207,000 
282.000 
2r)l»,000 
275,000 
^■5,000 



Increase, Totij*. 

Nominal. ' S^'TJl!?'" i 
1 t'Wer. ! 



] 22,000 
2iiS,000 
287.000 
168,000 



846,000 
1.248,000 

I.S60.(H1U 

il.ae.iw 



748,000 



810,000 jl,338.000 ; 845,000 ,6.576.000 



Carn'ing-power allows for steamers at the rate of five times the 
nominal tonnage ^sco note at foot of p. 406). Thi.' nieroliahi 
navy of the Unitea Kingdom rose from 18 million tons in is^i 
to 24 millions carrying-power in 18S4, an increase of 33 per cent. 



APPENDIX. 503 

in 3 years. In 1885 the increase was equivalent to 500,000 tons 
clUTying-power, or 100,000 tons of steamers. The cost of building 
steamers per ton has varied thus — 



1870 . 


. £14 


1874 . 


. £19 


1880 . 


. £12 


1872 . 


. 17 


1877 . 


. 13 


1885 . 


. 10 



The carrying-power of British shipping is exactly equal to that 
of all other nags in the world collectively. 

STSAM-POWER.— In 1885 the world posaessed 35 million 
horse-power, viz. : — 

Million Horae-power. 

^J!^ Continent.^ F"****^ T^ 

Kingdom. ^*'*"'"**'"*» States. *«*«*. 

Fixed ... 31 41 3*3 10-5 

Railway . . 35 97 6-2 19-4 

Steamboat . 3*1 1*0 I'l 6*2 

Total . 9-7 14-8 10-6 851 

TYPHUS. — This item seems to include also typhoid fevers, 
pp. 147 and 456. 

TRAVELLERS. — The number arriving at Nice and vicinity 
in 1883 was 3,030,000, against 2,012,000 in 1878. 

TRAMWAYS.— Those of United Kingdom cost £14,900 a 
mile in construction, carry 310 million persons yearly, earn 
^£3300 per mile, and produce 4J per cent, on capital. 

UNIVERSITIES.— Those of the United States have 66,000 
students, of whom 52 per cent for arts, 20 per cent medicine, 15 
per cent science, 8 per cent theology, and 5 per cent law. • 

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.— A bide of land in olden 
days of England was about 120 acres. A mancus was 2 oz. in 
weight 

WINE. — The French vintage and wine trade showed thus : — 

Milliong of Gallons. 

Year. Acres of Vines. ^"^ ^W^e Wl^ 

Product. Imported. Exported. 

1375 . 5,550,000 1,210 6 82 

1880 5.017,000 414 172 54 

1882 5,001,000 415 175 62 

I880 4,970,000 642 183 56 



504 



APPENDIX. 



The tintage of Uie XJnited States averages :— 



CUif onii* • 
Ohio . 
OthsrStatM 



82,000 

10,000 

140,000 

182,000 



mnioii OaDoB*. 

14 

2 

8 

24 



Talc 

#4.060^000 

1,630.000 

7,750,000 

13^480^000 



WBEOES. — The loss of life in British ressels has been : — 



1871-76 
1876-M 
1881-83 



Ctbwb. 
0,715 
7,965 
7,876 

26,066 



PMWnnn* 
2,087 
772 



8,191 



Total. Taarlj Arenn. 
11,763 2,350 

8,737 1,747 

7,768 2,566 

28,247 2,173 



The loss of life in 1684 was 2245, being below the ayerage of 
ten years ago, although the nominal registered tonnage has in- 
creased 30 per cent, the number of hands being, however, un- 
changed. The death-rate of seamen from drowning is just 1 per 
cent per annum. See p. 156. 



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